An Introduction to Non-Traditional Security Studies: A Transnational Approach
Publication Year: 2016
With the end of the Cold War, threats to national security have become increasingly non-military in nature. Issues such as climate change, resource scarcity, infectious diseases, natural disasters, irregular migration, drug trafficking, information security and transnational crime have come to the forefront. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to Non-Traditional Security concepts. It does so by: • Covering contemporary security issues in depth • Bringing together chapters written by experts in each area • Guiding you towards additional material for your essays and exams through further reading lists • Giving detailed explanations of key concepts • Testing your understanding through end-of-chapter questions Edited by a leading figure in the field, this is an authoritative guide to the key concepts that you’ll encounter throughout your non-traditional, and environmental, security studies courses.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part A: CONCEPTS
- Chapter 1: Understanding Non-traditional Security
- Chapter 2: On Security
- Chapter 3: Actors and Stakeholders
Part B: ISSUES
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Editorial Arrangement and Chapters 1, 2 and 4 © Mely Caballero-Anthony 2016
Chapter 3 © Alistair D.B. Cook 2016
Chapter 5 © Bob S. Hadiwinata 2016
Chapter 6 © J. Jackson Ewing 2016
Chapter 7 © Paul Teng and Jonatan Lassa 2016
Chapter 8 © Daojiong Zha 2016
Chapter 9 © Marcus DuBois King 2016
Chapter 10 © Simon Rushton 2016
Chapter 11 © Melissa Curley 2016
Chapter 12 © David Capie 2016
This edition first published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015946630
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-8608-1 (pbk)
Editor: Amy Jarrold
Assistant editor: George Knowles
Production editor: Katie Forsythe
Copyeditor: Christine Bitten
Proofreader: Thea Watson
Indexer: Adam Pozner
Marketing manager: Sally Ransom
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in India at Replika Press Pvt Ltd
About the Editor and Contributors[Page vii]
Mely Caballero-Anthony is Associate Professor and Head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Prof. Anthony’s research interests include regionalism and regional security in the Asia-Pacific, multilateral security cooperation, politics and international relations in ASEAN, conflict prevention and management, as well as Human Security. She has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals on a broad range of security issues in the Asia-Pacific. Her latest publications, both single-authored and co-edited, include: ‘Community Security: Human Security at 21’, (Contemporary Politics, 2015) ‘Understanding ASEAN Centrality’, (Pacific Review, 2014), ‘Human Security in ASEAN: 20 Years On’, (Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 2014), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action, (ISEAS, 2013). She previously served as the Director of External Relations at the ASEAN Secretariat and currently serves in the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters and Security. She is also Secretary-General of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security Studies in Asia (NTS-Asia) and is a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Conflict Prevention. She can be contacted at ISMCAnthony@ntu.edu.sg.
David Capie is Associate Professor of International Relations at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. His research focuses on Human Security and humanitarian disarmament in the Asia-Pacific region. He is the author of The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon (with Paul Evans) which has been published in Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese editions. He is also the author of Under the Gun: The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific (VUP, 2002) and Small Arms Production and Transfers in Southeast Asia (ANU, 2002). David has been a Visiting Scholar at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard University and the Luiss Guido Carli in Rome and is a Research Associate at the ASEAN Studies Center at American University, Washington DC. David has served as a member of the Public Advisory Committee on Disarmament and Arms Control and is also a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum’s Expert and Eminent Persons Group. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Alistair D. B. Cook is the Coordinator of the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Programme, and a Research Fellow at the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. In 2012–2013, he was a visiting research fellow at the East Asian Institute of the National University of Singapore. He graduated with a PhD from the University of Melbourne, Australia; Masters from Purdue University, USA; and M.A. (Hons) from St. Andrews University, Scotland. He has taught at Purdue University, University of Melbourne, Deakin University, Nanyang Technological University and Australian National University. His research interests are in non-traditional security and Human Security in the Asia-Pacific including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, peace and conflict [Page viii]studies, foreign policy and regional cooperation, and domestic politics in Myanmar. He has recently co-edited a book titled Irregular Migration and Human Security in East Asia (Routledge, 2015) and has published in a variety of journals. He contributes to local and global media outlets. He can be contacted at email@example.com.
Melissa Curley is Senior Lecturer in International Relations in the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Queensland Australia, where she is also Director of the UQ Rotary Peace Centre. Prior to taking up her UQ role, she was a researcher in the Centre of Asian Studies at the University of Hong Kong from 1999–2005. Her research and teaching interests include Southeast Asian politics and International Relations, the politics of migration and security, Cambodian politics, and non-traditional security in East Asia (including trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling, pandemic disease and child protection issues). She is currently working on a book manuscript on Cambodian civil society and democratisation in the post-UNTAC period. Dr. Curley also co-facilitates the UQ Working Group on Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling in the T.C Bernie School of Law. She has published across the disciplines of International Relations and Law including in: Review of International Studies, Journal of Law and Society, Australian Journal of Human Rights and Australian Journal of International Affairs, amongst others. Her most recent book is Migration and Security in Asia (Routledge 2008) with S.L. Wong. She holds a PhD in International Relations from the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and a BA (Hons) degree in Government (1st) from the University of Queensland, Australia. She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
J. Jackson Ewing is the Director of Asian Sustainability at the Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI) in New York, where he leads projects on environmental cooperation, responsible resource development, and international climate change policy. Prior to joining ASPI, Dr. Ewing led the Environment, Climate Change, and Food Security Program at Singapore’s S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS). He has worked throughout Asia with actors in government, the private sector, civil society, and international organizations, and he has carried out policy projects addressing transboundary environmental stresses, unsustainable food value chains, and the nexus of systemic water, food, and energy challenges. He has published in mediums including Oxford University Press, the Pacific Review, the Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Science, Water International, and Food Security, and is a regular contributor to radio, television and print media. He can be contacted at email@example.com.
Bob Sugeng Hadiwinata, is a professor of International Relations at the Parahyangan Catholic University, Bandung Indonesia. He holds a PhD from King’s College, Cambridge, MA from Monash University Australia, and BA from Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Prof. Hadiwinata was Alexander von Humboldt postdoctoral fellow at University of Giessen (2004–2005) and Technical University Dortmund (2011–2012). He is the author of The Politics of NGOs in Indonesia: Developing Democracy and Managing a Movement (Routledge Curzon, 2003) and co-editor of Democratization in Indonesia: the Challenges of Consolidation (Nomos, 2007). His current research focus is on non-traditional security issues and civil society’s role in world politics. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
[Page ix]Marcus King is John O. Rankin Associate Professor in the Elliott School of International Affairs. Dr. King also directs The Elliott School’s Master of Arts in International Affairs Program. He has taught a number of courses on energy and environmental security including research methods and a capstone workshop. Dr. King joined the Elliott School from the research staff of CNA Corporation’s (Center for Naval Analyses). Previously, he was globalization planning fellow at Georgetown University. Dr. King held Presidential appointments in the cabinet offices of the U.S. Secretary of Energy and Defense where he represented the United States in negotiation of treaties including the Kyoto Protocol. He has published widely including book chapters and journal articles on the security implications of resource scarcity and energy policy. His current book project examines ties between water scarcity and violent extremists groups. He holds a Ph.D. in International Relations and a MA in Law and Diplomacy from the Fletcher School at Tufts University. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jonatan A. Lassa is Research Fellow with the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. He held position as Postdoctoral research fellow at Ash Center, Harvard Kennedy School in 2011 and a PhD fellow at the the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn (2007–2010). He holds a PhD from the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Bonn, Germany, and has studied Social Science and Interdisciplinarity at the Center for Development Research (ZEF) at the University of Bonn. Prior to joining the Centre for NTS Studies, Jonatan was a senior research fellow with the Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC). His research and publication focus on issues related to food security, disaster and climate risk management, natural hazards mitigation, early warning systems, adaptation planning for cities in changing climate and environmental planning, evidence based policy, NGOs’ and think tanks management as well as the use of social network analysis and network theory in understanding public policy problems. He can be contacted at email@example.com.
Simon Rushton is a Faculty Research Fellow in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield, UK. He has written widely on international responses to HIV/AIDS and other diseases; the links between health and security; the changing nature of global health governance; and issues surrounding health, conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. His most recent books are The Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security (Routledge, 2014, co-edited with Jeremy Youde) and Disease Diplomacy: International Norms and Global Health Security (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015, with Sara E. Davies and Adam Kamradt-Scott). Simon Rushton edits the quarterly journal Medicine, Conflict & Survival (with Maria Kett) and is an Associate Fellow of the Centre on Global Health Security at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paul Teng is Principal Officer, National Institute of Education (www.nie.edu.sg), and Adjunct Senior Fellow (Food Security), S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (www.rsis.edu.sg), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is also Non-executive Chair, Asia BioBusiness Pte. Ltd. and Honorary Chair, International Service for the Acquisition [Page x]of Agri-biotech Applications. Paul previously held leadership positions at the Worldfish Centre and the International Rice Research Institute. His professional interests are in new agri-technologies, science-based entrepreneurship, sustainable development and food security. Prof Teng has published over 250 technical papers and eight books and won awards such as the Eriksson Prize in Plant Pathology and the 2001 CGIAR Excellence in Science Award for Outstanding Scientific Article. He is a Fellow of The World Academy of Sciences and Fellow, American Phytopathological Society. Professor Teng is a graduate from Lincoln College, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He can be contacted at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Daojiong Zha is Professor of International Political Economy in the School of International Studies, Peking University. He is also a member of the China Chapter of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific. His research specialization includes the international politics of energy, food, and trans-boundary water usage. His recent research interest has expanded to political risk management for Chinese investments overseas, which took him on field trips to Africa, Australia, and Southeast Asia. He has authored and edited six academic books, including Chinese Investment Overseas: Case Studies on Environmental and Social Risks (Peking University Press, 2014), in addition to dozens of journal articles. He also served on guest research and teaching positions in Australia, Japan, the United States, Singapore and the Hong Kong Special Administrative region. He holds a Doctoral degree in political science from the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He can be contacted at email@example.com.
The idea of a dedicated book on non-traditional security was born a few years ago when I began teaching a course on the then emerging concept. Although my colleagues and I at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore had already published at least three books on the subject – Studying Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Trends and Issues (Marshall Cavendish, 2006), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation (Palgrave, 2006) and Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action (ISEAS, 2013) – I realized the lack of a single textbook that students and lecturers, as well as scholars, analysts and other interested readers could easily refer to that provides a focused and more comprehensive discussion of how the concept of non-traditional security had evolved and how it is applied in practice. This is despite the fact that references to non-traditional security have now become common in security discourses not only in Asia but also beyond.
Non-traditional security is now part of the security lexicon of states across the globe. In the Asia-Pacific, this term is used often by the policy community and is found in the agenda of inter-regional summits, and meetings of foreign ministers as well as defence and economic ministers. Non-traditional security has also found its way into the conferences held by international and regional organizations, development agencies and even in the discussions of civil society groups across borders. But, while there may be greater awareness of non-traditional security issues and what these mean to the security and well-being of societies and states, and while there are now a number of books and articles that refer to non-traditional security issues, understanding the epistemology of the concept and how it relates to the wider conceptual landscape of security remains a task at hand.
By writing this book, the contributors to this volume therefore aim to fill the gaps by addressing some of the often asked questions: What do we mean when we say ‘non-traditional security’? How is this different from concepts like ‘Human Security’ and ‘comprehensive security’? What is a non-traditional security approach to a security threat? Through this book, we hope to not only advance the understanding of non-traditional security issues found in many parts of the world, but more significantly by addressing the conceptual challenges, we hope to contribute to the building of knowledge by mainstreaming non-traditional security as both an area of research and a field of study that can broaden security studies.
