An Introduction to Theories of Human Development


Neil J. Salkind

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  • Dedication

    To EKM for his friendship and to all the cool sharks in lane 5


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    In my 30 years at the University of Kansas, I've had some significant professional good fortune in that I've been able to teach introductory classes on theories of development and I've had colleagues who have been supportive and interested in my work. Both of these circumstances have allowed me to pursue the writing of this book, and in doing so I have had the opportunity to put some of my thoughts about development down on paper and share these ideas with you.

    Professors and students have many different books of this type available to them, but I think this book is special, for a variety of reasons. First, it provides a comprehensive overview of the major developmental perspectives without going into a great deal of detail or using unnecessarily technical language; it is intended as it is titled—as an introduction. I focus here on the basics, without talking down or condescending to you, because it is essential for students in the behavioral and social sciences, the helping professions, and other disciplines to have a fundamental grasp of what the most important theorists have said about the development process over the past 100 years. I believe this book is the perfect introduction to theories of development for students in such fields as human services, nursing, sociology, education, and social welfare, among others.

    Second, this volume is special in that it briefly addresses the applications of the developmental theories discussed, not only in the text itself but in featured boxed material, in annotated lists of suggested further readings, and in descriptions of some of the related materials available on the Internet. Information about these resources is included to help you learn more about the nature of the different theoretical positions introduced. Finally, this book reinforces learning with pedagogical aids, featuring important summary points in the margins and providing lists of suggested additional readings.

    How This Book Is Organized

    This volume is organized into five major parts. Part I, “An Introduction and Important Ideas,” consists of two chapters. Chapter 1 introduces some of the primary concepts associated with the study of human development, such as the scientific method and the importance of theory in the study of behavior; provides an overview of the different theoretical perspectives covered in this volume; and briefly addresses the evaluation of theories. Chapter 2 focuses on trends and issues in the study of human development and sets the stage for the discussion of different theoretical perspectives presented in the rest of the book.

    The chapters in Part II, “The Maturational and Biological Approaches,” deal with theories that have as their basis the importance of biological processes, examining how these processes contribute to different theories. Chapter 3 focuses on Arnold Gesell and his maturational model. This preeminent child development expert's extensive work in documenting normal physical development has contributed a great deal to our understanding of emotional and psychosocial development. Chapter 4 addresses two relatively new and very exciting views about the singularly important role biology plays in the process of development and, hence, in the creation of culture.

    Following Part II's introduction to the major biological approaches, you will be ready for Part III, “The Psychodynamic Approach,” which moves into the discussion of psychodynamic theories. Chapter 5 focuses on Sigmund Freud, and Chapter 6 addresses the contributions of Erik Erikson. Both of these men brought to life a new view of the human condition, one of conflict and tension. In their work, they were concerned with how conflicts can lead to change and maturity over time.

    The two chapters that make up Part IV, “The Behavioral Perspective,” discuss the work of scholars in the tradition that emphasizes the importance of environmental influences. Chapter 7 focuses on B. F. Skinner's landmark work on operant conditioning, and Chapter 8 further elaborates many of the same ideas in a discussion of social learning theory that emphasizes the important roles that both individual traits and the environment play in shaping human behavior.

    In Part V, “The Cognitive-Developmental View,” Chapter 9 focuses on the well-known theorist Jean Piaget and his contribution to our understanding of children's cognitive development. Chapter 10 is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's increasingly attractive ideas about cognitive development, as well as a brief discussion of the differences between Vygotsky's and Piaget's theories.

    Part VI, “A Comparative Analysis,” contains the volume's final chapter, which compares the theories presented in the preceding chapters using Murray Sidman's (1960) model for what types of question we should ask about theories and what kinds of answers we should expect. It also includes a summary table that will help you to compare the various theories directly with one another.

    Special Features of This Book

    This volume includes several teaching features that are intended to help you remember what you have read and to encourage you to read more about the topics that interest you. The following features appear throughout the book:

    • Highlighted important points: Some pieces of information are just too important to mention only once, in passing, so throughout the book, particularly important and basic points are featured in the margins around the text to encourage you to remember them.
    • Text boxes: No book on theories of development should be without some material that focuses on the more applied nature of the theories discussed; throughout, such material is featured in boxes that stand out clearly from the rest of the text.
    • Suggested further readings: The materials in the annotated lists of suggested further readings presented throughout this volume include brief articles on original research, reviews, and books. Many of the readings suggested are classic articles that are very important to this field; perhaps your teacher will assign one or more of the suggested readings for classroom discussion. In addition, the appendix consists of a long list of other related readings (without annotations) that you might find useful as reference material.
    • Suggested Web sites to visit: Each chapter includes a list of several Web addresses and brief descriptions of the sites, which you can visit to find out more about the topics covered in the chapter. The Web sites listed are informative, and some are even entertaining. For the most part, they contain relatively unbiased information, and all of them can lead you to other sites that may be just what you are looking for.
    My Thanks

    No book happens with just the author's words on paper (or on-screen, as the case may be). In this case, many people were very helpful and had a vision of what this project could be if guided correctly. A project like this takes the commitment and efforts of many people in addition to the author.

    First, I want to express my deepest appreciation to David and Sherry Rogelberg and the fine people at Studio B who represent me in my writing. They're the best.

    Without Jim Brace-Thompson, senior editor at Sage Publications, this idea would not have reached fruition. He guided and advised me when I needed it, and I thank him for his efforts, patience, advice, and the terrific lunch in Tampa. Sage has the best editors in the business, and Jim is one of them.

    Thanks also to Sage production editor Diana Axelsen and copy editor Judy Selhorst for seeing the manuscript through the production process, and to Steve Kurth for the quick and excellent job he did on the graphics in this book.

    If you, the reader, whether student or professor, would like to make suggestions about how this book could be improved or would like to offer other comments, please contact me via e-mail at

