An Introduction to Non-Traditional Security Studies: A Transnational Approach

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Edited by: Mely Caballero-Anthony

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    About the Editor and Contributors

    Mely Caballero-Anthony is Associate Professor and Head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Prof. Anthony’s research interests include regionalism and regional security in the Asia-Pacific, multilateral security cooperation, politics and international relations in ASEAN, conflict prevention and management, as well as Human Security. She has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals on a broad range of security issues in the Asia-Pacific. Her latest publications, both single-authored and co-edited, include: ‘Community Security: Human Security at 21’, (Contemporary Politics, 2015) ‘Understanding ASEAN Centrality’, (Pacific Review, 2014), ‘Human Security in ASEAN: 20 Years On’, (Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 2014), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action, (ISEAS, 2013). She previously served as the Director of External Relations at the ASEAN Secretariat and currently serves in the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters and Security. She is also Secretary-General of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security Studies in Asia (NTS-Asia) and is a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Conflict Prevention. She can be contacted at ISMCAnthony@ntu.edu.sg.

    David Capie is Associate Professor of International Relations at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. His research focuses on Human Security and humanitarian disarmament in the Asia-Pacific region. He is the author of The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon (with Paul Evans) which has been published in Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese editions. He is also the author of Under the Gun: The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific (VUP, 2002) and Small Arms Production and Transfers in Southeast Asia (ANU, 2002). David has been a Visiting Scholar at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard University and the Luiss Guido Carli in Rome and is a Research Associate at the ASEAN Studies Center at American University, Washington DC. David has served as a member of the Public Advisory Committee on Disarmament and Arms Control and is also a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum’s Expert and Eminent Persons Group. He can be contacted at david.capie@vuw.ac.nz.

    Alistair D. B. Cook is the Coordinator of the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Programme, and a Research Fellow at the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. In 2012–2013, he was a visiting research fellow at the East Asian Institute of the National University of Singapore. He graduated with a PhD from the University of Melbourne, Australia; Masters from Purdue University, USA; and M.A. (Hons) from St. Andrews University, Scotland. He has taught at Purdue University, University of Melbourne, Deakin University, Nanyang Technological University and Australian National University. His research interests are in non-traditional security and Human Security in the Asia-Pacific including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, peace and conflict studies, foreign policy and regional cooperation, and domestic politics in Myanmar. He has recently co-edited a book titled Irregular Migration and Human Security in East Asia (Routledge, 2015) and has published in a variety of journals. He contributes to local and global media outlets. He can be contacted at iscook@ntu.edu.sg.

    Melissa Curley is Senior Lecturer in International Relations in the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Queensland Australia, where she is also Director of the UQ Rotary Peace Centre. Prior to taking up her UQ role, she was a researcher in the Centre of Asian Studies at the University of Hong Kong from 1999–2005. Her research and teaching interests include Southeast Asian politics and International Relations, the politics of migration and security, Cambodian politics, and non-traditional security in East Asia (including trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling, pandemic disease and child protection issues). She is currently working on a book manuscript on Cambodian civil society and democratisation in the post-UNTAC period. Dr. Curley also co-facilitates the UQ Working Group on Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling in the T.C Bernie School of Law. She has published across the disciplines of International Relations and Law including in: Review of International Studies, Journal of Law and Society, Australian Journal of Human Rights and Australian Journal of International Affairs, amongst others. Her most recent book is Migration and Security in Asia (Routledge 2008) with S.L. Wong. She holds a PhD in International Relations from the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and a BA (Hons) degree in Government (1st) from the University of Queensland, Australia. She can be contacted at m.curley@uq.edu.au.

    J. Jackson Ewing is the Director of Asian Sustainability at the Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI) in New York, where he leads projects on environmental cooperation, responsible resource development, and international climate change policy. Prior to joining ASPI, Dr. Ewing led the Environment, Climate Change, and Food Security Program at Singapore’s S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS). He has worked throughout Asia with actors in government, the private sector, civil society, and international organizations, and he has carried out policy projects addressing transboundary environmental stresses, unsustainable food value chains, and the nexus of systemic water, food, and energy challenges. He has published in mediums including Oxford University Press, the Pacific Review, the Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Science, Water International, and Food Security, and is a regular contributor to radio, television and print media. He can be contacted at jewing@asiasociety.org.