This book is therefore part of the continuing effort by a transnational epistemic community who share a keen interest in deepening and widening the study of non-traditional security studies and have been part of the journey to advance the field. Although this book could not cover the whole spectrum of non-traditional security issues and presents the more common ones, we hope that this volume is a valuable contribution to existing studies on security and could become a part of the core and supplementary reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of security studies, international relations and development studies.Singapore
In developing the idea of this book, I am very grateful to RSIS for its support of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, which I have the privilege to lead. The Centre has provided an excellent base for developing and expanding the study of non-traditional security. Special thanks to Barry Desker, former Dean of RSIS, and Ong Keng Yong, Executive Deputy Chair of RSIS, for their strong and steadfast encouragement of the work on non-traditional security. I would also like to thank the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) for its support in getting this volume published.
In writing and publishing this book, I am deeply indebted to a number of colleagues and friends who have been part of this really special journey. My heartfelt gratitude to all the contributors to this volume who devoted considerable time to work on their respective chapters: David Capie, Alistair Cook, Melissa Curley, Jackson Ewing, Bob Hadiwinata, Marcus King, Simon Rushton, Paul Teng and Jonatan Lassa and Daojiong Zha. Their commitment to this project is something I will always cherish. And this volume has benefited greatly from their perspectives on the evolution and practice of non-traditional security.
For their advice and friendship, I am also grateful to Surin Pitsuwan, Carolina Hernandez, Rizal Sukma, Clara Joewono, Jusuf Wanandi, Paul Evans, Amitav Acharya, James Tang, Soedradjad Djiwandono, Linda Yarr, T.J. Pempel, Meredith Miller, Ann Weston, Rosalia Sciortino, Ramesh Thakur, Shaun Breslin, Richard Higgott, Meenakshi Gopinath and to all colleagues and friends of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security in Asia (NTS-Asia).
My sincere thanks to my colleagues at the Centre for NTS Studies for their support throughout the writing and preparation of this book. I would specially like to thank Julius Trajano for his excellent research support and cheerful disposition. My deepest thanks to Yen Ong, whose superb editorial skills, kind patience and professionalism deserve credit for the consistency and readability of this volume. My deep appreciation and thanks also to the SAGE team, Natalie Aguilera, Amy Jarrold and George Knowles, for their important inputs and kind help in the production of this book.
Finally, to my family, Denis and Jeremy, my thanks for all the loving support, patience and tolerance which have kept me going throughout the process of writing and publishing this book.The contributing authors would also like to acknowledge the following
For Chapter 3, the author, Alistair D.B. Cook would like to thank Tamara Nair for her thoughts in researching multi-dimensional approaches to non-traditional security.
For Chapter 5, the author, Bob S. Hadiwinata, would like to thank Duhita Primandhira for her assistance during the preparation of the draft.
[Page xiii]For Chapter 7, the authors thank the following colleagues from the food security team in RSIS/NTS (Maria Morales, Maxim Shreshta and Goh Tian) and the National Institute of Education (Jurise Oliveros) for their help in researching sections of this chapter.
For Chapter 9, the author, Marcus Du Bois King, would like to thank Ms. Marielle Velander for her help in researching this chapter.[Page xiv]
Adaptation (climate change)
The ability of a system to adjust to changing climate variability and extremes, to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with climate consequences.
The ability of a system to adapt to changing environmental conditions in ways that minimize negative consequences and maximize emerging benefits.
A condition in the international system in which there is no sovereign power that can impose global authority and govern the interactions between autonomous nation-states that have to compete against each other for survival.
The term ‘antibiotic resistance’, which refers specifically to bacteria and the antibiotics that are used to fight them, is often encountered in this area. Antimicrobial resistance applies to a wider range of pathogens: not only bacteria, but also other pathogens such as viruses, fungi and parasites (WHO, 2014).
Balance of power
In International Relations, this refers to conditions whereby the (military) power of one state is not strong enough to dominate another state, as may have been the case during the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union (Waltz, 1979; Morgenthau, 1985).
Critique of any partnership between the UN and business under the UN Global Compact. These agreements are seen as unenforceable and an attempt to improve the public relations of businesses.
The capacity of a system to continue functioning in the face of climate stresses, and create new characteristics that better prepare it for future climate change impacts.
A theory of international security that explores multiple sectors and levels of analysis to question who or what is being secured and why. This pushes national security beyond military defence against a particular enemy to focus on national stability issues like food, energy and the environment. It is a state-centric approach to issues of domestic stability.
Energy poverty first emerged with the concept of ‘affordable warmth’ in urban heating in Britain in the 1980s, while taking into account other energy services such as cooking, lighting etc., and has been extended to refer to the energy welfare of rural populations. The interaction between low incomes, high energy prices and a dwelling’s low energy efficiency is conventionally considered to be the main driver of energy poverty. Another key indicator is the energy costs related to individual motorized mobility.
The political desire of an ethnic community to control its own affairs.
A way of selecting, organizing, interpreting and making sense of a complex reality; a frame can allow people to filter information to make some aspects more clear than others.
Freedom from fear
This can be defined as a life condition in which individuals are protected from violence by way of ameliorating situations of conflict and threats to life and safety on both an intrastate and an interstate level.
Freedom from want
This may be defined as a condition in which an individual has access to an adequate standard of living which includes necessities such as food, clothing, housing and medical care. It also encompasses social security in times of extreme and unexpected distress such as disability and unemployment.
Freedom to live in dignity
A reference to the expansion of the Human Security definition of ‘freedom from fear’ and ‘freedom from want’ at the 2005 World Summit.
The nature of governments’ foreign energy policies is conceived to be a constant struggle for control over oil and natural gas resources, infrastructure and diplomatic influence. The value of energy, then, extends far beyond that for meeting the economic and social development needs of a country. A country with energy to export seeks to extract political and/or military benefits from potential customers, while a country in need of imported energy factors in the added political and/or military gains from its engagement with its preferred source of supply.
This refers to different ideologies of globalization.
The process of decision-making and the process through which decisions are (or are not) implemented (Caballero-Anthony and Cook, 2013: 8).
Human rights law
Human rights law derives its foundation from the notion that all human beings are entitled to certain universal rights that are essential in order to lead a life of dignity. Human rights law endeavours to protect the rights of people all over the world from being violated by their governments. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights form the cornerstone of the International Bill of Human Rights.
The use of armed force by a state or states in another state without the consent of the latter, with the primary aim of preventing or stopping gross and massive violations of human rights or international humanitarian law (Danish Institute of International Affairs, 1999).
[Page 229]International humanitarian law
International humanitarian law aims to police situations of war and armed conflicts. International humanitarian law focuses on the justifications behind acts of war and tries to regulate the conduct of the warring parties in times of conflict.
Informal decision-making structures. It was popularized to reference the informal conduct of foreign policy decision-making under President John F. Kennedy of the US in the 1960s.
Low-income food deficit countries (LIFDCs)
This classification is by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Countries are classified based on per capita gross national income and net food trade position (gross imports less exports).
Mass atrocities can be defined as the acts of violence committed against a sizeable number of civilians and groups not engaged in active conflict. The scope of violence here includes both physical and mental harm. These include ethnic cleansing, genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.
Mitigation (climate change)
Reducing or preventing the emission of greenhouse gases to lessen the impact these gases have on climate systems.
A moral hazard is a situation when an individual, group, or even country or institution takes more risks because another party bears most of the burden of the risk. It may occur where the actions of one party may change to the detriment of another after a transaction has taken place.
A form of political organization for a delineated geographic area populated by people who share a common bond such as culture or ethnicity.
This theory supplies the theoretical underpinnings for how states must ensure their own survival under situations of anarchy and maintain the balance of power in order to guarantee peace. See also Chapter 2 of this volume.
Organizations that fall outside formal government structures.
This is a concept that refers to the money originally intended to be spent on defence or national security that could be saved or redirected to other areas of government spending when a conflict comes to an end. It was popularized after the end of the Cold War, when Western defence budgets were rapidly reduced following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Under the 2005 International Health Regulations, a PHEIC is defined as ‘an extraordinary event which is determined, as provided in these Regulations: (i) to constitute a public health risk to [Page 230]other States through the international spread of disease; and (ii) to potentially require a coordinated international response’.
This theory provides conceptual justification for states’ pursuit of national interests.
This is an organizing principle for nation-states focused on a particular geographic area.
Renewable energy sources, unlike fossil sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas), can naturally replenish within short periods of time. Solar, wind, water, geothermal and biomass energy are the most significant forms of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources that are more local and commercially less viable – yet more fitting for addressing energy poverty – include small hydro-energy units and forms derived from biological waste (such as methane). These energy forms are not new, but their large-scale use and the technological advancements related to them are novel.
Countries that share a waterway. An upper or upstream riparian refers to a country on the upstream portion of a river or river basin. Similarly, a lower or downstream riparian refers to a country dependent on river flow from another country.
An international river basin can be defined as the area which contributes hydrologically (including both surface and groundwater) to a first order stream, which, in turn, is defined by its outlet to the ocean or to a terminal (closed) lake or inland sea (Wolf et al., 1999).
The articulation by a state that it recognizes a particular phenomenon as a security issue, thus giving it special status and legitimizing extraordinary measures (Buzan et al., 1998).
Spoilers are variables that can impede conflict amelioration and negotiations toward peace treaties and agreements. These variables could be individual leaders or political parties whose values and interests conflict with a post-conflict resolution scenario. These interests may include power, ideology and resources, among others.
‘A network of facilities that performs the functions of procurement of material, transformation of material to intermediate and finished products and distribution of finished products to customers’ (Lee and Billington, 1993).
A multinational political union where member states delegate powers to a central authority.
Development practices that meet present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is about finding better ways of doing things, both for the future and the present. It involves changing the way that society works and lives now without reducing the quality of life in the present.
[Page 231]Vulnerability (climate change)
The relative physical and/or social susceptibility of systems and societies to negative climate change impacts.
This emerged after the signing of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years’ War in Europe, inaugurating the modern nation-state system and era of state sovereignty. The system has three major principles that govern the behaviour of modern nation-states: the principle of sovereignty of states, the principle of equality between them and the principle of non-intervention of one state in the internal affairs of another state.