    Neil J.Salkind
  • Glossary

    • Accommodation The process of modifying existing schemes to satisfy the requirements of a new experience
    • Accuracy A theory's ability to predict future events or explain past ones correctly; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured
    • Action-specific energy The energy associated with a signed stimulus
    • Adaptation The process through which an individual adjusts to the environment
    • Assimilation The process through which an individual incorporates new experiences into already existing schemata or structures
    • Attachment The process of forming a bond with another individual
    • Baseline period A period during which a researcher observes a subject's behavior without regard to reinforcing or punishing stimulus events
    • Behaviorism A perspective on development that has as its basis the laws of different types of learning
    • Bioecological model A theoretical model that emphasizes the unique contribution that the individual and the environment, working together, make to development
    • Castration anxiety The anxiety associated with the castration complex
    • Castration complex Within Freudian theory, the fear on the part of a young male that his father will punish him (through castration) for having incestuous feelings about his mother
    • Cephalocaudal trend The tendency of development to progress in a head-to-toe direction
    • Chaining The process through which a stimulus that acts as a reinforcer for one event becomes a discriminative stimulus for the next
    • Chemical event An environmental stimulus that acts at a distance from the organism
    • Chronological age The length of time an individual has been alive; a simplistic measure of development
    • Classical conditioning The process through which an unconditioned response become paired with a previously neutral stimulus
    • Concrete operational stage The third of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, characterized by the individual's use of operations
    • Conditioned response (or conditioned reflex) The process through which an originally neutral stimulus takes on the qualities of an unconditioned response
    • Conditioned stimulus A stimulus event that takes on the qualities of an unconditioned stimulus after multiple pairings
    • Confounding Lack of clarity about which of two or more variables is responsible for observed outcomes
    • Conscience What the child thinks his or her parents think is right or wrong
    • Conservation The cognitive operation of being able to consider more than one dimension of an experience simultaneously
    • Conservative quality of instincts Instincts’ tendency to use the least amount of energy necessary to move toward the goal object
    • Consistency A theory's ability to explain new discoveries without a need for changes in the assumptions on which the theory is based; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured
    • Construct A group of variables that are related to each other
    • Continuous process view of development A view of developmental change as occurring in small, gradual steps, with outcomes that are not qualitatively different from what was present earlier, and in which the same general laws underlie the process at all points along the developmental continuum
    • Continuous reinforcement The reinforcement of a behavior every time it occurs
    • Co-twin control research method A research method in which one of two identical twins is trained on a physical task and then both twins are tested on the task when they are maturationally ready for it; used by Gesell to study the importance of maturation
    • Cross-sectional sequential design A research design used in studies of development in which different subjects are observed from one testing time to the next
    • Cross-sectional study A research design used in studies of development in which subjects from different age groups are observed at one point in time
    • Defense mechanism In Freudian theory, a technique the ego uses to distort reality when the individual faces situations that pose a danger to healthy psychological development
    • Development A progressive series of changes that occur in a predictable pattern as the result of interactions between biological and environmental factors
    • Developmental task A psychological task that an individual must complete at a given point in his or her development to progress to the next stage of development and thus, eventually, reach happiness and satisfaction
    • Differentiation The selective reinforcement of certain associations and the lack of reinforcement of others
    • Discontinuous process view of development A view of developmental change as occurring in abrupt shifts, in which outcomes are qualitatively different from what existed before and different general laws characterize developmental changes
    • Discriminative stimulus An event that signals that a behavior will be followed by some type of reinforcer or punisher
    • Ecological pressure Aspects of the environment that place pressure on the organism to change
    • Ecology of human development The study of the interaction between a growing organism and the changing immediate environment in which it lives
    • Ego In Freudian theory, the executor of the individual's conscious wishes
    • Ego ideal What the child thinks is right or wrong
    • Egocentric speech Speech that is focused on the individual's worldview
    • Egocentrism In general, a trend toward seeing (and thinking about) oneself as the center of one's everyday life
    • Electra complex In Freudian theory, the group of feelings and unconscious desires that occurs in females during the development of the superego, when daughters experience uncomfortable feelings toward their fathers
    • Enactive mode of representation A stage in Bruner's theory of intellectual growth that is characterized by action
    • Epigenesis The concept that each mental event has a unique time of ascendancy, the plan for which is contained in the organism's genes
    • Ethogram An inventory or description created by an ethologist as he or she observes and tracks a subject's behavior over time
    • Ethology The study of behaviors that are rooted in evolutionary and biological backgrounds
    • Evolution The process through which organisms change and adapt as a result of forces in the environment; also referred to as natural selection
    • Evolutionary psychology The study of the influence of biology on behavior
    • External signs Vygotsky's third stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language
    • Extinction The result on an operant behavior of the lack of reward for that behavior
    • Fixed action pattern A series of connected behaviors that form a pattern as a response to an individual stimulus or a set of stimuli
    • Fixed schedule of reinforcement A schedule of support in which reinforcements are delivered based on the number or frequency of behaviors
    • Formal operational stage The fourth of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, characterized by hypothetico-deductive thinking
    • Fruitfulness A theory's ability to generate new questions; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured
    • Generalization A conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus
    • Genotype An organism's genetic endowment
    • Hypothesis An educated guess that posits an “if …then” relationship between variables
    • Iconic mode of representation The stage in Bruner's theory of development in which the child uses mental images of objects or pictures to represent the acquisition of knowledge and to foster understanding of the world
    • Id In Freud's psychosexual theory, the structural component that is fueled by libidinal energy and is directed at satisfying the individual's basic instincts
    • Identification In Freudian theory, the course through which the organism begins to employ ego processes to achieve gratification
    • Inclusiveness A theory's ability to address a wide variety of phenomena; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured
    • Ingrowth Vygotsky's fourth stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language
    • Innate releasing mechanism An internal mechanism that precipitates a host of complex behaviors
    • Instinct An unlearned psychological drive
    • Interactional model A theoretical model in which heredity and environment are considered to interact 100% of the time; that is, as influences on the developing human, the two cannot be separated
    • Intermittent reinforcement The reinforcement of a behavior based on a random schedule of responses
    • Interval schedule of reinforcement A schedule of support in which reinforcements are delivered based on the passage of time between responses
    • Law of frequency A law that states that as the frequency of an S-R connection occurs, the stronger it will become
    • Law of recency A law that states that the more recently a particular stimulus has been associated with a particular response, the more likely it is the association will occur again
    • Learning A change in behavior as a result of direct or indirect experience
    • Longitudinal sequential design A study design used in developmental research in which subjects from different cohorts are compared when they have reached the same ages
    • Longitudinal study A study design in which participants are observed over more than one point in time
    • Maturation A biological process in which developmental changes are controlled by internal (or endogenous) factors
    • Mode of representation In Bruner's theory, one of three ways in which knowledge can be represented
    • Naive psychology Vygotsky's second stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language
    • Nativist model A theoretical model in which hereditary factors are considered to be the primary influence on development