    Bob Sugeng Hadiwinata, is a professor of International Relations at the Parahyangan Catholic University, Bandung Indonesia. He holds a PhD from King’s College, Cambridge, MA from Monash University Australia, and BA from Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Prof. Hadiwinata was Alexander von Humboldt postdoctoral fellow at University of Giessen (2004–2005) and Technical University Dortmund (2011–2012). He is the author of The Politics of NGOs in Indonesia: Developing Democracy and Managing a Movement (Routledge Curzon, 2003) and co-editor of Democratization in Indonesia: the Challenges of Consolidation (Nomos, 2007). His current research focus is on non-traditional security issues and civil society’s role in world politics. He can be contacted at bobhadi@unpar.ac.id or bobhadi2@yahoo.com.

    Marcus King is John O. Rankin Associate Professor in the Elliott School of International Affairs. Dr. King also directs The Elliott School’s Master of Arts in International Affairs Program. He has taught a number of courses on energy and environmental security including research methods and a capstone workshop. Dr. King joined the Elliott School from the research staff of CNA Corporation’s (Center for Naval Analyses). Previously, he was globalization planning fellow at Georgetown University. Dr. King held Presidential appointments in the cabinet offices of the U.S. Secretary of Energy and Defense where he represented the United States in negotiation of treaties including the Kyoto Protocol. He has published widely including book chapters and journal articles on the security implications of resource scarcity and energy policy. His current book project examines ties between water scarcity and violent extremists groups. He holds a Ph.D. in International Relations and a MA in Law and Diplomacy from the Fletcher School at Tufts University. He can be contacted at mdking@gwu.edu.

    Jonatan A. Lassa is Research Fellow with the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. He held position as Postdoctoral research fellow at Ash Center, Harvard Kennedy School in 2011 and a PhD fellow at the the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn (2007–2010). He holds a PhD from the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Bonn, Germany, and has studied Social Science and Interdisciplinarity at the Center for Development Research (ZEF) at the University of Bonn. Prior to joining the Centre for NTS Studies, Jonatan was a senior research fellow with the Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC). His research and publication focus on issues related to food security, disaster and climate risk management, natural hazards mitigation, early warning systems, adaptation planning for cities in changing climate and environmental planning, evidence based policy, NGOs’ and think tanks management as well as the use of social network analysis and network theory in understanding public policy problems. He can be contacted at isjalassa@ntu.edu.sg.

    Simon Rushton is a Faculty Research Fellow in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield, UK. He has written widely on international responses to HIV/AIDS and other diseases; the links between health and security; the changing nature of global health governance; and issues surrounding health, conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. His most recent books are The Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security (Routledge, 2014, co-edited with Jeremy Youde) and Disease Diplomacy: International Norms and Global Health Security (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015, with Sara E. Davies and Adam Kamradt-Scott). Simon Rushton edits the quarterly journal Medicine, Conflict & Survival (with Maria Kett) and is an Associate Fellow of the Centre on Global Health Security at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House. He can be contacted at simon.rushton@sheffield.ac.uk.

    Paul Teng is Principal Officer, National Institute of Education (www.nie.edu.sg), and Adjunct Senior Fellow (Food Security), S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (www.rsis.edu.sg), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is also Non-executive Chair, Asia BioBusiness Pte. Ltd. and Honorary Chair, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. Paul previously held leadership positions at the Worldfish Centre and the International Rice Research Institute. His professional interests are in new agri-technologies, science-based entrepreneurship, sustainable development and food security. Prof Teng has published over 250 technical papers and eight books and won awards such as the Eriksson Prize in Plant Pathology and the 2001 CGIAR Excellence in Science Award for Outstanding Scientific Article. He is a Fellow of The World Academy of Sciences and Fellow, American Phytopathological Society. Professor Teng is a graduate from Lincoln College, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He can be contacted at ispaulteng@ntu.edu.sg or paul.teng@nie.edu.sg.

    Daojiong Zha is Professor of International Political Economy in the School of International Studies, Peking University. He is also a member of the China Chapter of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific. His research specialization includes the international politics of energy, food, and trans-boundary water usage. His recent research interest has expanded to political risk management for Chinese investments overseas, which took him on field trips to Africa, Australia, and Southeast Asia. He has authored and edited six academic books, including Chinese Investment Overseas: Case Studies on Environmental and Social Risks (Peking University Press, 2014), in addition to dozens of journal articles. He also served on guest research and teaching positions in Australia, Japan, the United States, Singapore and the Hong Kong Special Administrative region. He holds a Doctoral degree in political science from the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He can be contacted at zhadaojiong@pku.edu.cn.

