An Introduction to Green Criminology and Environmental Justice
A comprehensive introduction to green criminology, this book is a discussion of the relationship between mainstream criminal justice and green crimes. Focused on environmental harm within the context of criminal justice this book takes a global perspective and • Introduces students to different theoretical perspectives in green criminology • Looks at the victims of environmental crime throughout • Covers topics such as; wildlife crimes, animal abuse, the causes of environmental crime, regulation, exploitation, environmental activism, policing, prosecution and monitoring. Designed to help readers develop a thorough understanding of the principles of environmental justice and green criminology, as well as contemporary developments, this book will be excellent support to student of green criminology and environmental crime.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Introduction and Theory
- Chapter 1: An Introduction to Green Criminological Theories
- Chapter 2: Species Justice: Animal Rights, Animal Abuse and Violence Towards Humans
- Chapter 3: The Causes of Environmental Crime and Criminality
Part II: Environmental Crime as Global Crime
- Chapter 4: The Future Protection of Wildlife: Resolving Wildlife Crime and Illegal Wildlife Trafficking
- Chapter 5: Regulating Environmental Harm: Environmental Crime and Governance
- Chapter 6: The Criminal Exploitation of Natural Resources
- Chapter 7: Climate Change and Environmental Damage
Part III: Policing, Prosecuting and Monitoring Environmental Crime
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
© Angus Nurse 2016
First published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015940441
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-47390-810-9 (pbk)
Editor: Amy Jarrold
Editorial assistant: George Knowles
Production editor: Sarah Cooke
Marketing manager: Sally Ransom
Cover design: Stephanie Guyaz
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
About The Author
This book developed to serve two disparate functions; first, the need for an introductory easily digestible text providing an introduction to the concepts of green criminology and environmental justice for both students and practitioners. Second, a research-based volume that provides discussion of contemporary issues and debates in green crime and environmental harm. The research on which this book is based has taken place over more than 15 years but is far from complete given ongoing developments in environmental crime policy and practice and in the field of environmental law and its enforcement.
Green crime is a fast-moving and somewhat contested area in which academics, policymakers and practitioners frequently disagree not only on how green crimes should be defined but also on: the nature of the criminality involved; potential solutions to problems of green crime; and the content and priorities of policy. Within ecological justice discourse, debates continue over whether green crimes are best addressed through criminal justice systems or via civil or administrative mechanisms. Indeed, a central discussion within green criminology is that of whether environmental harm rather than environmental crime should be its focus, with the environmental harm perspective currently dominating green criminological discourse. In essence, there is ongoing fundamental debate over whether green crimes should be seen as the focus of mainstream criminal justice and dealt with by core criminal justice agencies such as the police, or whether they should be considered as being beyond the mainstream. The argument for this harm perspective is dominated by the often transnational nature of environmental ‘crimes’, their location within government environmental policy departments rather than criminal justice ones and the fact that environmental harms are often dealt with by specialist environmental agencies (in)appropriately constituted (and resourced) to deal with the specifics of green offending. It should, however, be noted from the outset that much environmental harm is regulatory in nature rather than actually being categorized as crimes. Put another way, much of what we may think of as green crime is not in fact defined as crime and is dealt with other than by criminal justice agencies.
For those new to the field of green criminology these debates risk becoming a distraction from the core issues of understanding the current problems facing the environment and ecosystems and the manner in which justice systems deal with [Page x]these. The purpose of this book is to provide an introduction to key concepts in green criminology and to discuss the nature of environmental harms (including crimes against animals) within a broad justice framework. However, it is also intended to provide for discussion of the complexities of contemporary harms and issues relating to illegal environmental activity. In particular, corporate environmental ‘crime’ and the role of the state in dealing with transnational environmental crime and the use of civil and administrative law mechanisms where criminal justice processes prove ineffective. The central questions running through this book are a) how can a green perspective be applied to contemporary criminal justice? and b) how should distinctly green crimes be dealt with in order to both address offending behaviour and repair the harm caused by environmental offending?