    • Natural selection The term Darwin initially used to describe species’ adaptation and change; later called evolution or descent with modification
    • Natural stage (or primitive stage) Vygotsky's first stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language
    • Negative reinforcer A stimulus that, on its withdrawal, results in an increase in the probability that a behavior will occur again
    • Nurturist model A model of development in which environmental factors are considered to be the primary influence on developmental changes
    • Oedipus complex In Freudian theory, the uncomfortable group of feelings and unconscious desires that young males feel toward their mothers during the development of the superego
    • Ontogeny The development of an individual
    • Operant learning Learning that is controlled by the consequences of behaviors
    • Operation In Piaget's theory, an action that is performed mentally and is reversible
    • Oral stage of development The first stage in Freud's model of development, during which psychic energy focuses on and is invested in and around the mouth
    • Organ pleasure Physical sensation associated with the reduction of tension
    • Organismic event A biological or maturational event that provides stimulation for the organism
    • Organization The tendency to combine physical and/or psychological processes into a coherent whole
    • Overlap Categorization of a research subject in one group on the basis of one variable (such as age) when that subject is also at one extreme on another variable relative to that group
    • Penis envy In Freudian theory, anxiety associated with the Electra complex
    • Phenotype The physical expression of an individual's genetic endowment
    • Phylogenetic inertia The tendency of an organism to remain genetically unchanged
    • Phylogeny The development of a species
    • Physical event A stimulus event that is produced by humans or occurs naturally
    • Pleasure principle In Freudian theory, the principle that states that the individual's primary goal is the achievement of pleasure through gratification
    • Positive reinforcer A stimulus event that, on its presentation, increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again
    • Preformationist A person who takes the theoretical viewpoint that all characteristics and qualities of humans are preformed at birth
    • Preoperational stage The second of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, characterized by language and egocentric thought
    • Primary process thinking Thinking that has as its purpose the fulfillment of basic needs and instincts
    • Principle of developmental direction The principle that states that development is not random but follows occurs in predetermined directions (cephalocaudal and proximodistal)
    • Principle of functional asymmetry The principle that states that the organism goes through periods of asymmetric or unbalanced development in order to achieve a measure of maturity at later stages
    • Principle of individuating maturation The principle that states that an internal growth matrix acts as a mechanism to establish the direction and pattern of development of the individual
    • Principle of reciprocal interweaving The principle that states that inhibition and excitation of different muscles operate in complementary fashion to produce efficient movement
    • Principle of self-regulatory fluctuation The principle that states that developmental progress fluctuates between periods of instability and stability, or active growth and consolidation
    • Proximodistal trend The tendency of development to progress from near to far
    • Psychic energy In Freudian theory, the unconscious energy behind, and driving, the psychodynamic system
    • Psychosexual stages The stages of development within Freud's psychosexual theory, each of which is based on, but qualitatively distinct from, the others and invariant in its appearance
    • Psychosocial theory Erikson's model of psychodynamic development, which emphasizes the resolution of psychosocial conflicts at different stages across the life span
    • Punisher A stimulus event that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood of its occurring again
    • Punishment The act of presenting a stimulus event that decreases the likelihood that a given behavior will occur again
    • Qualitative developmental research Research that examines developmental phenomena within the social and political contexts within which they occur
    • Ratio schedule of reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement based on number of responses
    • Reaction potential The potential that a specific event in the environment will elicit a particular response
    • Reality principle In Freudian theory, the principle that states that ego pleasure is realized through adherence to external realities
    • Recapitulation theory The theory that in the development (or ontogenesis) of the individual, a sequence of stages occurs that recapitulates the evolutionary history of the development of the individual's species
    • Reciprocal determinism A bidirectional process characterized by a reciprocity between the individual and the environment (including other individuals)
    • Reflex An unlearned physical response
    • Reinforcer Any stimulus that follows a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
    • Reinforcing stimulus A stimulus event following a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
    • Relevance How closely a theory is related to the information collected within that theory; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured
    • Repetitive quality of instincts Instincts’ tendency to be cyclical in nature, with needs satisfied only temporarily and the system eventually returning to its original state of tension
    • Respondent learning Learning that is subject to the laws of classical conditioning, automatic in nature, and not under voluntary control
    • Response A measurable reaction to a stimulus event
    • Response generalization A process in which the response to a stimulus changes although the stimulus remains the same
    • Scaffolding In Vygotsky's theory, a teaching process aimed at bridging the gap between what the child knows and what the child needs to know (or what the child is being taught)
    • Schedule of reinforcement (or punishment) The timing of patterns of stimuli following operant behaviors
    • Schema The primary unit of mental organization; the structure through which a person adapts to the environment
    • Science The activity of finding order in nature
    • Secondary process thinking Thinking that is associated with cognitive processes and is goal oriented and intentional
    • Sensorimotor stage The first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, characterized by repetition and the development of early social behaviors
    • Sequential component (or stage component) The component of a theory that addresses the pattern or progression of the organism through different and increasingly adaptive developmental stages
    • Setting event A stimulus event accompanied by a certain response
    • Shaping The process through which a behavior is gradually changed
    • Signed stimulus A stimulus that has a value to the organism that other stimuli do not have
    • Simplicity A theory's parsimony, or lack of complexity; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured
    • Social event An interaction between living organisms
    • Sociobiology The study of the impact of genes on social behavior
    • Sociocultural theory A theory of development in which social interaction is understood to lead to changes in thinking and associated behaviors
    • Stimulus An event that causes a change in behavior
    • Stimulus control The process through which experiences become valuable to an individual and through which the individual associates particular stimuli with certain outcomes
    • Stimulus event A change in the environment that has a measurable impact on behavior
    • Stimulus function The functional relationship between a stimulus and a response
    • Stimulus generalization A process in which the response to a new stimulus is similar to the response to an earlier, similar stimulus
    • Stimulus-response connection The basis of all behavior, influenced by the laws of classical conditioning
    • Stimulus-response unit The basic component of behavior
    • Strange Situation Procedure A technique developed by Ainsworth to study attachment; consists of a set of brief episodes during which the child is observed while interacting with a parent (usually the mother) and a stranger
    • Superego In Freudian theory, the psychological structure that represents moral and ethical standards, such as the ego ideal
    • Symbolic mode of representation In Bruner's theory of development, the mode in which the child uses the most efficient symbolic system available, that of language
    • Taxis An orienting or locomotor response
    • Theory A group of logically related statements that explains events that happened in the past and predicts what events will occur in the future
    • Unconditioned response A behavior triggered by an unconditioned stimulus
    • Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that results in behavior without previous experience or learning
    • Unconscious The part of the human psyche that is not conscious, or aware
    • Variable Anything that can take on more than one label or value
    • Variable schedule of reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which deliveries of reinforcement vary based on responses over time
    • Vicarious learning Indirect learning that takes place without direct reinforcement or direct imitation
    • Zone of proximal development (ZPD) In Vygotsky's theory, the distance between the child's actual level of development and the child's potential level of development, or the distance between what the child knows and what the child needs to know