    Preface

    The idea of a dedicated book on non-traditional security was born a few years ago when I began teaching a course on the then emerging concept. Although my colleagues and I at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore had already published at least three books on the subject – Studying Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Trends and Issues (Marshall Cavendish, 2006), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitisation (Palgrave, 2006) and Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action (ISEAS, 2013) – I realized the lack of a single textbook that students and lecturers, as well as scholars, analysts and other interested readers could easily refer to that provides a focused and more comprehensive discussion of how the concept of non-traditional security had evolved and how it is applied in practice. This is despite the fact that references to non-traditional security have now become common in security discourses not only in Asia but also beyond.

    Non-traditional security is now part of the security lexicon of states across the globe. In the Asia-Pacific, this term is used often by the policy community and is found in the agenda of inter-regional summits, and meetings of foreign ministers as well as defence and economic ministers. Non-traditional security has also found its way into the conferences held by international and regional organizations, development agencies and even in the discussions of civil society groups across borders. But, while there may be greater awareness of non-traditional security issues and what these mean to the security and well-being of societies and states, and while there are now a number of books and articles that refer to non-traditional security issues, understanding the epistemology of the concept and how it relates to the wider conceptual landscape of security remains a task at hand.

    By writing this book, the contributors to this volume therefore aim to fill the gaps by addressing some of the often asked questions: What do we mean when we say ‘non-traditional security’? How is this different from concepts like ‘Human Security’ and ‘comprehensive security’? What is a non-traditional security approach to a security threat? Through this book, we hope to not only advance the understanding of non-traditional security issues found in many parts of the world, but more significantly by addressing the conceptual challenges, we hope to contribute to the building of knowledge by mainstreaming non-traditional security as both an area of research and a field of study that can broaden security studies.

    This book is therefore part of the continuing effort by a transnational epistemic community who share a keen interest in deepening and widening the study of non-traditional security studies and have been part of the journey to advance the field. Although this book could not cover the whole spectrum of non-traditional security issues and presents the more common ones, we hope that this volume is a valuable contribution to existing studies on security and could become a part of the core and supplementary reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of security studies, international relations and development studies.

    Mely Caballero-Anthony Singapore

    Acknowledgements

    In developing the idea of this book, I am very grateful to RSIS for its support of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies, which I have the privilege to lead. The Centre has provided an excellent base for developing and expanding the study of non-traditional security. Special thanks to Barry Desker, former Dean of RSIS, and Ong Keng Yong, Executive Deputy Chair of RSIS, for their strong and steadfast encouragement of the work on non-traditional security. I would also like to thank the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) for its support in getting this volume published.

    In writing and publishing this book, I am deeply indebted to a number of colleagues and friends who have been part of this really special journey. My heartfelt gratitude to all the contributors to this volume who devoted considerable time to work on their respective chapters: David Capie, Alistair Cook, Melissa Curley, Jackson Ewing, Bob Hadiwinata, Marcus King, Simon Rushton, Paul Teng and Jonatan Lassa and Daojiong Zha. Their commitment to this project is something I will always cherish. And this volume has benefited greatly from their perspectives on the evolution and practice of non-traditional security.

    For their advice and friendship, I am also grateful to Surin Pitsuwan, Carolina Hernandez, Rizal Sukma, Clara Joewono, Jusuf Wanandi, Paul Evans, Amitav Acharya, James Tang, Soedradjad Djiwandono, Linda Yarr, T.J. Pempel, Meredith Miller, Ann Weston, Rosalia Sciortino, Ramesh Thakur, Shaun Breslin, Richard Higgott, Meenakshi Gopinath and to all colleagues and friends of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security in Asia (NTS-Asia).

    My sincere thanks to my colleagues at the Centre for NTS Studies for their support throughout the writing and preparation of this book. I would specially like to thank Julius Trajano for his excellent research support and cheerful disposition. My deepest thanks to Yen Ong, whose superb editorial skills, kind patience and professionalism deserve credit for the consistency and readability of this volume. My deep appreciation and thanks also to the SAGE team, Natalie Aguilera, Amy Jarrold and George Knowles, for their important inputs and kind help in the production of this book.