References[Page 232]2001 ) ‘Human Security: East versus west’, International Journal, 56(3): 442–60.(2000 ) ‘Human Security in the Asia Pacific: Puzzle, panacea, or peril?’, CANCAPS Bulletin 27.and (1988 ) ‘Comprehensive security: Interpretations in ASEAN countries’, in , , and (eds), Asian Security Issues: Regional and Global. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies. pp. 50–78.(1998 ) Asian Security Practice: Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(2004 ) ‘A vital core that must be treated with the same gravitas as traditional security threats’, Security Dialogue, 35(3): 359–60.(2005 ) ‘In larger freedom: Decision time at the UN’, Foreign Affairs, May/June .(2001 ) ‘Human Security in international perspective’, in and (eds), The Asia Pacific in the New Millennium: Political and Security Challenges. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Strategic and International Studies. pp. 583–96.(2004 ) ‘Revisioning Human Security in Southeast Asia’, Asian Perspective, 28(3): 155–89.(2008 ) ‘Nontraditional security, regionalism and the state in Southeast Asia’, in and (eds), Transnational Trends: Middle Eastern and Asian Views. Washington DC: The Henry L. Stimson Center. pp. 139–54.(2009 ) ‘Nontraditional security and multilateralism in Asia: Reshaping the contours of regional security architecture’, in and (eds), Asia’s New Multilateralism: Cooperation, Competition and the Search for Community. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 306–28.(2006 ) Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation. London: Ashgate., and (eds) (Commission on Human Security ( 2003 ) Human Security Now. New York: Commission on Human Security.1981 ) ‘Social forces, states and world orders: Beyond international relations theory’, Millennium, 10(2): 126–55.(2006 ) ‘Structural challenges, enabling spaces: Gender and non-traditional formulations of security in South Asia’, in , and (eds), Studying Non-traditional Security in Asia: Trends and Issues. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 192–209.and (2002 ) Madness in the Multitude: Human Security and World Disorder. Ottawa: Oxford University Press., , , and ([Page 233] ( 1994 ) New Imperatives of Human Security. New York: United Nations Development Programme.1995 ) ‘Asian perspective on security’, in and (eds), Common Security in Asia: New Concept of Human Security. Tokyo: Tokai University Press. pp. 53–69.(2004 ) ‘An idea that works in practice’, Security Dialogue, 35(3): 351–2.(Human Security Centre ( 2005 ) Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.Human Security Network ( 1999 ) ‘A perspective on Human Security’, Chairman’s summary at the 1st Ministerial Meeting of the Human Security Network, Lysøen, Norway, 20 May.ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) ( 2001 ) The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.JCIE (Japan Center for International Exchange) and ISEAS (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies) ( 1998 ) The Asian Crisis and Human Security: An Intellectual Dialogue on Building Asia’s Tomorrow. Tokyo: JCIE.2004 ) ‘The key to a powerful agenda, if properly delimited’, Security Dialogue, 35(3): 367–8.(2001 ) ‘Human Security: Concept and operationalization’, Centre for Peace and Development Studies. Available at: www.cpdsindia.org/conceptandoperationalization.htm (accessed 5 July 2015 ).(2004 ) ‘A signifier of shared values’, Security Dialogue, 35(3): 366–7.(2010 ) ‘The second generation of Human Security: Lessons from the UN and EU experience’, International Affairs, 86(1): 212–24.and (2004 ) ‘A normatively attractive but analytically weak concept’, Security Dialogue, 35(3): 358–9.(2001 ) ‘Human Security: Paradigm shift or hot air?’, International Security, 26(2): 87–102.(2014 ) ‘Human Security in ASEAN: 20 years on,’ Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 2(2): 199–215.and (1999 ) ‘Human Security and the interests of states’, Security Dialogue, 30(3): 265–76.(2001 ) ‘Human Security and political stability: Should there be a tension?’, in (ed.), The Quest for Human Security: The Next Phase of ASEAN? Bangkok: Institute of Security and International Studies. pp. 53–66.(2004 ) ‘A political worldview’, Security Dialogue, 35(3): 347–8.(2001 ) The Quest for Human Security: The Next Phase of ASEAN? Bangkok: Institute of Security and International Studies.(ed.) (2000 ) Asia’s Emerging Regional Order: Reconciling Traditional and Human Security. Tokyo: United Nations University Press., and (eds) (UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 1994 ) Human Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.[Page 234] and ( 2000 ) ‘In quest of “Human Security”’, Japan Review of International Affairs, 14(1): 59–82.World Bank ( 1998 ) East Asia: The Road to Recovery. Washington DC: World Bank.1995 ) ‘The periphery as the core: The Third World and security studies’, YCISS Occasional Paper, 28: 1–19.(1995 ) The Third World Security Predicament: State Making, Regional Conflict, and the International System. London: Lynne Rienner.(1997 ) ‘The concept of security’, Review of International Studies, 23(1): 5–26.(1991 ) ‘Security and emancipation’, Review of International Studies, 17(4): 313–26.(1994 ) ‘Security and self: Reflections of a fallen realist’, YCISS Occasional Paper, 26. Toronto: York University.(1995 ) ‘Human wrongs and international relations’, International Affairs, 71(1): 103–26.(1983 ) People, States, and Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.(1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (1992 ) Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press.(1981 ) ‘Social forces, states and world orders: Beyond international relations theory’, Millennium, 10(2): 126–55.(1994 ) ‘The postcolonial aura: Third World criticism in the age of global capitalism’, Critical Inquiry, 20(2): 328–56.(1987 ) Women and War. New York: Basic Books.(1989 ) Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. London: Pandora Press.(1997 ) ‘A case for seduction: Evaluating the poststructuralist conceptualization of security’, Cooperation and Conflict, 32(4): 369–97.(1998 ) ‘Critical theory and security studies – The research programme of “critical security studies”’, Cooperation and Conflict, 33(3): 298–333.(1997 ) ‘From strategy to security: Foundations of critical security studies’, in and (eds), Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 33–59.and (1992 ) ‘The question of the next stage in International Relations theory: A critical-theoretical point of view’, Millennium, 21(1): 77–98.(1989 ) ‘Redefining security’, Foreign Affairs, 68(2): 162–77.([Page 235] ( 1997 ) ‘Regional security complexes and regional orders’, in and (eds), Regional Orders: Building Security in a New World. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 20–44.1985 ) Politics among Nations. New York: McGraw Hill.(1999 ) ‘The increasing insecurity of security studies: Conceptualizing in the last twenty years’, Contemporary Security Policy, 20(3): 72–101.(2005 ) ‘The contested concept of security’, in (ed.), Critical Security Studies and World Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. pp. 27–62.(2000 ) ‘Burundi: A critical security perspective’, Peace and Conflict Studies, 7(2): 37–56.and (1998 ) Gender and International Relations: An Introduction. Cambridge: Polity.(2005 ) Introduction to International Relations: Perspectives and Themes,and (2ndedn. Harrow: Pearson Education.1987 ) In Search of Security: The Third World in International Relations. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.(1992 ) Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security. New York: Columbia University Press.(1995 ) ‘Re-visioning security’, in and (eds), International Relations Theory Today. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 175–97.(1997 ) ‘You just don’t understand: Troubled engagements between feminists and IR theorists’, International Studies Quarterly, 41(4): 611–32.(1983 ) ‘Redefining security’, International Security, 8(1): 129–53.(1998 ) ‘Securitization and desecuritization’, in (ed.), On Security. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 46–86.(2004 ) ‘Aberystwyth, Paris, Copenhagen – New “schools” in security theory and their origins between core and periphery’, paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 17–20 March.(1990 ) ‘Security, sovereignty, and the challenge of world politics’, Alternatives, 15(1): 3–27.(1991 ) ‘The renaissance of security studies’, International Studies Quarterly, 35(2): 211–39.(1979 ) Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1999 ) Security, Strategy, and Critical Theory. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.(2006 ) ‘Privatisation, globalisation, and the politics of protection’, in , and (eds), The Politics of Protection: Sites of Insecurity and Political Agency. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 34–47.and ([Page 236] and ( 2012 ) ‘From norms to programs: The United Nations Global Compact and global governance’, Regulation and Governance, 6(2): 149–66.2004 ) ‘Non-state regional governance mechanism for economic security: The case of the ASEAN Peoples’ Assembly’, The Pacific Review, 17(4): 567–85.(2008 ) ‘Non-traditional security and infectious diseases in ASEAN: Going beyond the rhetoric of securitization to deeper institutionalization’, The Pacific Review, 21(4): 507–25.(2010 ) Non-Traditional Security Challenges, Regional Governance, and the ASEAN Political Security Community (APSC). Singapore: RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies.(2013 ) Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.and (eds) (2006 ) Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation. London: Ashgate., and (2013 ) ‘ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015: Opportunities and challenges for food security’, NTS Policy Brief PO13-04. Singapore: RSIS Centre for NTS Studies., and (2008 ) ‘Localization as resistance: The contested diffusion of small arms norms in Southeast Asia’, Security Dialogue, 39(6): 637–58.(2003 ) Track II (Citizen) Diplomacy, Beyond Intractability. Available at: www.beyondintractability.org/essay/track2-diplomacy (accessed 22 March 2015 ).(1998 ) ‘The sovereign limits of global civil society: A comparison of NGO participation in UN world conferences on the environment, human rights, and women’, World Politics, 51(1): 1–35., and (2014 ) ‘UK floods: Is it time to reconsider environmental security?’, RUSI Analysis. London: Royal United Services Institute.(1996 ) Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.and (2011 ) ‘European non-traditional security theory: From theory to practice’, Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2): 152–79.and (2013 ) ‘From the ASEAN People’s Assembly to the ASEAN Civil Society Conference: The boundaries of civil society advocacy’, Contemporary Politics, 19(4): 411–26.(2013 ) ‘The politics and governance of non-traditional security’, International Studies Quarterly, 57(3): 462–73.and (Human Security Unit ( 2004 ) Human Security Approach, The United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security. Available at: unocha.org/humansecurity/human-security-unit/human-security-approach (accessed 10 February 2015 ).2013 ) ‘No emancipatory alternative, no critical security studies’, Critical Studies on Security, 1(1): 46–63.and ([Page 237] and ( 2001 ) ‘The changing security agenda in Southeast Asia: Globalization, new terror, and the delusions of regionalism’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24(4): 271–88.2003 ) ‘Japan-based non-governmental organizations in pursuit of Human Security’, Japan Forum, 15(2): 227–50.(2008 ) Biosecurity Interventions: Global Health and Security in Question. New York: Columbia University Press.and (eds) (2010 ) ‘The second generation of Human Security: Lessons from the UN and EU experience’, International Affairs, 86(1): 211–24.and (2013 ) ‘Are non-traditional security challenges leading regional organizations towards greater convergence?’, Asia Europe Journal, 11(1): 21–38.(2011 ) ‘Southeast Asian regionalism and global governance: “Multilateral utility” or “hedging utility”?’, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 33(1): 83–112.(1993 ) ‘Human rights, principled issue-networks, and sovereignty in Latin America’, International Organization, 47(3): 411–41.(2014 ) ‘Climate change and EU security: When and how they intersect’, EUISS Brief Issue, 32: 1–4.(2005 ) ‘Non-official diplomacy in Southeast Asia: “Civil society” or “civil service”?’, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 27(3): 370–87.(2012 ) ‘Human Security: The making of a UN ideology’, Global Society, 26(2): 191–213.(2004 ) ‘Feminist responses to international security studies’, Peace Review, 16(1): 43–8.(UN (United Nations) ( 2015 ) About UN Membership. Available at: www.un.org/en/members/about.shtml (accessed 30 March 2015 ).UN Global Compact ( 2015 ) The Ten Principles. Available at: www.unglobalcompact.org/AboutTheGC/TheTenPrinciples/index.html (accessed 30 March 2015 ).ADB (Asian Development Bank) ( 2002 ) Indigenous Peoples/Ethnic Minorities and Poverty Reduction: Philippines. Manila: ADB.ARNO (Arakan Rohingya National Organisation); BROUK (Burmese Rohingya Organisation United Kingdom); BRAJ (Burmese Rohingya Association Japan) et al. ( 2013 ) Joint Statement on the Official Report of the Rakhine (Arakan) Investigation Commission, 3 May .2008 ) Peace without Justice? The Helsinki Peace Process in Aceh, Report. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.(Associated Press ( 2012 ) State of Emergency Declared for Western Burma, 10 June .Associated Press ( 2014 ) Burma Census is not Counting Rohingya Muslims, says UN Agency, 2 April .[Page 238] ( 2009 ) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: Report of the Secretary-General, A/63/677, 12 January .2014 ) ‘Burma enjoys an uneasy peace: Time to close Thailand refugee camps?’, The American Spectator, 15 December .