While the focus of this text is predominantly on crime and criminality, it is not purely an environmental crime book. There are many excellent books that deal with transnational and environmental crime problems such as Situ and Emmons’ (2000) Environmental Crime; a text covering the context in which environmental crimes are dealt with by criminal justice systems and that helps define their nature. Rob White’s (2008) Crimes Against Nature is a seminal work in applying criminological theory to green problems and in developing green criminological thought, and Piers Beirne and Nigel South’s (2007) Issues in Green Criminology brings together a number of leading scholars in an exploration of green crimes as diverse as animal abuse, food crime, radioactive waste and climate change and its bearing on women’s vulnerability towards violence. I have at one time or another recommended all of these books to students, also using them as sources for various research projects. However, this book’s objective is slightly different and falls into the category of green criminology as a tool for studying, analysing and dealing with environmental crimes. Its primary focus is on activity prohibited by law, although it extends beyond examining just the criminal law and considers civil and administrative law and regulatory justice systems. The purpose of doing so is to primarily consider how legal systems and public policy currently deal with environmental offences. This makes the book of interest not just to students studying green criminology as a theoretical discipline but also those studying green criminology within criminal justice, criminal investigation, environmental law and environmental politics degrees. Its intention is also to allow students to consider the best mechanisms for dealing with environmental offences not just in terms of punishing offenders (the core focus of criminal justice) but also in respect of remedying environmental and wildlife damage caused by environmental offending.Selection of Topics
The topics in this book have been selected to incorporate discussion of the importance of environmental justice and green criminology within international [Page xi]criminal justice. While there is inevitably some bias towards discussing the position in the United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU), where the majority of my original field research and policy analysis takes place, this book is international in scope; its topics having been selected to incorporate discussion of the international context of environmental crime and the transnational nature of much of its criminality. Much environmental crime crosses state boundaries and as a result highlights the difficulties of international enforcement in an era of uncertainty over the efficacy of international criminal justice systems and existing international law enforcement regimes that still rely predominantly on agreements between national policing systems. The book also explicitly considers the practical enforcement of environmental law within a green criminological context concerned with what should be done about environmental harms when they occur, as well as with how they might be prevented. In the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector, policy analysts and investigators increasingly adopt a transnational approach and facilitate exchange of information and intelligence between countries using a number of umbrella agencies (e.g. WWF, TRAFFIC, Birdlife International). Rather than there being a single integrated international environmental law system, agreements between various organizations are often integral to ensuring effective environmental law enforcement. The monitoring of environmental harms; investigation and prosecution of environmental crimes; and regulatory justice systems are all covered by this book. It also explores the role of various enforcement agencies including those NGOs who are actively involved in policy development and practical enforcement activity. A central issue considered within this text is the role of the state in dealing with environmental crimes and the public policy response to offending, which also varies between jurisdictions such that in some countries, certain environmental harms are dealt with as criminal offences whereas in other countries these are dealt with as technical or regulatory breaches. This is particularly the case where corporate activity is involved, given the general unwillingness of governments to deal with corporations as criminal entities. Indeed in some jurisdictions it is difficult to prosecute a corporation as the legal entity responsible for environmental offending, requiring investigators and prosecutors to identify an individual who can be deemed responsible for the environmental harm caused. Frequently such individuals are at the ‘lower end’ of the offender scale, the working man rather than the company manager or director who some might consider should be held responsible for any corporate environmental damage.
This book seeks to examine this wide range of issues relating to environmental crime and harm and explore the different aspects of green crime and green criminology. In doing so it explores a range of activities, including: theories of green criminology; the causes of environmental crime; the protection of wildlife and illegal wildlife trade; the criminal exploitation of natural resources; the green movement and the role of NGOs in investigating wildlife crime; the role of the courts and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) that seeks to deal with [Page xii]environmental harms outside of the court process or through restorative means. In examining these issues it explicitly considers the green criminological perspective on repairing environmental harms and the general failure of justice systems to achieve this.