    Finally, to my family, Denis and Jeremy, my thanks for all the loving support, patience and tolerance which have kept me going throughout the process of writing and publishing this book.

    The contributing authors would also like to acknowledge the following

    For Chapter 3, the author, Alistair D.B. Cook would like to thank Tamara Nair for her thoughts in researching multi-dimensional approaches to non-traditional security.

    For Chapter 5, the author, Bob S. Hadiwinata, would like to thank Duhita Primandhira for her assistance during the preparation of the draft.

    For Chapter 7, the authors thank the following colleagues from the food security team in RSIS/NTS (Maria Morales, Maxim Shreshta and Goh Tian) and the National Institute of Education (Jurise Oliveros) for their help in researching sections of this chapter.

    For Chapter 9, the author, Marcus Du Bois King, would like to thank Ms. Marielle Velander for her help in researching this chapter.

  • Glossary

    Adaptation (climate change)

    The ability of a system to adjust to changing climate variability and extremes, to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with climate consequences.

    Adaptive capacity

    The ability of a system to adapt to changing environmental conditions in ways that minimize negative consequences and maximize emerging benefits.

    Anarchy

    A condition in the international system in which there is no sovereign power that can impose global authority and govern the interactions between autonomous nation-states that have to compete against each other for survival.

    Antimicrobial resistance

    The term ‘antibiotic resistance’, which refers specifically to bacteria and the antibiotics that are used to fight them, is often encountered in this area. Antimicrobial resistance applies to a wider range of pathogens: not only bacteria, but also other pathogens such as viruses, fungi and parasites (WHO, 2014).

    Balance of power

    In International Relations, this refers to conditions whereby the (military) power of one state is not strong enough to dominate another state, as may have been the case during the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union (Waltz, 1979; Morgenthau, 1985).

    Blue-washing

    Critique of any partnership between the UN and business under the UN Global Compact. These agreements are seen as unenforceable and an attempt to improve the public relations of businesses.

    Climate resilience

    The capacity of a system to continue functioning in the face of climate stresses, and create new characteristics that better prepare it for future climate change impacts.

    Comprehensive security

    A theory of international security that explores multiple sectors and levels of analysis to question who or what is being secured and why. This pushes national security beyond military defence against a particular enemy to focus on national stability issues like food, energy and the environment. It is a state-centric approach to issues of domestic stability.

    Energy poverty

    Energy poverty first emerged with the concept of ‘affordable warmth’ in urban heating in Britain in the 1980s, while taking into account other energy services such as cooking, lighting etc., and has been extended to refer to the energy welfare of rural populations. The interaction between low incomes, high energy prices and a dwelling’s low energy efficiency is conventionally considered to be the main driver of energy poverty. Another key indicator is the energy costs related to individual motorized mobility.

    Ethno-nationalism

    The political desire of an ethnic community to control its own affairs.

    Frame

    A way of selecting, organizing, interpreting and making sense of a complex reality; a frame can allow people to filter information to make some aspects more clear than others.

    Freedom from fear

    This can be defined as a life condition in which individuals are protected from violence by way of ameliorating situations of conflict and threats to life and safety on both an intrastate and an interstate level.

    Freedom from want

    This may be defined as a condition in which an individual has access to an adequate standard of living which includes necessities such as food, clothing, housing and medical care. It also encompasses social security in times of extreme and unexpected distress such as disability and unemployment.

    Freedom to live in dignity

    A reference to the expansion of the Human Security definition of ‘freedom from fear’ and ‘freedom from want’ at the 2005 World Summit.

    Geostrategic analysis

    The nature of governments’ foreign energy policies is conceived to be a constant struggle for control over oil and natural gas resources, infrastructure and diplomatic influence. The value of energy, then, extends far beyond that for meeting the economic and social development needs of a country. A country with energy to export seeks to extract political and/or military benefits from potential customers, while a country in need of imported energy factors in the added political and/or military gains from its engagement with its preferred source of supply.

    Globalism

    This refers to different ideologies of globalization.

    Governance

    The process of decision-making and the process through which decisions are (or are not) implemented (Caballero-Anthony and Cook, 2013: 8).

    Human rights law

    Human rights law derives its foundation from the notion that all human beings are entitled to certain universal rights that are essential in order to lead a life of dignity. Human rights law endeavours to protect the rights of people all over the world from being violated by their governments. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights form the cornerstone of the International Bill of Human Rights.