(BBC News ( 2014 ) ‘Why is there communal violence in Myanmar?’, 3 July .2008 ) Securing Southeast Asia: The Politics of Security Sector Reform. Abingdon: Routledge.and (2011 ) Conflict, Security and Development: An Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge.and (2006 ) ‘Transitional justice: A holistic interpretation’, Journal of International Affairs, 60(1): 17–27.(1991 ) People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(2008 ) ‘Executive summary’, in Considering Victims: The Aceh Peace Process from a Transitional Justice Perspective. Jakarta: International Center for Transitional Justice. pp. 1–5., and (2013 ) ‘After Malaysia election, political attacks continue as opposition calls for protests’, The New York Times, 10 May .(2012 ) ‘To share or divide power? Minorities in autonomous regions, the case of the autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(12): 2097–115.(2010 ) Victims of Violence: A Review of the Protection of Civilians Concept and Its Relevance to UNHCR’s Mandate. Geneva: UNHCR.(2013 ) ‘MNLF, BIFF joining forces to push own Moro independence, says MILF’, Inquirer Mindanao, 26 August .(2013 ) ‘Myanmar president disbands controversial border force’, Reuters, 15 July .(2015 ) ‘BIFF commander involved in Mamasapano killed’, Rappler, 30 March .(2012 ) ‘Understanding ethnic minority demands: A new typology’, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 18(3): 358–79.(2012 ) ‘Asia and Oceania’, in (ed.), State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012. London: Minority Rights Group International. pp. 118–71., , , and (2000 ) Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace.(2013 ) ‘Transitional justice in South and Southeast Asia: Integrating judicial and non-judicial measures’, NTS Insight, no. IN13-04. Singapore: RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies.([Page 239] GPH (Government of the Philippines); MILF (Moro Islamic Liberation Front) ( 2012 ) Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, 15 October .GPH (Government of the Philippines); MILF (Moro Islamic Liberation Front) ( 2013 ) Terms of Reference for Sajahatra Bangsamoro, 11 April .GPH (Government of the Philippines); MILF (Moro Islamic Liberation Front) ( 2014 ) Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro, 27 March .2000 ) Ethnic Groups in Conflict,(2ndedn. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.HRW (Human Rights Watch) ( 2013 ) ‘All You Can Do Is Pray’: Crimes against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burma’s Arakan State. New York: HRW.ICC (International Criminal Court) ( 2002 ) Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) ( 2001 ) The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Inquiry Commission on the Sectarian Violence in Rakhine State ( 2013 ) Executive Summary and Recommendations of the Final Report, Burma Partnership. Available at: www.burmapartnership.org/2013/04/executive-summary-and-recommendations-of-the-final-report/ (accessed 10 April 2015 ).IRIN ( 2011 ) Myanmar: Rohingyas in Malaysia Seek Education, Opportunities, 8 June .2007 ) The Long Road to Peace: Inside the GRP–MNLF Peace Process. Cotabato City: Institute of Bangsamoro Studies.(2009 ) ‘Culture’, in UN, State of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 2009. New York: United Nations. pp. 51–82.(2013 ) Cracks, Bumps, Potholes and U-turns: Negotiating the Road to Peace in Mindanao, Asia Security Initiative Policy Series No. 23. Singapore: RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies.(1996 ) ‘Containing fear: The origins and management of ethnic conflict’, International Security, 21(2): 41–75.and (2014 ) ‘Thai junta’s pledge to send back Myanmar refugees sparks concern’, Reuters, 14 July .(2012 ) ‘Natural resource development and the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples’, in (ed.), State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012. London: Minority Rights Group International. pp. 10–21.(2012 ) Mindanao: The Hidden Costs of War, Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, 6 July .(2012 ) ‘Burma president launches an “Investigation Commission” to the Rakhine state’, Asian Correspondent, 18 August .(NSCB (National Statistical Coordination Board, Philippines) ( 2013 ) Poverty Incidence Unchanged, as of First Semester 2012 – NSCB, Media release, 23 April .OPAPP (Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process) ( 2013 ) ‘GPH, MILF won’t allow spoilers to derail peace process’, OPAPP News: MILF Updates, 22 August . Available at: http://opapp.gov.ph/milf/news/gph-milf-won%E2%80%99t-allow-spoilers-derail-peace-process (accessed 30 August 2013 ).2008 ) ‘Polarization, horizontal inequalities and violent civil conflict’, Journal of Peace Research, 45(2): 143–62.([Page 240] , and ( 2010 ) ‘Identity, ideology and child soldiering: Community and youth participation in civil conflict – A study on the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in Mindanao, Philippines’, Civil Wars, 12(3): 304–25.PHR (Physicians for Human Rights) ( 2011 ) Life under the Junta: Evidence of Crimes against Humanity in Burma’s Chin State. Cambridge, MA: PHR.Radio Free Asia ( 2013 ) ‘Myanmar’s Rakhine state imposes two-child limit on Rohingyas’, 23 May .Refugees International ( 2011 ) Bangladesh: The Silent Crisis, field report. Washington DC: Refugees International.2010 ) International Human Rights Law,(2ndedn. Harlow: Pearson Education.2005 ) Ethnic Violence and the Societal Security Dilemma. London and New York: Routledge.(2015 ) ‘Myanmar’s Buddhist terrorism problem’, Al Jazeera, 18 February .(SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) ( 2014 ) SIPRI Yearbook 2014: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2011 ) Peace Terms: Glossary of Terms for Conflict Management and Peacebuilding. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace.(ed.) (2009 ) ‘Temporary Registration Card (TRC) for Arakanese Rohingya’, Kaladan Press Network, 2 December .(2010 ) ‘The politics and economics of official ethnic discrimination: A global statistical analysis, 1950–2003’, International Studies Quarterly, 54(2): 535–60.(2000 ) ‘Crisis prevention: Tackling horizontal inequalities’, Oxford Development Studies, 28(3): 245–62.(2011 ) ‘East Asian peacemaking: Exploring the patterns of conflict management and conflict settlement in East Asia’, Asian Perspective, 35(2): 163–85.(2007 ) ‘Underdevelopment and conflict: A vicious cycle’, in Human Security: Concepts and Implications. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 143–65.and (2010 ) ‘The politicization of ethnic sentiments in the southern Philippines: The case of the Bangsamoro’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 30(1): 19–34.(2003 ) ‘Societal security and social psychology’, Review of International Studies, 29(2): 249–68.(UN (United Nations) ( 2010 ) UN Peacebuilding: An Orientation. New York: UN.UN (United Nations) ( 2012 ) Realizing the Future We Want for All: Report to the Secretary-General, UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda. New York: UN.UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 1994 ) 1994 Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 2003 ) Human Development Report 2003 – Millennium Development Goals: A Compact among Nations to End Human Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 2009 ) Community Security and Social Cohesion: Towards a UNDP Approach. New York: UNDP.[Page 241] UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 2013 ) Philippine Human Development Report 2012/2013. Quezon City: Human Development Network.UNGA (United Nations General Assembly) ( 2012 ) Report of the Independent Expert on Minority Issues, Rita Izsak, A/HRC/22/49.UNHCR (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ( 2015 ) 2015 UNHCR Country Operations Profile – Thailand. Available at: www.unhcr.org/pages/49e489646.html (accessed 13 May 2015 ).UNOCHA (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) ( 2009 ) Human Security in Theory and Practice. New York: UNOCHA.UNSC (UN Security Council) ( 1994 ) Letter Dated 24 May 1994 from the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council, S/1994/674.UNSC (UN Security Council) ( 1999 ) Security Council Resolution 1265 [on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict], S/RES/1265.1995 ) ‘Securitization and desecuritization’, in (ed.), On Security. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 46–86.(2013 ) ‘Online hate speech on the rise in Myanmar’, Channel NewsAsia, 29 June .(World Bank ( 2011 ) World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank and WFP (United Nations World Food Programme) ( 2011 ) Violent Conflicts and Displacement in Central Mindanao: Challenges for Recovery and Development. Washington DC: World Bank.ASEAN Foundation ( 2008 ) Poverty Alleviation: Initiatives of the ASEAN Foundation. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.2008 ) The World Bank’s New Poverty Data: Implications for the Asian Development Bank. Manila: ADB., , and (1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (2005 ) ‘Non-traditional security issue in Asia: The many faces of securitisation’, paper presented at the Conference on Regionalisation and the Taming of Globalisation, University of Warwick, UK, 26–28 October.(1983 ) Rural Development: Putting the Last First. London: Longman.(1989 ) ‘Editorial introduction: Vulnerability, coping and policy’, IDS Bulletin, 20(1): 1–12.(1997 ) ‘Our responsibility to the seventh generation’, in and (eds), The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books. pp. 40–50., and (1997 ) Development and International Relations: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.([Page 242] and ( 1996 ) ‘Playing catch-up: International Relations theory and poverty’, Millennium, 25(3): 521–45.2006 ) ‘Poverty and the role of NGOs in protecting Human Security in Indonesia’, in , and (eds), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 198–224.(1997 [ 1971 ]) ‘Development as planned poverty’, in and (eds), The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books. pp. 94–101.(1999 ) New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2000 ) Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? Oxford: Oxford University Press., , , and (2013 ) ‘Economists fear poverty rate will jump’, Tempo Weekly Magazine, 18 November ., and (1999 ) Development as Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.(2000 ) From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.(1994 ) ‘Poverty concepts and measurement’, in and (eds), Poverty Monitoring: An International Concern. London: MacMillan. pp. 15–30.(2002 ) Anatomy of Social Violence in the Context of Transition: The Case of Indonesia 1990–2001, working paper No. 02/01-E. Jakarta: United Nations Support Facility for Indonesian Recovery.(2013 ) ‘SBY: Poverty rate declines’, Tempo Weekly Magazine, 16 August .(2014 ) ‘Food security, key to overcome poverty’, Tempo Weekly Magazine, 22 February .(2013 ) ‘Fuel price increase affects poverty rate’, Tempo Weekly Magazine, 2 May .(UN (United Nations) ( 2005 ) In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All, Report of the Secretary General, A/25/2005. New York: UN.2011 ) ‘We the people: Keeping the economy and the nation strong’, in (ed.), Economic Security: Neglected Dimension of National Security? Washington DC: National Defense University Press. pp. 1–12.(1979 ) Theory of International Politics. New York: Random House.(2008 ) Realism and International Politics. New York: Routledge.(2013 ) ‘Economic growth unable to push down poverty rate, BPS says’, Tempo Weekly Magazine, 2 July .(2014 ) ‘Reducing poverty remains a challenge, govt says’, Tempo Weekly Magazine, 4 January .(2003 ) ‘Words, images, enemies: Securitization and international politics’, International Studies Quarterly, 47(4): 511–31.(World Bank ( 2015 ) Global Monitoring Report 2014/2015: Ending Poverty and Sharing Prosperity. Washington DC: The World Bank and International Monetary Fund.1992 ) Rethinking America’s Security: Beyond Cold War to New World Order. New York: W.W. Norton.and (eds) (1998 ) ‘Why environmental transformation causes violence: A synthesis’, Environmental Change and Security Project Report, (4): 24–44.(1995 ) ‘Review: Security Studies and the end of the Cold War’, World Politics, 48(1): 117–41.(1983 ) People, States and Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.(1991 ) People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the post-Cold War Era,(2ndedn. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (2006 ) ‘Understanding the dynamics of securitizing non-traditional security’, in , and (eds), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 1–12.and (2007 ) The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Washington DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies and Center for a New American Security., , , , , , , , , and (CNA Corporation ( 2007 ) National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation.1999 ) State-of-the-Art Review on Environment, Security and Development Co-operation. Geneva: IUCN., and (1999 ) ‘Threats from the South? Geopolitics, equity, and environmental security’, in and (eds), Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. pp. 155–86.(2002 ) Environmental Security. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.(1990 ) ‘The case against linking environmental degradation and national security’, Millennium, 19(3): 461–76.(1991 ) ‘Environment and security: Muddled thinking’, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 47(3): 22–8.(2012 ) Climate Change and Migration in Southeast Asia: Responding to a New Human Security Challenge, Asia Security Initiative Policy Series, Working Paper No. 20. Singapore: Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies.(2009 ) ‘Converging peril: climate change and conflict in the southern Philippines’, Working Paper No. 187. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.(2010 ) ‘A way in the wilderness: Using critical realism to navigate environmental security’s methodological terrain’, International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(7): 305–16.