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    Suggested Readings on Human Development

    Chapter 1. The Study of Human Development
    Achenbach, T. (1978). Research in developmental psychology: Concepts, strategies, methods. Riverside, NJ: Free Press.
    Adolph, K. E. (2002). Babies' steps make giant strides toward a science of development. Infant Behavior and Development, 25(1), 86–90.
    Appelbaum, M. I., & McCall, R. B. (1983). Design and analysis in developmental psychology. In P. H.Mussen (Series Ed.) & W.Kessen (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. History, theory, and methods (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 415–476). New York: John Wiley.
    Azuma, H., & Imada, H. (1994). Origins and development of psychology in Japan: The interaction between Western science and the Japanese cultural heritage. International Journal of Psychology, 29, 707–715.
    Bailer-Jones, D. M. (1999). Tracing the development of models in the philosophy of science. In L.Magnani & N. J.Nersessian (Eds.), Model-based reasoning in scientific discovery (pp. 23–40). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
    Brim, O., & Kagan, J. (Eds.). (1980). Constancy and change in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bronowski, J. (1972). The origins of knowledge and imagination. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Faucher, L., Mallon, R., Nazer, D., Nichols, S., Ruby, A., Stich, S., et al. (2002). The baby in the lab-coat: Why child development is not an adequate model for understanding the development of science. In P.Carruthers, S.Stich, & M.Siegal (Eds.), The cognitive basis of science (pp. 335–362). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Howe, A. C. (1996). Development of science concepts within a Vygotskian framework. Science Education, 80(1), 35–51.;2-3
    Klahr, D. (2000). Exploring science: The cognition and development of discovery processes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Kluger, J., & Lemonick, M. D. (1999, March 29). Putting science to work. Time, pp. 198–199.
    Langer, J. (1969). Theories of development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Lemonick, M. D. (2002, May 20). How everything works. Time, p. 67.
    Lerner, R. M. (1995). The integration of levels and human development: A developmental contextual view of the synthesis of science and outreach in the enhancement of human lives. In K.Hood & G.Greenberg (Eds.), Behavioral development: Concepts of approach/withdrawal and integrative levels (pp. 421–446). New York: Garland.
    Masten, A. S., & Curtis, W. J. (2000). Integrating competence and psychopathology: Pathways toward a comprehensive science of adaptation in development. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 529–550.
    Mehler, J., Dupoux, E., & Southgate, P. (1994). What infants know: The new cognitive science of early development. Maiden, MA: Blackwell.
    Osika, M. J. (1996). Philosophy of science, psychology, and world hypotheses: Development and validation of a world view scale. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56(8), 4567B.
    Powles, W. E. (1992). Human development and homeostasis: The science of psychiatry. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
    Roth, W., & Roychoudhury, A. (1993). The development of science process skills in authentic contexts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, 127–152.
    Rousseau, J. J. (1979). Emile. New York: Basic Books.
    Rubinstein, E. (2000). An interview with the president: “I'd like to see America used as a global lab.”Science, 290, 2236–2239.
    Rutter, M. (2002). Nature, nurture, and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice. Child Development, 73, 1–21.
    Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.
    Swerdlow, J. L. (1999, October). Science: Asking infinite questions. National Geographic, pp. 2–7.
    Thompson, R. A., & Nelson, C. A. (2001). Developmental science and the media: Early brain development. American Psychologist, 56, 5–15.
    Chapter 2. Trends and Issues in Human Development
    Berardi, N., Pizzorusso, T., & Maffei, L. (2000). Critical periods during sensory development. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(1), 138–145.
    Bronfenbrenner, U., & Crouter, A. C. (1982). Work and family through time and space. In S. B.Kamerman & C. D.Hayes (Eds.), Families that work: Children in a changing world (pp. 39–83). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Cho, K. C. (1994). Investigation of the development of six English grammatical structures in Korean children, in light of the critical period hypothesis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(7), 2495A.
    Dennenberg, V. H. (1964). Critical periods, stimulus input and emotional reactivity: A theory of infantile stimulation. Psychological Review, 71, 335–351.
    Ekstrand, L. H. (1979). Replacing the critical period and optimum age theories of second language acquisition with a theory of ontogenetic development beyond puberty. Lund, Sweden: Lund University.
    Grimshaw, G. M., Adelstein, A., Bryden, M. P., & MacKinnon, G. E. (1998). First-language acquisition in adolescence: Evidence for a critical period for verbal language development. Brain and Language, 63, 237–255.
    Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673–685.
    Holmbeck, G. N., Crossman, R. E., Wandrei, M. L., & Gasiewski, E. (1994). Cognitive development, egocentrism, self-esteem, and adolescent contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 169–193.
    Hook, S. (1957). Dialectical materialism and scientific method [Special suppl.]. Bulletin of the Committee on Science and Freedom.
    Huttenlocher, P. R. (1999). Dendritic synaptic development in human cerebral cortex: Time course and critical periods. Developmental Neuropsychology, 16, 347–349.
    Kim, I., & Yoon, G. (1988). Adolescent egocentrism and its relationship with cognitive development and parental childrearing practices. Korean Journal of Psychology, 7(1), 54–62.
    Lapsley, D. K. (1993). Toward an integrated theory of adolescent ego development: The “new look” at adolescent egocentrism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 562–571.
    O'Connor, B. P., & Nikolic, J. (1990). Identity development and formal operations as sources of adolescent egocentrism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 19, 149–158.
    Riley, T., Adams, G. R., & Nielsen, E. (1984). Adolescent egocentrism: The association among imaginary audience behavior, cognitive development, and parental support and rejection. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13, 401–417.
    Schindler, R. M., & Holbrook, M. B. (1993). Critical periods in the development of men's and women's tastes in personal appearance. Psychology and Marketing, 10, 549–564.
    Senn, M. J. E. (1975). Insights on the child development movement in the United States. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 40(3–4, Serial No. 161).
    Sternklar, S. (1986). Cognitive development and separation anxiety as predictors of ego identity status and egocentrism. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(11), 4030B.
    Thompson, R. A., & Nelson, C. A. (2001). Developmental science and the media: Early brain development. American Psychologist, 56, 5–15.
    Westman, A. S., & Lewandowski, L. M. (1991). How empathy, egocentrism, Kohlberg's moral development, and Erikson's psychosocial development are related to attitudes toward war. Psychological Reports, 69(3, Pt. 2), 1123–1127.
    Williams, S., & Harper, J. (1974). A study of etiological factors at critical periods of development in autistic children. International Journal of Mental Health, 3(1), 90–99.
    Chapter 3. Arnold Gesell and the Maturational Model
    Ball, R. S. (1977). The Gesell developmental schedules: Arnold Gesell (1880–1961). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 233–239.
    Bingen, K. M. (2002). Individual differences in infant response to the still-face paradigm and prediction of later attachment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(12), 5993B.
    Dyl, J. (2002). Individual differences in traumatic experiences: Antecedents of ego development in adulthood. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(11), 5370B.
    Fagan, T. K. (1987). Gesell: The first school psychologist: I. The road to Connecticut. School Psychology Review, 16, 103–107.