    Humanitarian intervention

    The use of armed force by a state or states in another state without the consent of the latter, with the primary aim of preventing or stopping gross and massive violations of human rights or international humanitarian law (Danish Institute of International Affairs, 1999).

    International humanitarian law

    International humanitarian law aims to police situations of war and armed conflicts. International humanitarian law focuses on the justifications behind acts of war and tries to regulate the conduct of the warring parties in times of conflict.

    Kitchen cabinet

    Informal decision-making structures. It was popularized to reference the informal conduct of foreign policy decision-making under President John F. Kennedy of the US in the 1960s.

    Low-income food deficit countries (LIFDCs)

    This classification is by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Countries are classified based on per capita gross national income and net food trade position (gross imports less exports).

    Mass atrocities

    Mass atrocities can be defined as the acts of violence committed against a sizeable number of civilians and groups not engaged in active conflict. The scope of violence here includes both physical and mental harm. These include ethnic cleansing, genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

    Mitigation (climate change)

    Reducing or preventing the emission of greenhouse gases to lessen the impact these gases have on climate systems.

    Moral hazard

    A moral hazard is a situation when an individual, group, or even country or institution takes more risks because another party bears most of the burden of the risk. It may occur where the actions of one party may change to the detriment of another after a transaction has taken place.

    Nation-state

    A form of political organization for a delineated geographic area populated by people who share a common bond such as culture or ethnicity.

    Neorealism

    This theory supplies the theoretical underpinnings for how states must ensure their own survival under situations of anarchy and maintain the balance of power in order to guarantee peace. See also Chapter 2 of this volume.

    Non-state actors

    Organizations that fall outside formal government structures.

    Peace dividend

    This is a concept that refers to the money originally intended to be spent on defence or national security that could be saved or redirected to other areas of government spending when a conflict comes to an end. It was popularized after the end of the Cold War, when Western defence budgets were rapidly reduced following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

    Under the 2005 International Health Regulations, a PHEIC is defined as ‘an extraordinary event which is determined, as provided in these Regulations: (i) to constitute a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease; and (ii) to potentially require a coordinated international response’.

    Realism

    This theory provides conceptual justification for states’ pursuit of national interests.

    Regionalism

    This is an organizing principle for nation-states focused on a particular geographic area.

    Renewable energy

    Renewable energy sources, unlike fossil sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas), can naturally replenish within short periods of time. Solar, wind, water, geothermal and biomass energy are the most significant forms of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources that are more local and commercially less viable – yet more fitting for addressing energy poverty – include small hydro-energy units and forms derived from biological waste (such as methane). These energy forms are not new, but their large-scale use and the technological advancements related to them are novel.

    Riparians

    Countries that share a waterway. An upper or upstream riparian refers to a country on the upstream portion of a river or river basin. Similarly, a lower or downstream riparian refers to a country dependent on river flow from another country.

    River basin

    An international river basin can be defined as the area which contributes hydrologically (including both surface and groundwater) to a first order stream, which, in turn, is defined by its outlet to the ocean or to a terminal (closed) lake or inland sea (Wolf et al., 1999).

    Speech act

    The articulation by a state that it recognizes a particular phenomenon as a security issue, thus giving it special status and legitimizing extraordinary measures (Buzan et al., 1998).

    Spoilers

    Spoilers are variables that can impede conflict amelioration and negotiations toward peace treaties and agreements. These variables could be individual leaders or political parties whose values and interests conflict with a post-conflict resolution scenario. These interests may include power, ideology and resources, among others.

    Supply chain

    ‘A network of facilities that performs the functions of procurement of material, transformation of material to intermediate and finished products and distribution of finished products to customers’ (Lee and Billington, 1993).

    Supranational organization

    A multinational political union where member states delegate powers to a central authority.

    Sustainable development

    Development practices that meet present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is about finding better ways of doing things, both for the future and the present. It involves changing the way that society works and lives now without reducing the quality of life in the present.

    Vulnerability (climate change)

    The relative physical and/or social susceptibility of systems and societies to negative climate change impacts.

    Westphalian system

    This emerged after the signing of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years’ War in Europe, inaugurating the modern nation-state system and era of state sovereignty. The system has three major principles that govern the behaviour of modern nation-states: the principle of sovereignty of states, the principle of equality between them and the principle of non-intervention of one state in the internal affairs of another state.

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