([Page 244] ( 2012 ) ‘Contextualising climate as a cause of migration in Southeast Asia’, in (ed.), Climate Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. pp. 13–27.2013 ) ‘Environmental challenges in East and South-east Asia’, in (ed.), East and South-east Asia: International Relations and Security Perspectives. London: Routledge.(1992 ) The United States and the End of the Cold War: Implications, Reconsiderations, Provocations. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.(1998 ) ‘Armed conflict and the environment: A critique of the literature’, Journal of Peace Research, 35(3): 381–400.(Global Humanitarian Forum ( 2009 ) Human Impact Report: The Anatomy of a Silent Crisis. Geneva: Global Humanitarian Forum.1995 ) ‘New directions for strategic studies? How can theory help practice’, Security Studies, 1(4): 610–35.(2010 ) ‘Rethinking climate refugees and climate conflict: Rhetoric, reality and the politics of policy discourse’, Journal of International Development, 22(2): 233–46.(2001 ) ‘Causal pathways to conflict’, in and (eds), Environmental Conflict. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 36–57.and (1988 ) ‘Asom Gana Parishad’, Indian Journal of Political Science, 49(1): 95–104.(1992 ) The End of the Cold War: Its Meaning and Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press.(ed.) (1991 ) ‘On the threshold, environmental changes as causes of acute conflict’, International Security, 16(2): 76–116.(1994 ) ‘Environmental scarcities and violent conflict: Evidence from cases’, International Security, 19(1): 5–40.(1999 ) Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1998 ) Ecoviolence: Links among Environment, Population, and Security. Lantham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.and (eds) (IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) ( 2014 ) ‘Summary for policymakers’, in Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–32.2006 ) States, Scarcity and Civil Strife in the Developing World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1994 ) ‘The coming anarchy’, The Atlantic Monthly, 1 February . Available at: www.theatlantic.com/politics/foreign/anarchy.htm (accessed 27 September 2013 ).(2001 ) Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.(2004 ) ‘Understanding WSIS: An institutional analysis of the UN World Summit on the information society’, Information Technologies and International Development, 1(3–4): 3–13.([Page 245] ( 1995 ) ‘Is the environment a national security issue?’, International Security, 20(2): 35–62.1989 ) ‘Redefining security’, Foreign Affairs, 68(2): 162–77.(1994 / 1995 ) ‘The false promise of international institutions’, International Security, 19(3): 5–49.(2001 ) ‘Human Security: Paradigm shift or hot air?’, International Security, 26(2): 87–102.(2012 ) ‘Climate diplomacy in perspective’, in and (eds), Climate Diplomacy in Perspective: From Early Warning to Early Action. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag. pp. 17–20.(2004 ) ‘What do we know about natural resources and civil war?’, Journal of Peace Research, 41(3): 337–56.(2001 ) ‘The curse of natural resources’, European Economic Review, 45(4–6): 827–38.and (1999 ) Environmental Conditions, Resources, and Conflicts: An Introductory Overview and Data Collection. Nairobi: UNEP.and (2007 ) A Climate of Conflict: The Links between Climate Change, Peace and War. London: International Alert.and (1995 ) Environmental Crisis: Regional Conflicts and Ways of Cooperation, proceedings of an international conference at Centro Stefano Franscini, Ascona, Switzerland, 3–7 October 1994. Environment and Conflicts Project (ENCOP) Occasional Paper no. 14, Zurich: Centre for Security Studies and Conflict Research.and (eds) (1999 ) ‘The case for comprehensive security’, in and (eds), Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. pp. 127–54.(1996 ) ‘Displacing the conflict: Environmental destruction in Bangladesh and ethnic conflict in India’, Journal of Peace Research, 33(2): 189–204.(UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 1993 ) Human Development Report 1993. New York: Oxford University Press.UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) ( 1994 ) Human Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.UNGA (United Nations General Assembly) ( 1992 ) ‘Annex II: Statement by Maurice F. Strong, Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development’, in Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June), UN A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. IV).UNSC (United Nations Security Council) ( 2011 ) 6587th Meeting, 20 July 2011 – Maintenance of International Peace And Security: Impact of Climate Change, S/PV.6587.2006 ) ‘Securitization matrix in South Asia: Bangladeshi migrants as enemy alien’, in , and (eds), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 13–39.(2005 ) ‘People vs. Malthus: Population pressure, environmental degradation, and armed conflict revisited’, Journal of Peace Research, 42(4): 417–34.([Page 246] ( 1992 ) ‘Can International Relations survive?’, International Affairs Bulletin, 16(3): 98–119.1991 ) ‘The renaissance of security studies’, International Studies Quarterly, 35(2): 211–39.(WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) ( 1987 ) Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2012 ) Trusting Trade and the Private Sector for Food Security in Southeast Asia. Washington DC: World Bank., , , and (2013 ) ‘Rising food prices and undernourishment: A cross-country inquiry’, Food Policy, 38: 190–202., and (2007 ) ‘The dynamics of collective violence: Dissecting food riots in contemporary Argentina’, Social Forces, 85(3): 1341–67.and (1997 ) ‘The concept of security’, Review of International Studies, 23: 5–26.(2013 ) ‘Explaining the African food riots of 2007–2008: An empirical analysis’, Food Policy, 39: 28–39.and (2013 ) ‘The ASEAN Economic Community: The investment climate’, in , , and (eds), The ASEAN Economic Community: A Work in Progress. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 141–206.(2014 ) ‘Food riots and the politics of provisions in world history’, IDS Working Paper, (444): 1–31.(2015 ) Public Stockpiling and Food Security, Policy Brief. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies., , et al. (2012 ) Public Policy and Agricultural Development. London and New York: Routledge.(ed.) (2009 ) Corporate Power in Global Agrifood Governance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and (eds) (2009 ) ‘Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: A comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches’, Food Policy, 34(2): 150–5., and (2012 ) The Rise of Food Prices and the Fall of Nations, Working Paper. Kennesaw, GA: Kennesaw State University., , et al. (2011 ) ‘Poverty effects of higher food prices: A global perspective’, Review of Development Economics, 15(3): 387–402.and (2010 ) Keynote Address, Powerpoint slides presented at Securing Future Food, Towards Ecological Food Provision, 24 September , London, UK. Available at: www.ukfg.org.uk/OlivierDeSchutterUKFG24Sept2010.pdf (accessed 14 April 2015 ).(2010 ) Food Security, Price Volatility and Trade: Some Reflections for Developing Countries. Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development.and (1989 ) Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and ([Page 247] ETC Group ( 2005 ) ‘Oligopoly, Inc. 2005: Concentration in corporate power’, Communique, (91): 1–16.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 1996 ) Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action, World Food Summit, 13–17 November, Rome, Italy.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 2006 ) Food Security, Policy Brief No. 2. Rome: FAO.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 2008a ) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008: High Food Prices and Food Security – Threats and Opportunities. Rome: FAO.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 2008b ) An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security, Information for Action: Practical Guides. Rome: EC-FAO Food Security Programme.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 2011 ) Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent, Causes and Prevention. Rome: FAO.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 2014a ) Executive Brief: Typhoon Haiyan Philippines, 30 April 2014 . Rome: FAO.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ( 2014b ) Agriculture’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Rise, Media release, 11 April .FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations); IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development); WFP (World Food Programme) ( 2014 ) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014: Strengthening the Enabling Environment to Improve Food Security and Nutrition. Rome: FAO. Available at: www.fao.org/3/a-i4030e.pdf (accessed 8 October 2015 ).2013 ) ‘Impact of food inflation on poverty in the Philippines’, Food Policy, 39: 13–27.(2011 ) ‘Rethinking the global food crisis: The role of trade shocks’, Food Policy, 36(2): 136–46.(IMF (International Monetary Fund) ( 2008 ) World Economic Outlook. Washington DC: IMF.IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) ( 2014 ) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.2012 ) ‘Estimating the short-run poverty impacts of the 2010–11 surge in food prices’, World Development, 40(11): 2302–17., and (2010 ) Rapid Agricultural Supply Chain Risk Assessment: A Conceptual Framework, Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper No. 47. Washington DC: World Bank., and (2005 ) ‘Demand for quality drives changes in food supply chains’, in and (eds), New Directions in Global Food Markets. Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture. pp. 18–31.and (2000 ) ‘Trade and food security: Options for developing countries’, in FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture: A Resource Manual. Rome: FAO.([Page 248] and ( 2015 ) Jokowi’s Food Sovereignty Narrative: Military in the Rice Land?, RSIS Commentaries, No. CO15040, 27 February . Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.2008 ) ‘Preparing for the next global food price crisis’, prepared remarks. Washington DC: Center for Global Development.(2009 ) The 2008 Food Price Crisis: Rethinking Food Security Policies. New York: United Nations.(2009 ) ‘A political economy of the food riot’, Review (Fernand Braudel Center), 32(1): 9–35.and (2013 ) ‘Food price surges and poverty in urban Colombia: New evidence from household survey data’, Food Policy, 43: 227–36.and (2009 ) Logistics, Transport and Food Prices in LAC: Policy Guidance for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Costs. Washington DC: The World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank., , and (1981 ) Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(2012 ) ‘Thinking critically about food security’, Security Dialogue, 43(3): 195–212.(2010 ) Feeding the World in the 21st Century: A Historical Analysis of Agriculture and Society. London and New York: Anthem Press.(2013 ) ‘Food riots: Media perspectives on the causes of food protest in Africa’, Food Security, 5(4): 485–97., and (2011 ) Food Price Spiral: Causes and Consequence, RSIS Commentaries, No. 11/2011. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.(2012 ) Food Security: Cities as Part of the Solution and not the Problem, RSIS Commentaries, No. 142/2012. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.(2014 ) ‘Food security in Asia’, in , and (eds), Food Security: The Role of Asia and Europe in Production, Trade and Regionalism. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and European Union. pp. 11–36.and (The Economist ( 2012 ) ‘Food and the Arab spring: Let them eat baklava’, 17 March .2014 ) ‘Stocking up problems as anger spills out’, Bangkok Post, 16 February .and (2010 ) ‘Reflections on food crises past’, Food Policy, 35(1): 1–11.(UN (United Nations) ( 1966 ) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) ( 2008 ) The Least Developed Countries Report 2008. New York: United Nations.2012 ) Global Food Price Volatility and Spikes: An Overview of Costs, Causes, and Solutions. Bonn: Center for Development Research, University of Bonn.and (2012 ) ‘Poverty effects of food price escalation: The importance of substitution effects in Mexican households’, Food Policy, 37(1): 77–85., and (2013 ) ‘Agricultural markets and food riots: The European Union and Asia compared’, in and (eds), Economic and Political Change in Asia and Europe: Social Movement Analyses. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 87–110.(2012 ) Peeking at Peak Oil. New York: Springer.(ADB (Asian Development Bank) ( 2012 ) Greater Mekong Subregion Power Trade and Interconnection: 2 Decades of Cooperation. Manila: ADB.2004 ) Energy Security: Managing Risk in a Dynamic Legal and Regulatory Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press., , and (eds) (2013 ) ‘Has the world really survived the population bomb? (Commentary on “How the world survived the population bomb: Lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history”)’, Demography, 50(6): 2173–81.(2006 ) ‘Placing access to energy services within a human rights framework’, Human Rights Quarterly, 28(2): 389–415.and (2010 ) ‘Energy access in Africa: Challenges ahead’, Energy Policy, 38(5): 2291–301.(2012a ) Energy and Non-Traditional Security (NTS) in Asia. Heidelberg: Springer., and (eds) (2012b ) Rethinking Energy Security in Asia: A Non-Traditional View of Human Security. Heidelberg: Springer., and (eds) (2010 ) Handbook of Nuclear Engineering. New York: Springer.(ed.) (2010 ) International Energy Investment Law: The Pursuit of Stability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2015 ) Market Madness: A Century of Oil Panics, Crises, and Crashes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2014 ) Dictionary of Energy,and (2ndedn. Amsterdam: Elsevier.2014 ) ‘International nuclear law: Nuclear safety, emergency response and nuclear liability’, in , and (eds), Asia-Pacific Disaster Management: Comparative and Socio-legal Perspectives. Berlin: Springer. pp. 279–96.(2014 ) ‘The Mekong River Commission 1995 to present’, in Water Resources and Food Security in the Vietnam Mekong Delta. Cham: Springer. pp. 145–70.and (2014 ) ‘The fracking debate’, Financial Times, 23 May .