    Fagan, T. K. (1987). Gesell: The first school psychologist: II. Practice and significance. School Psychology Review, 16, 399–409.
    Gesell, A. (1928). Infancy and human growth. New York: Macmillan.
    Gesell, A., & Amatruda, C. S. (1947). Developmental diagnosis: Normal and abnormal child development: Clinical methods and pediatric evaluations (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Hoeber.
    Gesell Institute. (1987). “Uses and abuses of developmental screening and school readiness training”: The Gesell Institute responds. Young Children, 42(2), 7–8.
    Karrass, J. (2002). Individual differences in temperament, joint attention, and early language. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(1), 566B.
    Krause, I. B., Jr. (1968). A comparison of the psychological views of Piaget and Gesell. Journal of Thought, 3(3), 168–176.
    Lindley, P. G. (1992). Dr. Arnold Lucius Gesell: Philosopher, child psychologist, pediatrician, clinical researcher. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(10), 3521–3522A.
    Luoma, J. B. (2002). Individual differences in event clustering in autobiographical memory. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(12), 5971B.
    Poon, C. S. K. (2002). Lay personality knowledge and confidence in social inferences: Individual differences, temporal change, and momentary activation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(12), 6025B.
    Sherrington, C. S. (1906). The integrative action of the nervous system. New York: Scribners.
    Skeels, H. M., Updegraff, R., Wellman, B., & Williams, H. M. A. (1938). A study of environmental stimulation: An orphanage preschool project. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, 15(4).
    Streff, J. W. (1998). The Gesell years. Journal of Optometric Vision Development, 29(1), 13–22.
    Thelen, E., & Adolph, K. E. (1992). Arnold L. Gesell: The paradox of nature and nurture. Developmental Psychology, 28, 368–380.
    Zargarpour, S. (2002). Individual differences in children's group perceptions and peer preferences as a function of prejudice level. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(11), 5436B.
    Chapter 4. The Importance of Biology: Ethology and Sociobiology
    Archer, J. (1992). Ethology and human development. Preston, England: Lancashire Polytechnic Press.
    Ardrey, R. (1968). The territorial imperative. New York: Delta.
    Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. London: Hogarth.
    Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation. London: Hogarth.
    Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss. London: Hogarth.
    Chisholm, J. S. (1979). Developmental ethology of the Navajo. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39(7), 4363A.
    Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Freedman, D. (1979). Human sociobiology: A holistic approach. New York: Free Press.
    Haviland, J. M., & Walker-Andrews, A. S. (1992). Emotion socialization: A view from development and ethology. In V. B.Van Hasselt & M.Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of social development: A lifespan perspective (pp. 29–49). New York: Plenum.
    Konner, M. J. (1972). Aspects of the developmental ethology of a foraging people. In N. B.Jones (Ed.), Ethological studies of child behaviour. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.
    Lerner, R. M., & Von Eye, A. (1992). Sociobiology and human development: Arguments and evidence. Human Development, 35, 12–33.
    Lorenz, K. (1958). The evolution of behavior. Scientific American, 199(6), 67–78.
    MacDonald, K. (1984). An ethological-social learning theory of the development of altruism: Implications for human sociobiology. Ethology and Sociobiology, 5(2), 97–109.
    Nordtvedt, E. L. (1984). The heuristic value of sociobiology for the nature-nurture issue in child development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(12), 3956B.
    Parker, S. T. (2002). Comparative developmental evolutionary psychology and cognitive ethology: Contrasting but compatible research programs. In M.Bekoff, C.Allen, & G. M.Burghardt (Eds.), The cognitive animal: Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition (pp. 59–67). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Roeder, K. D. (1963). Ethology and neurophysiology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 434–440.
    Rosenblatt, J. S. (1989). Ethology in the laboratory: Behavioral development in selective altricial newborn among the mammals. In R. J.Blanchard, P. F.Brain, D. C.Blanchard, & S.Parmigiani (Eds.), Ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behavior (pp. 659–673). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.
    Sameroff, A. J. (1965). Early influences on development: Fact or fancy?Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21, 267–294.
    Sameroff, A. J. (1983). Developmental systems: Contexts and evolution. In P. H.Mussen (Series Ed.) & W.Kessen (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. History, theory, and methods, (pp. 237–294). New York: John Wiley.
    Slater, P. (1990). Causes of development in ethology. In G.Butterworth & P.Bryant (Eds.), Causes of development: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 64–81). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Smith, P. K. (1990). Ethology, sociobiology and developmental psychology: In memory of Niko Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 187–200.
    Sokolov, V. E., & Baskin, L. M. (1992). Development of ethology in the U.S.S.R. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 6(1), 75–78.
    Wright, R. (1995). The moral animal: Evolutionary psychology and everyday life. New York: Vintage.
    Chapter 5. Sigmund Freud's Psychosexual Theory
    Abend, S. M. (1991). Freud and his successors: The major developmental stages in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. In A.Rothstein (Ed.), The Moscow lectures on psychoanalysis (pp. 21–43). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
    Benton, R. L. (1995). The prophetic voice of Karen Horney in the evolution of psychoanalytic female developmental theory: From Freud to contemporary revisionists. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(12), 3990A.
    Colonna, A. B. (1996). Anna Freud: Observation and development. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 51, 217–234.
    Edgcumbe, R. (2000). Anna Freud: A view of development, disturbance and therapeutic techniques. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
    Emde, R. N. (1992). Individual meaning and increasing complexity: Contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 28, 347–359.
    Jacobs, J. L. (1997). Freud as other: Anti-Semitism and the development of psychoanalysis. In J. L.Jacobs & D.Capps (Eds.), Religion, society, and psychoanalysis: Readings in contemporary theory (pp. 28–41). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    King, P. (1991). Background and development of the Freud-Klein controversies in the British Psycho-Analytical Society. In P.King & R.Steiner (Eds.), The Freud-Klein controversies 1941–45 (pp. 9–36). New York: Tavistock/Roudedge.
    Mayes, L. C., & Cohen, D. J. (1996). Anna Freud and developmental psychoanalytic psychology. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 51, 117–141.
    Muller, J. P. (1996). Beyond the psychoanalytic dyad: Developmental semiotics in Freud, Peirce and Lacan. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
    Nass, M. L. (1966). The superego and moral development in the theories of Freud and Piaget. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 21, 51–68.
    Reisner, S. (2001). Freud and developmental theory: A 21st-century look at the origin myth of psychoanalysis. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 2(2), 97–128.
    Sayers, J. (1987). Freud revisited: On gender, moral development, and androgyny. New Ideas in Psychology, 5, 197–206.
    Silverstein, S. M., & Silverstein, B. R. (1990). Freud and hypnosis: The development of an interactionist perspective. In Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis (Ed.), The annual of psychoanalysis (Vol. 18, pp. 175–194). Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
    Tourney, G. (1965). Freud and the Greeks: A study of the influence of classical Greek mythology and philosophy upon the development of Freudian thought. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1, 67–85.;2-N