I said at the beginning that this book is intended to serve as an introductory textbook; by which I mean this book hopefully serves as a general course reader applicable to a wide range of green criminology or environmental crime modules within undergraduate degree courses. Green criminology is taught at a range of levels within criminology programmes and specialist green criminology modules generally appear after the first year at undergraduate level as well as at Masters level. The selection of topics and manner in which they are presented was deliberately chosen to make the text accessible for this wide range of courses and thus there may well be specific topics covered on individual courses that are not covered here, particularly in respect of those courses that deal more with harm and less with crime and criminal justice. While broad in scope the book is not intended to be a comprehensive handbook as this would require a much longer book. Thus there are undoubtedly some environmental crime or harm activities that should perhaps be discussed but which have not been included, either for reasons of space, because they represent specialist topics not generally taught across the green criminological spectrum or because they merit later or exclusive coverage given their inclusion in current and ongoing research projects. Any errors or omissions are my own and it should be noted that references to law and case law reflect the position as of August 2015, given the fast-moving nature of developments in environmental law and its enforcement. But as this text develops to meet changing needs in the green criminological curriculum I look forward to updating and revising its content in light of comments from students, instructors and practitioners alike.
Middlesex University, UK
This book would not have been possible without the support and assistance of several colleagues whose enthusiasm and constructive criticism has assisted greatly in refining many of the original ideas. Matthew Cremin and David Wilson, colleagues at Birmingham City University were instrumental in shaping and constructively criticizing some of the original ideas on wildlife crime that are presented here. Katerina Gachevska, of Leeds Beckett University helped considerably in developing some of the ideas about corporate crime and the negative impact corporations have on the environment. Nic Groombridge of St Mary’s University Twickenham lent his considerable expertise to the examination and questioning of some of the material on masculinities and wildlife crime and Jennifer Maher of South Wales University also provided insight and perspective on animal abuse issues. I’m also grateful to Melissa Jarrell of Texas A & M University at Corpus Christi for her editorship of The Monthly, the online journal of the International Green Criminology Working Group (IGCWG) that published an initial article on the future protection of wildlife from which Chapter 4 derives. I’m also grateful to a number of colleagues who commented on draft versions of some of the chapters and who also examined and peer-reviewed some of the original wildlife crime research updated here. I am also grateful to students of Birmingham City University and Middlesex University who studied the green criminology modules I taught at each institution and who provided invaluable feedback on their needs as new and developing scholars and individuals wishing to develop careers in environmental justice and policy. Their views on what works (and what doesn’t) has considerably shaped my green criminology teaching and learning agenda and considerably influenced the writing of this text and the topics included. Any errors in the material are, of course, my own.
Green criminology continues to grow as a global discipline yet it remains under-represented in university curricula and is often an option subject rather than a core, compulsory one. Yet it is also a subject that students find stimulating and challenging and taps into contemporary environmentalism, a core interest of university students concerned with corporate environmental wrongdoing, animal abuse and threats to endangered species. I am grateful to Sage and its editors for their support for this project.
ASPCA American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
CITES The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CPS Crown Prosecution Service
DEFRA Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
EIA Environmental Investigation Agency
EPA Environmental Protection Agency (US)
EU European Union
HSUS Humane Society of the United States
IFAW International Fund for Animal Welfare
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature
LACS League Against Cruel Sports
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
RSPB Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
RSPCA Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
SSPCA Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
TRAFFIC The world conservation monitoring body (CITES trade monitors)
UN United Nations
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
WEMS Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring Network
WAP World Animal Protection
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
the belief that human beings are the most significant on the planet, also refers to interpreting the world primarily in terms of human values, interests and experiences.
the shortened and commonly used form of ‘biological diversity’, which refers to the community formed by living organisms and the relations between them. The phrase reflects the diversity of species and diversity of genes within species.
CER (Corporate Environmental Responsibility)
umbrella term both for the responsibility that corporations have towards the environment, and for the mechanisms they use to audit, measure and report on that responsibility.