(2009 ) ‘Is energy security the main driver for the West’s debate on climate change?,’ Strategic Analysis, 33(6): 836–48.(2010 ) The Persian Gulf and Pacific Asia: From Indifference to Interdependence. New York: Columbia University Press.(2014 ) The Boom: How Fracking Ignited the American Energy Revolution and Changed the World. New York: Simon & Schuster.(2010 ) ‘Biofuels: Efficiency, ethics, and limits to human appropriation of ecosystem services’, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 23(5): 403–34., and ([Page 250] (ed.) ( 2015 ) International Energy and Poverty: The Emerging Contours. London: Routledge.2012 ) ‘Measuring and monitoring energy access: Decision-support tools for policymakers in Africa’, Energy Policy, 47 (Suppl.1): 56–63.(2008 ) A Declaration of Energy Independence: How Freedom from Foreign Oil Can Improve National Security, Our Economy, and the Environment. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.(2014 ) Energy Poverty: Global Challenges and Local Solutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (eds) (1956 ) Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels. Houston, TX: Shell Development Co.(IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) ( 1989 ) Statute (as amended up to 23 February 1989). Vienna: IAEA.IEA (International Energy Agency) (n.d.) FAQs: Renewable Energy. Available at: www.iea.org/aboutus/faqs/renewableenergy/ (accessed 3 June 2015 ).IEF (International Energy Forum) ( 2011 ) International Energy Forum Charter, 22 February .2014 ) ‘Radioactive particles in soil, plant, and dust samples after the Fukushima nuclear accident’, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 60(4): 540–50., , et al. (2011 ) ‘Ready for nuclear energy?: An assessment of capacities and motivations for launching new national nuclear power programs’, Energy Policy, 39 (3): 1041–55.(2007 ) Oil Wars. London: Pluto Press., and (eds) (2012 ) ‘Introductory note to the International Energy Forum Charter’, International Legal Materials, 51(1): 198–200.(1995 ) ‘The IAEA Convention on Nuclear Safety’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 44(4): 872–82.(2010 ) ‘The United Nations and global energy governance: Past challenges, future choices’, Global Change, Peace and Security, 22(2): 175–95.(2014 ) The Colder War: How the Global Energy Trade Slipped from America’s Grasp. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.(2010 ) ‘Nuclear power: Understanding the economic risks and uncertainties’, Energy Policy, 38(8): 3849–64.(2014 ) Biofuels and Food Security: Biofuel Impact on Food Security in Brazil, Asia and Major Producing Countries. Cham: Springer.(2011 ) ‘How the world survived the population bomb: Lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history’, Demography, 48(4): 1231–62.(2013 ) ‘Contagion effects in the electric utility industry following the Fukushima nuclear accident’, Applied Economics, 45(24): 3421–30.and (2009 ) Energy Efficiency: Principles and Practices. Tulsa, OK: PennWell Corp.(2014 ) ‘Private equity, public affair: Hydropower financing in the Mekong Basin’, Global Environmental Change, 24: 20–9., and ([Page 251] , and ( 2009 ) ‘Oil and new hydropower players in the Mekong region: Agendas and strategies’, in , and (eds), Contested Waterscapes in the Mekong Region. London: Earthscan. pp. 23–54.2014 ) ‘Structural crisis in the oil and gas industry’, Energy Policy, 64: 36–42.and (2009 ) Contested Waterscapes in the Mekong Region: Hydropower, Livelihoods and Governance. London: Earthscan., and (eds) (2000 ) Chernobyl Record: The Definitive History of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. New York: CRC Press.(2003 ) ‘Take-or-pay under Japanese energy policy’, Energy Policy, 31(13): 1327–37.(2014 ) ‘The state of nuclear power two years after Fukushima – The ASEAN perspective’, Applied Energy, 136: 838–48.and (2014 ) Energy: The Basics. London: Routledge.(2009 ) ‘Congo River’s Grand Inga hydroelectricity scheme: Linking environmental history, policy and impact’, Water History, 1(1): 31–58.(2007 ) Alternative Energy: Political, Economic, and Social Feasibility. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.(2010 ) Energy Myths and Realities: Bringing Science to the Energy Policy Debate. Washington DC: AEI Press.(2014 ) Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture. Heidelberg: Springer., and (eds) (2010 ) The Politics of International Economic Relations,and (7thedn. Boston, MA: Wadsworth and Cengage Learning.2008 ) ‘Hydropower: Dimensions of social and environmental coexistence’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(6): 1588–621.(2011 ) Energy Conservation in East Asia: Towards Greater Energy Security. Singapore: World Scientific., and (eds) (2000 ) ‘The failure of OPEC to secure economic rents’, in The State and the International Oil Market: Competition and the Changing Ownership of Crude Oil Assets. New York: Springer. pp. 67–80.(2012 ) ‘Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution’, Energy Economics, 34(Suppl. 3): S470–80., , , , , and (2010 ) ‘Energy content of world trade’, Energy Policy, 38(12): 7710–21.(2015 ) ‘Review of five investigation committees’ reports on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant severe accident: Focusing on accident progression and causes’, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(1): 41–56., , , and ([Page 252] and ( 2009 ) ‘Effects of cross-border power trade between Laos and Thailand: Energy security and environmental implications’, Energy Policy, 37(5): 1782–92.2009 ) Energy and the Transformation of International Relations: Toward a New Producer–Consumer Framework. Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (World Commission on Environment and Development ( 1987 ) Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.World Nuclear Association ( 2013 ) Asia’s Nuclear Energy Growth. Available at: www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Others/Asia-s-Nuclear-Energy-Growth/ (accessed 15 January 2015 ).1991 ) The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon and Schuster.(2012 ) The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World. New York: Penguin Books.(2013 ) ‘Examining relationship between nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power development’, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 66: 108–14.and (2013 ) Managing Regional Energy Vulnerabilities in East Asia: Case Studies. London: Routledge.(ed.) (2015 ) ‘A political ecology of hydropower development in China’, in and (eds), Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region: Political, Socio-economic and Environmental Perspectives. London: Routledge. pp. 32–53.(Atlantic Council ( 2011 ) Energy for Water and Water for Energy. Washington DC: Atlantic Council.1993 ) Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The Resource Curse Thesis. London: Routledge.(2010 ) ‘Environmental politics and the politics of oil in the oil-bearing areas of Nigeria’s Niger Delta’, Peace and Conflict Review, 5(1): 1–12.(2010 ) ‘Hygiene, sanitation, and water: Forgotten foundations of health’, PLoS Medicine, 7(11): e1000367.and (2011 ) ‘Water-energy-security nexus’, presentation delivered in Stockholm, Sweden.(2009 ) ‘Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(49): 20670–4., , , and (CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) ( 2014 ) ‘Nigeria’, The World Factbook. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html (accessed 15 January 2015 ).CNA Corporation ( 2011 ) Ensuring America’s Freedom of Movement: A National Security Imperative to Reduce U.S. Oil Independence. Alexandria: The CNA Corporation.CNAS (Center for a New American Security) ( 2012 ) Cooperation from Strength: The United States, China and the South China Sea. Washington DC: CNAS.2003 ) ‘Environmental optimists, environmental pessimists and the real state of the world – An article examining “The skeptical environmentalist: Measuring the real state of the world” by Bjorn Lomborg’, The Economic Journal, 113(488): F362–80.([Page 253] , , and ( 2010 ) ‘Tracking cooperation and conflict in international basins: Historic and recent trends’, Water Policy, 12(6): 871–84.2012 ) ‘Guatemala’s Chixoy dam: Where development and terror intersect’, Poverty Matters Blog, Guardian, 10 December . Available at: www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2012/dec/10/guatemala-chixoy-dam-development-terror (accessed 15 January 2015 ).(2013 ) Keynote Speech at the Launch of the Columbia University Center for Global Energy Policy, Office of National Security Advisor, New York.(2012 ) Water as a Casualty of Conflict: Threats to Business and Society in High-risk Areas. UN Global Compact and Pacific Institute., , and (2010 ) ‘Who are Nigeria’s Mend oil militants?’, BBC, 4 October .(1986 ) ‘Fresh waters a factor in strategic policy and action’, in (ed.), Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in Strategic Policy and Action. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 85–113.(2007 ) ‘Shift in thinking to address the 21st century hunger gap: Moving focus from blue to green water management’, Water Resources Management, 21(1): 3–18.(1996 ) ‘Basic water requirements for human activities: Meeting basic needs’, Water International, 21: 83–92.(2002 ) Dirty Water: Estimated Deaths from Water-related Diseases 2000–2020. Oakland: Pacific Institute.(GlobalSecurity.org (n.d.) Biafra War. Available at: www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/biafra.htm (accessed 15 January 2015 ).Global Water Partnership (n.d.) Water. Available at: www.serageldin.org/water.htm (accessed 30 May 2014 ).G.P. ( 2014 ) ‘Nigeria’s economy is bigger than everyone thought: Give yourself an 89% raise’, blog, The Economist, 7 April . Available at: www.economist.com/blogs/baobab/2014/04/nigerias-economy-bigger-everyone-thought (accessed 15 January 2015 ).2010 ) ‘Global water crisis and future food security in an era of climate change’, Food Policy, 35(5): 365–77.and (2012 ) ‘Water impacts on energy security and reliability’, in (ed.), The Global Water Crisis: Addressing an Urgent Security Issue. Hamilton: United Nations University – Institute for Water, Environment and Health. pp. 18–25.(1999 ) Environment, Scarcity and Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2013 ) ‘Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict’, Science, 341(6151)., and (IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) ( 2012 ) Global Energy Assessment – Toward a Sustainable Future. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) ( 2007 ) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC.[Page 254] IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) ( 2014 ) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.IRIN ( 2009 ) Syria: Drought Driving Farmers to the Cities, 2 September .2013 ) Interim Assessment of the Ganges Water-sharing Treaty, accepted for the International Conference on Water Resource in South Asia: Conflict to Cooperation 2013., and (2011 ) ‘Water resource disputes: Conflict and cooperation in drainage basins’, International Journal on World Peace, 28(3): 81–110.(2013 ) Water, U.S. Foreign Policy and American Leadership. Washington DC: Elliott School of International Affairs.(2014 ) ‘A well of violence: The role of water scarcity in violent extremism’, unpublished paper.(2013 ) ‘The climate change and energy security nexus’, The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 37(2): 25–44.and (2013 ) ‘Understanding water security’, in and (eds), Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues. London: Routledge.and (2009 ) Contested Waterscapes in the Mekong Region: Hydropower, Livelihoods and Governance. London: Earthscan., and (eds) (2014 ) ‘Nigeria troops cross into north Cameroon after Boko Haram attacks base’, Reuters, 26 August .(NIC (US National Intelligence Council) ( 2008 ) Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. NIC.NIC (US National Intelligence Council) ( 2012a ) Intelligence Community Assessment: Global Water Security. Washington DC: Office of the Director of National Intelligence.NIC (US National Intelligence Council) ( 2012b ) Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds. NIC.Oregon State University ( 2014 ) Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University. Available at: www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu (accessed 31 May 2014 ).Pacific Institute ( 2013 ) Water Conflict. Available at: http://worldwater.org/water-conflict/ (accessed 15 January 2015 ).2009 ) ‘Water for agriculture: Maintaining food security under growing scarcity’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34(1): 205–22., and (2010 ) ‘Global water and food security: Megatrends and emerging issues’, in , and (eds), Global Change: Impacts on Water and Food Security. New York: Springer. pp. 17–48., and (2001 ) ‘Does oil hinder democracy?’, World Politics, 53: 325–61.(1998 ) ‘Water agreements between Israel and its neighbors’, in , and (eds), Transformations of Middle Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons. Bulletin No. 103, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. pp. 274–96.([Page 255] UN (United Nations) ( 1994 ) Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5–13 September, A/CONF.171/13.UN (United Nations) ( 2010 ) Resolution A/RES/64/292, United Nations General Assembly, July.UN Millennium Project (n.d.) Fast Facts: The Faces of Poverty. Available at: www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/UNMP-FastFacts-E.pdf (accessed 15 January 2015 ).UN News Centre ( 2008 ) Ban Ki-moon Warns that Water Shortages are Increasingly Driving Conflicts, 6 February . Available at: www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25527#.VLyWsXT9kz5 (accessed 27 December 2013 ).UN-Water ( 2012 ) Report from the UN-Water Expert Panel on Water Security, New York, 25 September .UN-Water ( 2013a ) ‘Water scarcity’, International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’ 2005–2015. Available at: www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml (accessed 15 January 2015 ).UN-Water ( 2013b ) Water Security and The Global Water Agenda, analytical brief. Hamilton: United Nations University.UN-Water ( 2014 ) About UN-Water. Available at: www.unwater.org/about/en/ (accessed 15 January 2015 ).US DoD (Department of Defense) ( 2014 ) Quadrennial Defense Review 2014. US Department of Defense.US EIA (US Energy Information Administration) ( 2015 ) Country Analysis Brief: Nigeria, 27 February .US Water Partnership ( 2014 ) USWP Web Portal Signature Initiative, 8 May . Available at: http://uswaterpartnership.org/uswp-web-portal-signature-initiative/ (accessed 15 January 2015 ).2013 ) ‘Why a “water war” over the Nile River won’t happen’, Al Jazeera, 13 June . Available at: www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/06/2013612105849332912.html (accessed 15 January 2015 ).