    Young-Bruehl, E. (1991). Rereading Freud on female development. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 11, 427–440.
    Chapter 6. Erik Erikson's Focus on Psychosocial Development
    Bernhardt, A. (1976). Synthesis of the developmental frameworks of Erik H. Erikson and analytical psychology: Ego and self development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(6), 3061–3062B.
    Brichacek, G. B. (1996). Psychosocial development and religious orientation in later life: An empirical study of Erikson and Allport. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(6), 2525A.
    Brito, I. (2001). A program for homeless children ages two to five based on Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(4), 2048B.
    Darling-Fisher, C. S., & Leidy, N. K. (1988). Measuring Eriksonian development in the adult: The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. Psychological Reports, 62, 747–754.
    Dusek, J. B., & Flaherty, J. F. (1981). The development of the self-concept during the adolescent years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46(4, Serial No. 191).
    Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Gross, T. P. (1981). Developmental counseling and psychotherapy: Applying the theories of Piaget, Perry, Kohlberg and Erikson. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(2), 768–769B.
    Hoare, C. H. (2002). Erikson on development in adulthood: New insights from the unpublished papers. London: Oxford University Press.
    Knowles, R. T. (1986). Human development and human possibility: Erikson in the light of Heidegger. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Maier, H. W. (1959). Three current child development theories applied to child caring tasks: A study of three child development theories as postulated by Jean Piaget, Erik H. Erikson and Robert R. Sears for the purpose of applying principles derived from these theories to child caring tasks in children's institutions. Dissertation Abstracts, 20, 1432–1433.
    Mayer, E. L. (1998). Erik H. Erikson on bodies, gender, and development. In R. S.Wallerstein & L.Goldberger (Eds.), Ideas and identities: The life and work of Erik Erikson (pp. 79–98). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
    Miller, J. P. (1978). Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson: Developmental implications for secondary education. Adolescence, 13, 237–250.
    Murphy, L. B., & Moriarty, A. E. (1976). Vulnerability, coping and growth: From infancy to adolescence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Piers, M. W. (1972). Play and development: A symposium with contributions by Jean Piaget, Peter H. Wolff, Rene A. Spitz, Konrad Lorenz, Lois Barclay Murphy, Erik H. Erikson. Oxford: W. W. Norton.
    Shoulberg, D. J. (1916). Erik H. Erikson: A developmental view of the rhetorical self. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(2), 696A.
    Wallace, D. (1974). An exploration of the latent structure of prosocial student-defined problems and its relationship to the developmental theories about youth of Erik Erikson and Kenneth Keniston. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(11), 7011–7012A.
    Chapter 7. Behavioral Models of Development
    Akita, K., & Mutou, T. (1993). A developmental study of reading conceptions: Correlational analysis of behavioral and evaluative measures. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 41, 462–469.
    Baer, D. M. (1976). The organism as host. Human Development, 19, 87–98.
    Barker, D. B. (1991). The behavioral analysis of interpersonal intimacy in group development. Small Group Research, 22(1), 76–91.
    Bijou, S. (1968). Child behavior and development: A behavioral analysis. International Journal of Psychology, 3, 221–238.
    Brooker, B. H. (1981). The development of selective attention in learning disabled and normal boys: An auditory evoked potential and behavioral analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(11), 4301B.
    Dekovic, M., & Gerris, J. R. M. (1994). Developmental analysis of social cognitive and behavioral differences between popular and rejected children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 367–386.
    Fowler, P. C. (1980). Family environment and early behavioral development: A structural analysis of dependencies. Psychological Reports, 47, 611–617.
    Kerlinger, F. (1973). Foundations of behavioral research: Educational, psychological, and sociological inquiry. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Leon, G. R., Fulkerson, J. A., Perry, C. L., & Early-Zald, M. B. (1995). Prospective analysis of personality and behavioral vulnerabilities and gender influences in the later development of disordered eating. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 140–149.
    Logan, C. A. (1992). Developmental analysis in behavioral systems: The case of bird song. In G.Turkewitz (Ed.), Developmental psychobiology (pp. 102–117). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
    Molm, L. D. (1977). The development and maintenance of social exchange: A behavioral analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(2), 1061A.
    Rosales-Ruiz, J., & Baer, D. M. (1997). Behavioral cusps: A developmental and pragmatic concept for behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 533–544.
    Sepehri, M. (1983). A mathematical analysis of behavioral pattern, behavioral change, and cognitive development of Moslem students in academic organizations. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(8), 2571–2572A.
    Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Standley, J. M., & Hughes, J. E. (1996). Documenting developmentally appropriate objectives and benefits of a music therapy program for early intervention: A behavioral analysis. Music Therapy Perspectives, 14(2), 87–94.
    Turkheimer, E., & Waldron, M. (2000). Statistical analysis, experimental method, and causal inference in developmental behavioral genetics. Human Development, 43, 51–52.
    Weiner, L. B. (1990). A developmental analysis of children's sex role self-concept and selected personality, developmental and behavioral measures. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(8), 2439A.
    Wilson, K. G., & Blackledge, J. T. (2000). Recent developments in the behavioral analysis of language: Making sense of clinical phenomena. In M. J.Dougher (Ed.), Clinical behavior analysis (pp. 27–46). Reno, NV: Context.
    Chapter 8. Social Learning Theory
    Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
    Bandura, A. (1978). Social learning theory of aggression. Journal of Communication, 28(3), 12–29.
    Bandura, A. (1979). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
    Bernadett-Shapiro, S. T. (1994). Object relations theory vs. social learning theory: Predictive validity for the development of empathy in first-grade boys. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(12), 4388A.
    Burnett, P. C. (1996). An investigation of the social learning and symbolic interaction models for the development of self-concepts and self-esteem. Journal of Family Studies, 2(1), 57–64.
    Burns, K. L. (1979). Social learning theory and behavioral health care. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 32, 6–15.
    Carmody, T. P., Istvan, J., Matarazzo, J. D., Connor, S. L., & Connor, W. E. (1986). Applications of social learning theory in the promotion of heart-healthy diets: The Family Heart Study dietary intervention model. Health Education Research, 1(1), 13–27.
    Chien, C. Y. A. (1995). Developmental adaptation of social learning theory: The etiology of crime and delinquency. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(10), 3319A.
    Clawson, H. J. (1999). Testing a social learning theory model of wife abuse among Air Force active duty service members: Does abuse in the family of origin predict spouse abuse later in life?Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(6), 3014B.
    Curran, G. M. (1997). Developmental pathways to problem alcohol and drug use: A longitudinal analysis of an interactive social learning model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(11), 4945A.
    Decker, P. J. (1986). Social learning theory and leadership. Journal of Management Development, 5(3), 46–58.
    De Souza, J. M. (1992). An explanatory study of criminal violence among male and female offenders from a social learning and developmental perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(12, Pt. 1), 6645B.