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)
International Convention that regulates the trade in endangered species, largely via a classification and permit system and the implementation of its rules into national laws. Broadly, the rarer and more endangered the plant or animal, the greater the prohibition on trade.
describes the inter-related effects of rises in temperature: from changing sea levels and changing ocean currents, through to the impacts of temperature change on local environments that affect the endemic flora and fauna in varying ways (for instance the death of coral due to temperature rises in sea water, or the changed migration patterns of birds).
a system of law that has developed through judicial decisions and precedents to arrive at a common understanding of law. Common law incorporates the system of case law where judges use the precedent from previously decided cases to decide how the law should be applied in current cases.
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)
umbrella term for corporate measures that assess and take responsibility [Page 178]for a company’s effects on the environment and impact on social welfare. The term generally applies to company efforts that go beyond what may be required by regulators or environmental protection groups but can be used to refer to monitoring mechanisms.
in its negative sense the phrase has come to mean destruction of forests, although its correct technical usage is the permanent removal of forest cover which is not then replaced either by replanting or natural regeneration of trees.
ECHR (The European Convention on Human Rights)
,originally framed as the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, is a human rights mechanism that provides for protection of human rights within the Council of Europe area.
ECtHR (The European Court of Human Rights)
,principal court for considering claims of breaches of ECHR rights and for determining the limitations and scope of such rights.
a theoretical construction that identifies environmental concerns as being of primary importance.
a theoretical construction that connects the domination and exploitation of nature with the domination and exploitation of women.
green criminological term referring to the idea of fairness to all, including nonhuman animals and ecosystems, with regard to the environment. Ecological justice argues for greater consideration of things that affect the environment within justice systems.
used to describe the interdependent community of plants, animals and other organisms and their interaction with the natural world and habitats on which they depend.
umbrella term for a range of legislation concerned with the protection of the environment, natural resources and ecosystems.
EU (The European Union)
;collection of 28 Member States which have formed a common market within Europe. The EU is distinguished from the wider Council of Europe area.
species not native to the geographical area.
refers to the North-South divide. Global North generally refers to the ‘developed world’ of North America, Western Europe and developed parts of East Asia.
generally refers to the developing countries of the Southern Hemisphere [Page 179]and incorporates Africa, Latin America, ‘developing’ Asia and the Middle East.
describes the rising of the earth’s temperature over a relatively short time span.
legal concept used to explore the unlawful detention of someone.
ICJ (The International Court of Justice)
;the United Nations’ primary court, which has jurisdiction over disputes between states, including on environmental matters.
theoretical conception on the role of ‘maleness’.
pragmatic political theory that argues for maximizing personal liberty by limiting the interference of governments in free markets. Neoliberalism would argue for minimal environmental regulation on the grounds that, theoretically, markets generally regulate themselves and excessive regulation inhibits effective market operations.
NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations)
usually created by individuals or companies with no participation or representation of government. The term is increasingly used to refer to think-tanks and voluntary sector agencies who carry out functions beyond pure fundraising and charitable concerns to include some aspects of a policy development or law enforcement role. NGOs vary in their methods. Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others conduct programmes and activities primarily to raise public awareness of an issue and actively carry out functions that the statutory sector are perceived as failing to carry out effectively (e.g. species protection or wildlife law enforcement).
NhRP (The Nonhuman Rights Project)
,a campaigning group that pursues litigation to achieve legal rights and personhood for nonhuman animals.
contamination of the soil, water or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances that adversely affect the environment.
the law and legal system that governs relationships for the good of society and deals with resolving disputes between individuals (or individuals and companies). Private law can be further divided into contract law, family law and tort law (civil wrong).
the law and legal system governing the relationship between citizens and the state. Public law is divided into administrative law, constitutional law and criminal law. Public law is usually introduced by the government and applies to all citizens, whereas private law only applies to certain individuals and circumstances.
considers the responsibility man owes to other species as part of broader ecological concerns. The principal idea [Page 180]is that man, as the dominant species on the planet, has considerable potential to destroy nonhuman animals, or, through effective laws and criminal justice regimes, to provide for effective animal protection.