(2012 ) What is Boko Haram? Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace.(WaterAid ( 2012 ) Annual Report on Country Programme for Nigeria (Financial Years 2011–12). WaterAid.2012 ) Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict in Northwest Africa: Rising Dangers and Policy Options Across the Arc of Tension. Washington DC: Center for American Progress.and (2005 ) Press Statement of the Arrest of the Supreme Leader of the Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force, Alhaji Mujahid Abubakr Dokubo-Asari, Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force and The Niger Delta People’s Salvation Front, 20 September .(2005 ) ‘Managing water conflict and cooperation’, in Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 2005. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 80–99., , and (World Bank ( 2014 ) Q&A: Working with Public and Private Sectors to Increase Water and Sanitation Access, 7 January . Available at: www.worldbank.org/en/topic/water/brief/working-with-public-private-sectors-to-increase-water-sanitation-access (accessed 15 January 2015 ).World Water Council ( 2012 ) The Right to Safe Water and Sanitation: A Priority. Marseilles: World Water Council.[Page 256] WWAP (UN World Water Assessment Programme) ( 2012 ) The United Nations World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk. Paris: UNESCO.WWAP (UN World Water Assessment Programme) ( 2014 ) The United Nations World Water Development Report 2014: Water and Energy. Paris: UNESCO.2004 ) ‘Geography of international water conflict and cooperation: Data sets and applications’, Water Resources Research, 40(5)., , , , , and (2012 ) ‘Climate change-induced water scarcity: A threat to human health’, South Asian Studies, 27(2): 293–312., and (2008 ) ‘Health security as a public health concept: A critical analysis’, Health Policy & Planning, 23(6): 369–75.(2006 ) ‘China: From denial to mass mobilization’, in WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, SARS: How a Global Epidemic Was Stopped. Geneva: WHO. pp. 73–85.and (2006 ) ‘A long-wave event. HIV/AIDS, politics, governance and “security”: Sundering the intergenerational bond?’, International Affairs, 82(2): 297–313.(2006 ) ‘HIV/AIDS and security: Fact, fiction and evidence – A report to UNAIDS’, International Affairs, 82(2): 359–68.and (BBC ( 2005 ) ‘Bird flu “could kill 150m people”’, 30 September . Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4292426.stm (accessed 16 May 2014 ).2014 ) ‘Re-evaluating health security from a cosmopolitan perspective’, in and (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 304–17.and (2013 ) Tackling Antibiotic Resistance for Greater Global Health Security, briefing paper 2013/02. London: Chatham House.(2005 ) ‘The rapidly advancing field of biodefense benefits many other, critical public health concerns’, Discovery Medicine, 5(28): 371–7., , and (1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (Cabinet Office ( 2012 ) National Risk Register of Civil Emergencies – 2012 Edition. London: HMSO.2000 ) ‘Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: Consequences of open reporting in a global economy’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(11): 1358–67.and (CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ( 2011a ) ‘How the flu virus can change: “drift” and “shift”’. Available at: www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/change.htm (accessed 19 May 2014 ).CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ( 2011b ) Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning. Atlanta, GA: CDC.[Page 257] CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ( 2012 ) ‘Strategic National Stockpile (SNS)’. Available at: www.cdc.gov/phpr/stockpile/stockpile.htm (accessed 4 June 2014 ).CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ( 2014 ) World Health Organization (WHO) Shows the Urgent Need for a Coordinated Global Response, media release, 1 May .2010 ) ‘China’s engagement with global health diplomacy: Was SARS a watershed?’, PLoS Medicine, 7(4): e1000266., and (Chief Medical Officer ( 2011 ) Annual Report of the Chief Medical Ofﬁcer – Volume Two, 2011: Infections and the Rise of Antimicrobial Resistance. London: Department of Health.2010 ) ‘Conflicts of interest: WHO and the pandemic flu “conspiracies”’, BMJ, 340: 1274–9.and (2003 ) ‘The politics of emergency health powers and the isolation of public health’, American Journal of Public Health, 93(3): 397–9.and (2003 ) Terrorist Motivations for Chemical and Biological Weapons Use: Placing the Threat in Context, report for Congress. Washington DC: Library of Congress.(CSDH (Commission on Social Determinants of Health) ( 2008 ) Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health, Final Report of the CSDH. Geneva: WHO.2010 ) ‘Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance’, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 74(3): 417–33.and (2012 ) ‘Nowhere to hide: Informal disease surveillance networks tracing state behaviour’, Global Change, Peace & Security, 24(1): 95–107.(2014 ) ‘Internet surveillance and disease outbreaks’, in and (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 226–38.(2015 ) Disease Diplomacy: International Norms and Global Health Security. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins University Press., and (2014 ) ‘Ecology, evolution and classification of bat coronaviruses in the aftermath of SARS’, Antiviral Research, 101: 45–56., and (2010 ) Security and Global Health. Cambridge: Polity.(2011 ) ‘Should health professionals play the global health security card?’, The Lancet, 378(9787): 220–1.(2003 ) SARS: Economic Impacts and Implications, ERD policy brief no. 15. Manila: Asian Development Bank.(2003a ) ‘SARS: Political pathology of the first post-Westphalian pathogen’, The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 31(4): 485–505.(2003b ) SARS, Governance and the Globalization of Disease. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2005 ) ‘From international sanitary conventions to global health security: The new International Health Regulations’, Chinese Journal of International Law, 4(2): 325–92.([Page 258] Homeland Security Council ( 2006 ) National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation Plan. Washington DC: Homeland Security Council.1983 ) The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in History. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(2004 ) ‘The SARS epidemic and its aftermath in China: A political perspective’, in , , , , and (eds), Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak. Washington DC: National Academies Press. pp. 116–36.(Institute of Medicine ( 1992 ) Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.2012 ) ‘Changing perceptions: Of pandemic influenza and public health responses’, American Journal of Public Health, 102(1): 90–8.(2008 ) ‘The economic impact of SARS: How does the reality match the predictions?’, Health Policy, 88(1): 110–20.and (2009 ) Breeding Bio Insecurity: How U.S. Biodefense is Exporting Fear, Globalizing Risk, and Making Us All Less Secure. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.and (2003 ) ‘The SARS epidemic in Hong Kong: What lessons have we learned?’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(8): 374–8.(2004 ) ‘Antibacterial resistance worldwide: Causes, challenges and responses’, Nature Medicine, 10(12): S122–9.and (2014 ) ‘The many meanings of health security’, in and (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 7–17.(2010 ) ‘HIV, AIDS and security: Where are we now?’, International Affairs, 86(1): 225–45.and (2013 ) ‘HIV/AIDS and securitization theory’, European Journal of International Relations, 19(1): 115–38.and (1995 ) ‘Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases’, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 1(1): 7–15.(NIC (National Intelligence Council) ( 2000 ) The Global Infectious Disease Threat and its Implications for the United States. NIE 99-17D, NIC.NIC (National Intelligence Council) ( 2002 ) The Next Wave of HIV/AIDS: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China. ICA 2002-04D, NIC.NIC (National Intelligence Council) ( 2003 ) ‘SARS: Down but still a threat’, ICA 2003-09. Washington DC: NIC.National Research Council ( 2011 ) Review of the Scientific Approaches Used during the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.2007 ) ‘Conceptualizing and defining public health emergency preparedness’, American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl. 1): S9–11., , and ([Page 259] ( 1969 ) Remarks Announcing Decisions on Chemical and Biological Defense Policies and Programs, 25 November . Available at: www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=2344 (accessed 20 May 2014 ).2009 ) Contagion and Chaos: Disease, Ecology, and National Security in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2003 ) ‘Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: How serious is the threat?’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 57(1): 99–112.(2012 ) ‘Barriers to bioweapons: Intangible obstacles to proliferation’, International Security, 36(4): 80–114.(1995 ) ‘From asps to allegations: Biological warfare in history’, Military Medicine, 160(8): 369–73.and (2003 ) Quarantine and Isolation: Lessons Learned from SARS, report to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Louisville, KY: Institute for Bioethics, Health Policy and Law, University of Louisville School of Medicine., , , , , et al. (2010 ) ‘AIDS and international security in the United Nations system’, Health Policy and Planning, 25(6): 495–504.(2014 ) ‘Arguments for securitizing global health priorities’, in , and (eds), The Handbook of Global Health Policy. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 289–304.(Stimson Center ( 2014 ) Global Health Security Project: What is Global Health Security? Available at: www.stimson.org/global-health-security-project/ (accessed 15 May 2014 ).2006 ) ‘1918 influenza: The mother of all pandemics’, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(1): 15–22.and (UN (United Nations) Security Council ( 2000 ) Resolution 1308, 17 July .UN (United Nations) Security Council ( 2011 ) Resolution 1983, 7 June .UNAIDS ( 2013 ) Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS.US Africa Command (n.d.) Partner Military HIV/AIDS Program. Available at: www.africom.mil/what-we-do/security-cooperation-programs/partner-military-hiv-aids-program (accessed 4 June 2014 ).US Department of Justice ( 2010 ) Amerithrax Investigative Summary, 19 February .2014 ) Report Disputes Benefit of Stockpiling Tamiflu, Nature News. Available at: http://www.nature.com/news/report-disputes-benefit-of-stockpiling-tamiflu-1.15022.(2006 ) ‘SARS and the consequences for globalization’, in and (eds), SARS in China: Prelude to Pandemic? Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. pp. 196–204.(2006 ) ‘Flight CA112: Facing the spectre of in-flight transmission’, in (ed.), SARS: How a Global Epidemic was Stopped. Manila: WHO. pp. 149–54.(WHO (World Health Organization) ( 1951 ) International Sanitary Regulations. Geneva: WHO.WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2003a ) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) –Multi-country Outbreak – Update 15, 31 March . Available at: www.who.int/csr/don/2003_03_31/en/ (accessed 2 June 2014 ).[Page 260] WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2003b ) Update 95 – SARS: Chronology of a Serial Killer, 4 July . Available at: www.who.int/csr/don/2003_07_04/en/ (accessed 16 January 2015 ).WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2004 ) Summary of Probable SARS Cases with Onset of Illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003, 21 April . Available at: www.who.int/csr/sars/country/table2004_04_21/en/m (accessed 16 January 2015 ).WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2008 ) International Health Regulations (2005),2ndedn. Geneva: WHO.WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2014a ) Ebola Virus Disease – Fact Sheet No. 103. Available at: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/ (accessed 15 May 2015 ).WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2014b ) Antimicrobial Resistance – Fact Sheet No. 194. Available at: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/ (accessed 20 May 2014 ).ABC ( 2014 ) ‘Immigration Minister Scott Morrison says Australia briefed UNHCR on Cambodia deal’, 20 May .APRRN (Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network) ( 2011 ) Joint Statement on the Australia-Malaysia Refugee Swap Agreement, 17 May .Australian Border Deaths Database ( 2015 ) Available at: http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/thebordercrossingobservatory/publications/australian-border-deaths-database/ (accessed 22 April 2015 ).Bali Process ( 2011 ) Final Co-chairs’ Statement, Fourth Bali Regional Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime, Bali, Indonesia, 29–30.1990 ) The European Security Order Recast: Scenarios for the Post-Cold War Era. London: Pinter., , , and (1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (Cambodia and Australia ( 2014 ) Refugee Settlement Arrangement, joint press statement, 26 September .2012 ) ‘Punishing trafficking in persons: International standards and Australian experiences’, Bond Law Review, 24(1): art. 1.and (2002 ) The New Global Politics and the Emerging Forced Migration Regime, paper presented to the Refugee Studies Centre Seminar Series, Oxford University, Oxford, UK, October.