    Dickinson, J. A. (1989). Experiential social learning and management for social transformation: A case study of a community development project in Lima, Peru: I and II. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(3), 597A.
    Edwards, H. C. (1989). On the development of mathematics teaching skills: A study of theories of cognitive behavior and social learning as applied to education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(3), 641–642A.
    Eisen, M., Zellman, G. L., & McAlister, A. L. (1992). A health belief model-social learning theory approach to adolescents' fertility control: Findings from a controlled field trial. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 249–262.
    Gagne, E. D., & Middlebrooks, M. S. (1977). Encouraging generosity: A perspective from social learning theory and research. Elementary School Journal, 77, 281–291.
    Green, B. C. (1997). A social learning approach to youth sport motivation: Initial scale development and validation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(9), 4128A.
    Hawkins, W. E., Clarke, G. N., & Seeley, J. R. (1993). Application of social learning theory to the primary prevention of depression in adolescents. Health Values, 17(6), 31–39.
    Herbert, M. (1991). Clinical child psychology: Social learning development and behaviourOxford: John Wiley.
    Hillman, E. R. (1993). Adolescent sexual behavior: A developmental social learning model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(11), 5977–5978B.
    Klein, N. A., Sondag, K. A., & Drolet, J. C. (1994). Understanding volunteer peer health educators' motivations: Applying social learning theory. Journal of American College Health, 43(3), 126–130.
    Krumboltz, J. D. (1994). Improving career development theory from a social learning perspective. In M. L.Savikas & R. W.Lent (Eds.), Convergence in career development theories: Implications for science and practice (pp. 9–31). Palo Alto, CA: CPP.
    Krumboltz, J. D., Mitchell, A. M., & Jones, G. B. (1976). A social learning theory of career selection. Counseling Psychologist, 6, 71–81.
    Krumboltz, J. D., & Nichols, C. W. (1990). Integrating the social learning theory of career decision making. In W. B.Walsh & S. H.Osipow (Eds.), Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology (pp. 159–192). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Lange, D. N. (1971). An application of social learning theory in effecting change in a group of student teachers using video modeling techniques. Journal of Educational Research, 65(4), 151–154.
    Lunz, J. (1983). Applying social learning theory to advertising. South African Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 13–17.
    MacDonald, K. (1984). An ethological-social learning theory of the development of altruism: Implications for human sociobiology. Ethology and Sociobiology, 5(2), 97–109.
    Mallick, S. D., & McCandless, B. R. (1966). A study of catharsis of aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 591–596.
    Meltzoff, A., & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198, 75–78.
    Miller, N. E. (1944). Experimental studies in conflict. In J. M.Hunt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders (pp. 431–465). New York: Ronald.
    Miller, N. E. (1971). Liberalization of basic S-R concepts: Extensions to conflict behavior, motivation and social learning. In N. E.Miller (Ed.), Neal E. Miller: Selected papers. Chicago: Aldine & Atherton.
    Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social learning and imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Muuss, R. E. (1976). The implications of social learning theory for an understanding of adolescent development. Adolescence, 11(41), 61–85.
    Nakazawa, J., Ohnogi, H., Itoh, H., & Sakano, Y. (1988). From social learning theory to social cognitive theory: Recent advances in Bandura's theory and related research. Japanese Psychological Review, 31, 229–251.
    Perry, D. G., & Bussey, K. (1979). The social learning theory of sex differences: Imitation is alive and well. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1699–1712.
    Propst, D. B., & Koesler, R. A. (1998). Bandura goes outdoors: Role of self-efficacy in the outdoor leadership development process. Leisure Sciences, 20, 319–344.
    Rottschaefer, W., & Knowlton, W. (1979). A cognitive social learning theory perspective on human freedom. Behaviorism, 7(1), 17–22.
    Scherer, R. F. (1988). A social learning explanation for the development of entrepreneurial characteristics and career selection. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(3), 554–555A.
    Schuster, C., & Petosa, R. (1993). Using social learning theory to assess the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 14,(2), 191–205.
    Shermack, C. R. (1996). Rotter's social learning theory: Prediction of school achievement in Mexican-Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(3), 2141B.
    Sims, H. P., & Manz, C. C. (1981). Social learning theory: The role of modeling in the exercise of leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 3(4), 55–63.
    Skinner, W. F., & Fream, A. M. (1997). A social learning theory analysis of computer crime among college students. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34, 495–518.
    Stuart, R. B. (1989). Social learning theory: A vanishing or expanding presence?Psychology, 26(1), 35–50.
    Tremblay, R. E., Japel, C., Perusse, D., McDuff, P., Boivin, M., Zoccolillo, M., & Montplaisir, J. (1999). The search for the age of “onset” of physical aggression: Rousseau and Bandura revisited. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 9(1), 8–23.
    Chapter 9. Jean Piaget's Cognitive Model
    Archambaud, N. (1975). The role of language in cognitive development according to J. S. Bruner. Bulletin de Psychologie, 29(1–3), 45–55.
    Bjorklund, D. F. (1997). In search of a metatheory for cognitive development (or, Piaget is dead and I don't feel so good myself). Child Development, 68, 144–148.
    Bruner, J. S. (1966). Growth of the mind. American Psychologist, 21, 1007–1017.
    Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J., & Austin, G. A. (1956). A study of thinking. New York: John Wiley.
    Bruner, J. S., & Kennedy, H. (1966). The development of the concepts of order and proportion in children. In J. S.Bruner, R. R.Oliver, & P. M.Greenfield (Eds.), Studies in cognitive growth. New York: John Wiley.
    Buss, A. R. (1977). Piaget, Marx, and Buck-Morss on cognitive development: A critique and reinterpretation. Human Development, 20, 118–128.
    Dalrymple, A. T. (1971). The role of modeling contingencies in the learning of preoperational concepts by disadvantaged children. Dissertation Abstracts, 32(6), 3616–17B.
    El-Gosbi, A. M. (1982). A study of the understanding of science processes in relation to Piaget cognitive development at the formal level, and other variables among prospective teachers and college science majors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(6), 1914A.
    Kagan, J. (1970). The determinants of attention in the infant. American Scientist, 58, 298–306.
    Kagan, J., & Moss, H. (1962). Birth to maturity: A study in psychological development. New York: John Wiley.
    Morss, J. R. (1991). After Piaget: Rethinking “cognitive development.” In J. R.Morss & T.Linzey (Eds.), Growing up: The politics of human learning (pp. 9–29). Auckland, New Zealand: Longman Paul.
    Mottet, G. (1975). Relationships of language and of cognitive development in the work of Piaget. Bulletin de Psychologie, 29(1–3), 36–44.
    Piaget, J. (1957). Logic and psychology. New York: Basic Books.
    Pollack, R. H. (1971). Binet on perceptual-cognitive development or Piaget-come-lately. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 7, 370–374.;2-0
    Russell, J. (1999). Cognitive development as an executive process—in part: A homeopathic dose of Piaget. Developmental Science, 2, 247–295.
    Silverman, H. J. (1979). Biographical situations, cognitive structures and human development: Confronting Sartre and Piaget. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 10(2), 119–137.
    Srivastava, G. P. (1982). Jean Piaget on cognitive development of children. Asian Journal of Psychology and Education, 10(1–4), 40–48.
    Chapter 10. Lev Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Development
    Adams, G. R., Day, X, Dyk, P. H., Frede, E., & Rogers, D. R. B. (1992). On the dialectics of pubescence and psychosocial development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12, 348–365.