UNEP (United Nations Environment Program)
United Nations initiative that aims to be the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda and promotes ideas of sustainable development within the United Nations system.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)
United Nations body mandated to assist Member States in their struggle against illicit drugs, crime and terrorism.
a philosophy that determines moral worth by measuring its outcomes in terms of the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Wildlife trafficking (illegal wildlife trade)
the phrase used to describe the illegal trade in wildlife that can include illegal trade, smuggling, poaching, capture or collection of endangered species or protected wildlife or derivatives. The terms wildlife trafficking or illegal wildlife trade are used interchangeably within green criminology and criminal justice discourse to refer to trading in animals whether alive or dead, primarily in contravention of CITES regulations and/or any national legislation which implements CITES.
Further Reading[Page 181]
As this book identifies, environmental crime and green criminology are umbrella terms that cover a range of different activities and the actions of different actors and agencies which have been the subject of academic and mainstream media writing. In addition, interest in green crimes as an area of criminological enquiry and the subject of NGO campaigning means that articles on environmental threats and environmental crime appear with relative frequency in the pages of mainstream criminology journals and in the popular press, many of whom employ an environment correspondent. Recent years have also seen a growth in online law, criminology and environmental law journals that cover issues relating to environmental crime and harms such as climate change, pollution and the illegal trade in wildlife. These publications provide a forum for academics, activists and students to discuss environmental and green criminological crime topics. In addition to the sources listed below, special green editions have been published of journals such as Sage’s Theoretical Criminology, Springer’s Crime, Law and Social Change, Criminal Justice Matters, Waterside Press’s Crimsoc: The Journal of Social Criminology and the International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy (Online). A selection of the key established journals and news services relevant to environmental crime and green criminology follows.
Animal Law Review
A student-run law review based at Lewis & Clark Law School in Portland, Oregon, and published bi-annually. Each volume includes two issues: a fall/winter issue and a spring/summer issue.
Animal Legal and Historic Centre
Substantial online repository of animal law cases and legal articles housed at Michigan State University College of Law. The site contains both US and UK case law and over 1,400 US statutes.
[Page 182]British and Irish Legal Information Institute
Free online searchable database of British and Irish case law and legislation, European Union case law, Law Commission reports, and other law-related British and Irish material.
Peer-reviewed academic journal exploring social, political and economic justice from alternative perspectives. The journal has published green criminological articles and incorporates green criminology within its ‘alternative’ perspective.
Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum
Student-run environmental law and policy journal available online and covering a wide range of environmental topics.
Environmental News Network (ENN)
An online resource for environmental news stories, contains a dedicated wildlife section, a peer news-sharing network and an email newsletter that delivers environmental news stories from around the globe free to its subscribers.
Environmental Protection Agency (US)
US governmental agency with a remit to ensure that the US federal laws protecting human health and the environment are enforced fairly and effectively. Details of US legislation and enforcement activities are published on the site.
Global Animal Law Project
Online project that aims to create a framework for global discussion on animals in the law, the website also contains a database of animal laws (welfare and anti-cruelty) searchable by country and a matrix of proposals for new animal laws.
Global Journal of Animal Law
The journal is a semi-annual online journal offered as a public service by Åbo Akademi University Department of Law, Finland. The journal brings together academics and other experts to define legal approaches to animals in different legal jurisdictions and to analyse the legal status of animals and [Page 183]the effectiveness of animal law. Articles from the journal are available for free download.
Website of the International Green Criminology Working Group (IGCWG) providing information for academics, students and practitioners on green criminological subjects. The website hosts a blog, academic resources and member forums as well as articles published by Members through The Monthly, the IGCWG’s online journal.
Harvard Environmental Law Review
Environmental law journal taking a broad view of environmental affairs, which includes land use and property rights; air, water, and noise regulation; toxic substances control; radiation control; energy use; workplace pollution; science and technology control; and resource use and regulation. The journal is edited by Harvard law students.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy
An open access, blind peer-reviewed journal that seeks to publish critical research about challenges confronting criminal justice systems around the world. The journal’s focus is on: penal policy and punishment in the global era; policing, security and democratic freedoms; sex, gender and justice; eco-justice, corporate crime and corruption; crime, courts and justice institutions; counter colonial criminologies and indigenous perspectives. Volume 3, No. 2 (2014) is a special green issue.