(2014 ) ‘Frames and consensus formation in International Relations: The case of trafficking in persons’, European Journal of International Relations, published online before print ( 30 May )., and (2014 ) ‘Cambodia asylum plan is simply poor policy’, ABC, 5 May .(Commonwealth Ombudsman (n.d.) Immigration Detention Review Reports. Available at: www.ombudsman.gov.au/reports/immigration-detention-review/ (accessed 20 January 2015 ).2010 ) ‘Do loose lips bring ships? The role of policy, politics and human rights in managing unauthorised boat arrivals’, Griffith Law Review, 19(2): 238–87.and ([Page 261] ( 2014 ) ‘Developments in Cambodian democracy: Democratic consolidation or authoritarian durability?’, in and (eds), Democracy in Eastern Asia: Issues, Problems and Challenges in a Region of Diversity. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 138–58.2014 ) ‘Beyond the criminal justice orthodoxy? Australia’s overseas aid program and compliance with the Trafficking Protocol’, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 20(1): 129–61.and (2011 ) ‘Issues in Australian foreign policy. January to June 2011’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 57(4): 597–613.and (2011 ) ‘UN rights chief Navi Pillay flays “illegal” refugee swap’, The Australian, 24 May .and (2001 ) Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security. London and New York: Zed Books.(2001 ) East Asia Imperilled: Transnational Challenges to Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2006 ) ‘Ethics and exclusion: Representations of sovereignty in Australia’s approach to asylum-seekers’, Review of International Studies, 32(2): 269–89.and (2010 ) ‘“Scum of the earth”? People-smuggling, criminalisation and refugees’, Human Rights Defender, 19(3): 14–16.(2009 ) ‘War and other insecurities in East Asia: What the security studies field does and does not tell us’, The Pacific Review, 22(1): 49–71.(1989 ) Critical Years in Immigration: Canada and Australia Compared. Sydney: New South Wales University Press.(Herald Sun ( 2011 ) ‘Malaysia deal not our Pacific Solution, says Wayne Swan’, 9 May .2000 ) ‘The European Union and the securitization of migration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(5): 751–77.(2011 ) ‘Acting Prime Minister Wayne Swan vows to get tough with Sydney’s rioting detainees’, The Australian, 22 April .(2010 ) ‘Regional approaches to trafficking in women in South-East Asia: The role of national human rights institutions and the new ASEAN human rights body’, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 15(2): 59–82.(2014 ) ‘The Bali Process and global refugee policy in the Asia-Pacific region’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 27(4): 596–618.(2006 ) ‘Malaysia’s approach to Indonesian migrant labor: Securitization, politics, or catharsis?’, in , and (eds), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitization. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 40–65.(2009 ) ‘Beyond border security: Feminist approaches to human trafficking’, Security Studies, 18(2): 319–44.(2013 ) ‘Exploitation of Indonesian trafficked men, women and children and implications for support’, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 450. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.and ([Page 262] ( 2011 ) ‘Prime Minister Julia Gillard gambles on refugees’, Sunday Herald Sun, 8 May .AAP (Australian Associated Press) ( 2011 ) ‘Prime Minister Julia Gillard trumpets five-for-one swap in people-smuggling war’, The Sunday Mail, 8 May ., and2011 ) ‘Special rights for Malaysia refugees’, The Australian, 9 June .and (2011 ) ‘Deliberation and resecuritization: Australia, asylum-seekers and the normative limits of the Copenhagen School’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 46(2): 281–95.(2001 ) Asylum Seekers: Australia’s Response to Refugees. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.(2002 ) ‘Asylum-seekers and the insecurity of a nation’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 56(2): 279–90.(2007 ) ‘The criminal justice response to trafficking in persons: Practical problems with enforcement in the Asia-Pacific region’, Global Change, Peace and Security, 19(3): 205–20.and (2008 ) ‘Trafficking in women and forced migration: Moving victims across the border of crime into the domain of human rights’, International Journal of Human Rights, 12(1): 67–87.and (1996 ) ‘Identity and security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School’, Review of International Studies, 22(1): 81–93.(2010 ) ‘Critical Human Security studies’, Review of International Studies, 36(1): 77–94.(2014 ) A Right to Flee. Refugees, States, and the Construction of International Cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2005 ) ‘The political debates on prostitution and trafficking of women’, Social Politics, 12(1): 141–55.(2011 ) Weak Links: Fragile States, Global Threats, and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2007 ) ‘Transnational crime and refugee protection’, Social Justice, 34(2): 47–61.(RCA (Refugee Council of Australia) ( 2011 ) Malaysia’s Appalling Rights Record Ignored in Refugee Transfer Deal, media release, 8 May .2001a ) ‘Migrant trafficking and regional security’, Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 16(2): 83–8.(2001b ) ‘Trafficking in migrants: Illegal migration and organized crime in Australia and the Asia Pacific region’, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 29(4): 331–78.(2012 ) Prevented, Suppressed, and Punished!? Twelve Years of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, research paper. Brisbane: University of Queensland Human Trafficking Working Group.(2015a ) Quick Reference Card: Human Trafficking. Chatswood: LexisNexis Butterworths.(2015b ) Quick Reference Card: People Smuggling. Chatswood: LexisNexis Butterworths.(2013 ) Trafficking in Persons in Australia: Myths and Realities. Chatswood: LexisNexis Butterworths.and ([Page 263] and ( 2012 ) ‘Prosecution and punishment of people smugglers in Australia 2008–2011’, Federal Law Review, 40(1): 111–40.2009 ) ‘Human trafficking and human rights’, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 14(2): 71–94.(2010 ) ‘Auditing the Australian response to trafficking’, Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 22(1): 63–80.and (2011 ) ‘Julia Gillard’s asylum-seeker solution in tatters’, The Australian, 31 August .(2011 ) ‘Unaccompanied asylum children to be sent to Malaysia’, The Australian, 3 June .(2003 ) ‘Trafficking in women’, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 5(1): 67–91.(2014 ) ‘Refugee deal between Australia and Cambodia sparks outrage’, NPR, 8 October .(The Australian ( 2011 ) ‘Draft deal with Malaysia “struck”’, 14 July .2011 ) ‘Widening our lens: Incorporating essential perspectives in the fight against human trafficking’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 33(1): 53–76.(UN (United Nations) ( 2000a ) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 15 November .UN (United Nations) ( 2000b ) Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 15 November .UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) (n.d.) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto. Available at: www.unodc.org/unodc/treaties/CTOC/ (accessed 20 January 2015 ).UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2006 ) Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Vienna: UNODC.UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2014 ) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. Vienna: UNODC.UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2015a ) Migrant Smuggling in Asia: Current Trends and Related Challenges. Bangkok: UNODC.UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2015b ) Migrant Smuggling. Available at: www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/smuggling-of-migrants.html (accessed 20 April 2015 ).2008 ) Children on the Move in South-East Asia: Why Child Protection Systems Are Needed. London: Save the Children Fund.(2006 ) Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (2005 ) The North Korean Criminal State, its Ties to Organized Crime and the Possibility of WMD Proliferation, NAPSNet Policy Forum 05-92A, Nautilus Institute, 15 November . Available at: http://nautilus.org/napsnet/napsnet-policy-forum/the-north-korean-criminal-state-its-ties-to-organized-crime-and-the-possibility-of-wmd-proliferation/ (accessed 18 January 2015 ).([Page 264] , , and ( 2002 ) A Global Overview of Narcotics Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups. Washington DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.2013 ) ‘Transnational organized crime in East and South-east Asia’, in (ed.), East and South-east Asia: International Relations and Security Perspectives. London: Routledge. pp. 223–5.and (1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (2008 ) ‘Localization as resistance: The contested diffusion of small arms norms in Southeast Asia’, Security Dialogue, 39(6): 637–58.(Council of the European Union ( 2008 ) Framework Decision 2008/841/JHA on the Fight against Organised Crime, 24 October .1996 ) ‘International policing in nineteenth-century Europe: The Police Union of German States 1851–1866’, International Criminal Justice Review, 6(1): 36–57.(2003 ) ‘ASEAN and the securitization of transnational crime in Southeast Asia’, The Pacific Review, 16(3): 419–38.(2008 ) Tackling Transnational Crime: Adapting US National Security Policy. Available at: www.brookings.edu/research/articles/2008/04/spring-latin-america-felbabbrown (accessed 18 January 2015 ).(2005 ) ‘A historical overview of transnational crime’, in (ed.), Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice. London: Sage. pp. 3–19.and (2011 ) Deviant Globalization: Black Market Economy in the 21st Century. New York: Continuum., and (eds) (Human Security Centre ( 2005 ) Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2009 ) Crime, War and Global Trafficking: Designing International Cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2000 ) ‘Law enforcement and international gun trafficking’, in (ed.), Running Guns: The Global Black Market in Small Arms. London: Zed Books. pp. 207–24.(2003 ) ‘The dark side of globalization’, International Studies Review, 5(2): 253–4.(2006 ) Addicted to Failure: US Security Policy in Latin America and the Andean Region. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.(ed.) (2001 ) ‘Transnational crime: Definitions and concepts’, in and (eds), Combating Transnational Crime: Concepts, Activities and Responses. London: Frank Cass. pp. 13–21.(1993 ) Cops across Borders: The Internationalization of US Criminal Law Enforcement. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.([Page 265] ( 2011 ) Weak Links: Fragile States, Global Threats and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1994 ) Global Organized Crime: The New Empire of Evil. Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.(2004 ) Chasing Dirty Money: The Fight against Money Laundering. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.and (2013 ) Terrorism and Transnational Crime. Washington DC: Congressional Research Service.and (Small Arms Survey (n.d.-a) Direct Conflict Deaths. Available at: www.smallarmssurvey.org/de/armed-violence/conflict-armed-violence/direct-conflict-deaths.html (accessed 10 May 2015 ).Small Arms Survey (n.d.-b) Illicit Trafficking. Available at: www.smallarmssurvey.org/weapons-and-markets/transfers/illicit-trafficking.html (accessed 15 April 2015 ).Small Arms Survey (n.d.-c) Stockpiles. Available at: www.smallarmssurvey.org/weapons-and-markets/stockpiles.html (accessed 15 April 2015 ).2009 ) ‘Cheney says Obama has increased risks’, The New York Times, 16 March .(1983 ) ‘Redefining security’, International Security, 8(1): 129–53.(UN (United Nations) ( 2000 ) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, A/RES/55/25, 15 November .UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2010 ) ‘Firearms’, in The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment. Vienna: UNODC. pp. 129–48.UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2011 ) Estimating Illicit Financial Flows Resulting from Drug Trafficking and Other Transnational Organized Crimes. Vienna: UNODC.UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) ( 2012 ) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012. Vienna: UNODC.2012 ) ‘The many faces of organized crime in Europe, and its assessment’, in and (eds), Routledge Handbook of Transnational Organized Crime. London: Routledge. pp. 83–96.(2009 ) Presidential Rhetoric and the Public Agenda: Constructing the War on Drugs. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.and (1994 ) ‘Transnational criminal organisations and international security’, Survival, 36(1): 96–113.(2001 ) ‘Crime, illicit markets, and money laundering’, in and (eds), Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. pp. 106–50.(2003 ) ‘Transnational organized crime: The global reach of an American concept’, in and (eds), Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security. London: Routledge. pp. 13–27.(1998 ) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner., and (2013 ) Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.and (eds) (Danish Institute of International Affairs ( 1999 ) Humanitarian Intervention, Legal and Political Aspects. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs.1993 ) ‘Material management in decentralized supply chains’, Operations Research, 41(5): 835–47.and (1985 ) Politics among Nations. New York: McGraw Hill.(1979 ) Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(WHO (World Health Organization) ( 2014 ) Antimicrobial Resistance, fact sheet no. 194. Available at: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/ (accessed 20 May 2014 ).1999 ) ‘International river basins of the world’, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 15(4): 387–427., , , and (