    Baltes, P. B., & Cornelius, S. W. (1977). The status of dialectics in developmental psychology: Theoretical orientation versus scientific method. In N.Datan & H. W.Reese (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Dialectical perspectives on experimental research (pp. 121–134). New York: Academic Press.
    Eastman, M. (1940). Marxism: Is it science?New York: W. W. Norton.
    Evans, D. W. (1998). Development of the self-concept in children with mental retardation: Organismic and contextual factors. In J. A.Burack, R. M.Hodapp, & E. F.Zigler (Eds.), Handbook of mental retardation and development (pp. 462–480). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Freysinger, V. J. (1995). The dialectics of leisure and development for women and men in mid-life: An interpretive study. Journal of Leisure Research, 27(1), 61–84.
    Glassman, M. (2000). Negation through history: Dialectics and human development. New Ideas in Psychology, 18, 1–22.
    Hinde, R. A. (2000). Dialectics in development and everyday life. In L. R.Bergman, R. B.Cairns, L.-G.Nilsson, & L.Nystedt (Eds.), Developmental science and the holistic approach (pp. 99–120). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hook, D., & Parker, I. (2002). Deconstruction, psychopathology and dialectics. South African Journal of Psychology, 32(2), 49–54.
    Kantin, K. (no date). Theory unravels math mysteries. Binghamton University,
    Lerner, R. M. (1992). Dialectics, developmental contextualism, and the further enhancement of theory about puberty and psychosocial development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12, 366–388.
    Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., & Tubman, J. (1989). Organismic and contextual bases of development in adolescence: A developmental contextual view. In G. R.Adams, R.Montemayor, & T. P.Gullotta (Eds.), Biology of adolescent behavior and development (pp. 11–37). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Molenaar, P., & Oppenheimer, L. (1985). Dynamic models of development and the mechanistic-organismic controversy. New Ideas in Psychology, 3, 233–242.
    Niemczynski, A. (1981). Dialectics of continuity/discontinuity in behavioral development. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 12(3), 149–158.
    Pascual-Leone, J. (1987). Organismic processes for neo-Piagetian theories: A dialectical causal account of cognitive development. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 531–570.
    Reese, H. W. (1977). Discriminative learning and transfer: Dialectical perspectives. In N.Datan & H. W.Reese (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Dialectical perspectives on experimental research. New York: Academic Press.
    Reese, H. W. (1982). A comment on the meanings of “dialectics.”Human Development, 25, 423–429.
    Riegel, K. (1976). The dialectics of human development. American Psychologist, 10, 689–701.
    Riegel, K. (1977). The dialectics of time. In N.Datan & H. W.Reese (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Dialectical perspectives on experimental research (pp. 3–45). New York: Academic Press.
    Roberts, L. R. (1991). The development of conflict between academic adjustment and social adjustment in early adolescence: Effects of organismic and environmental factors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(4), 2354B.
    Stein, D. G. (1989). Development and plasticity in the central nervous system: Organismic and environmental influences. In A.Ardila & F.Ostrosky-Solis (Eds.), Brain organization of language and cognitive processes. Critical issues in neuropsychology (pp. 229–252). New York: Plenum.
    Tolman, C. (1981). The metaphysic of relations in Klaus Riegel's “dialectics” of human development. Human Development, 24, 33–51.
    Wachs, T. D., & Gandour, M. J. (1984). Temperament, environment, and six-month cognitive-intellectual development: A test of the organismic specificity hypothesis. In A.Thomas & S.Chess (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development (pp. 191–208). New York: Taylor & Francis.
    Wozniak, R. H. (1975). A dialectical paradigm for psychological research: Implications drawn from the history of psychology in the Soviet Union. Human Development, 18, 18–34.
    Chapter 11. Comparing Theories of Human Development
    Abdoo, F. B. (1980). A comparison of the effects of Gestalt and associationist learning theories on the musical development of elementary school beginning wind and percussion instrumentstudents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(4), 1268A.
    Bacalarski, M. C. (1996). Vygotsky's developmental theories and the adulthood of computer-mediated communication: A comparison and an illumination. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 34(1), 57–63.
    Commons, M. L. (1991). A comparison and synthesis of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental and Gewirtz's learning-developmental attachment theories. In J. L.Gewirtz & W. M.Kurtines (Eds.), Intersections with attachment (pp. 257–291). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cowden, M. A. (1992). Faith development in women: A comparison of the moral development theories of Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg and the faith development theory of James Fowler. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(1), 581B.
    Gallagher, M. J. (1975). A comparison of Hogan's and Kohlberg's theories of moral development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36(5), 2446–2447B.
    Halpen, T. L. (1994). A constructive-developmental approach to women's identity formation in early adulthood: A comparison of two developmental theories. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(3), 1201B.
    Lambert, H. (1972). A comparison of cognitive developmental theories of ego and moral development. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 7(Pt. 1), 115–116.
    Maxwell, E. (1992). Self as phoenix: A comparison of Assagioli's and Dabrowski's developmental theories. Advanced Development, 4, 31–48.
    Moglia, R. J. (1976). A comparison of observed behaviors of four year olds with theory-predicted behaviors extrapolated from Freud's and Kohlberg's theories of psychosexual development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(4), 1614–1615B.
    Palisi, A. T., & Ruzicka, M. F. (1974). Panel analysis, comparison of theories of group development. Interpersonal Development, 5, 234–244.
    Sharabany, R., & Bar-Tal, D. (1982). Theories of the development of altruism: Review, comparison and integration. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 5(1), 49–80.
    Stotsky, S. (1987). A comparison of the two theories about development in written language: Implications for pedagogy and research. In R.Horowitz & S. J.Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 371–395). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Tsujimoto, R. N., & Nardi, P. M. (1978). A comparison of Kohlberg's and Hogan's theories of moral development. Social Psychology, 41, 235–245.
    Wren, D. J. (1993). A comparison of the theories of adolescent moral development of Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan: Alternative views of the hidden curriculum. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(4), 2245B.

    Name Index

    About the Author

    Neil J. Salkind has been teaching at the University of Kansas for 30 years, in the Department of Psychology and Research in Education with a courtesy appointment in the Department of Human Development and Family Life. He regularly teaches courses in developmental theories, life-span development, statistics, and research methods. He received his Ph.D. in human development from the University of Maryland. He has published more than 80 professional papers and is the author of several college-level textbooks, including Child Development, Exploring Research, and Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics (Sage; second edition, 2004). He was editor of Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography from 1989 through 2002. He is active in the Society for Research in Child Development and is an active writer in the trade area. He lives in Lawrence, Kansas, in a big old house that always needs attention. His hobbies include cooking, masters swimming, restoring an ancient Volvo P1800, and collecting books and reading them.

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