Journal of Animal Welfare Law
The journal of the UK’s Association of Lawyers for Animal Welfare (ALAW); two main editions are currently published each year. Back issues of the journal from May 2005 (Issue 1) can be downloaded free of charge from this site.
Journal for Critical Animal Studies
The journal of the Institute for Critical Animal Studies is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary academic (yet readable) journal published online by the Institute. The journal promotes academic study of critical animal issues in contemporary society.
[Page 184]Journal of Environmental Law
A peer-reviewed academic journal that looks at legal responses to environmental problems in national and international jurisdictions. The journal appears three times annually, publishing articles across a wide environmental law spectrum.
Pace Environmental Law Review
Scholarly journal on environmental law edited by J.D students at Pace Law School and linked to the activities of Pace’s Centre for Environmental Legal Studies and the Pace Environmental Law Society.
Society and Animals Forum
The forum provides a number of resources relating to the field of human–animal studies, including a calendar of events for the Animals and Society Institute, links to Society and Animals, the Institute’s journal, its book series and the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science.
Stanford Journal of Animal Law and Policy
Online animal law journal covering a range of animal law and policy topics, articles and scholarship from around the world. The website includes access to past volumes.
Transnational Environmental Law
Peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to the study of environmental law and governance beyond the state (i.e. in a transnational context). The journal considers legal and regulatory developments and is also concerned with the role of non-state actors.
Vermont Journal of Environmental Law
Online environmental law journal covering a wide range of environmental law and policy topics. The website includes access to past volumes.
William and Mary Environmental Law Review
Online environmental law journal covering a wide range of environmental law and policy topics. The website includes access to past volumes.
Useful Organizations[Page 185]
A number of organizations are actively involved in advocacy, campaigning or litigation aimed at reducing or eliminating the environmental crime topics covered by this book. While the following is not a comprehensive list it identifies those organizations firmly established in the field of environmental crime, wildlife crime, anti-corruption and corporate-crime monitoring and environmental law and justice. The precise nature of the organization’s activity is defined by whether its focus is on particular types of environmental crime or has a subject-specific focus. The list does not endorse any particular organization but is intended to provide readers with some useful information sources and contacts from which they can explore specific topics further.
Animal Legal Defense Fund
170 East Cotati Avenue
The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) campaigns within the US legal system to end animal suffering. A number of resources are available on its website including details of US animal abuse case law, bulletin boards and current news.
Association of Lawyers for Animal Welfare (ALAW)
PO Box 67933
ALAW is a UK-based organization of lawyers and legal academics with interest and experience in animal protection law. ALAW members provide advisory services and research on effective implementation of animal protection law and developing a better legal framework for the protection of animals. [Page 186]ALAW also campaigns for better animal protection law and publishes the Journal of Animal Welfare Law, a legal journal dedicated to animal welfare topics while also carrying wildlife crime articles.
Centre for Public Integrity
910 17th Street, NW, Suite 700
US-based non-profit organization working to investigate, analyse and disseminate information on national issues of importance to policymakers, academics and news organizations. The Centre investigates environmental issues and was co-author/publisher of Alan Green’s investigation into the black market for rare and exotic species.
Coalition Against Wildlife Trafficking (CAWT)
The Chair of CAWT
c/o The Director
International Wildlife Trade Section
Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities
GPO Box 787
International coalition of government partners and NGOs working together to eliminate wildlife trafficking and ensure the effective implementation and enforcement of CITES. UK-based organization, NGO partners include IFAW, IUCN, Save the Tiger Fund, the Smithsonian Institution, WCS, the Wildlife Alliance and WWF (among others).
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
International Environment House
11 Chemin des Anémones
[Page 187]The CITES Secretariat plays a coordinating, advisory and servicing role in the working of the Convention by assisting with communication and monitoring the implementation of the Convention to ensure that its provisions are respected, and by arranging meetings of the Conference of the Parties and of the permanent Committees at regular intervals and servicing those meetings. The CITES Secretariat also hosts the CITES Trade database and makes public a range of documents relating to the working of CITES.
c/o Freedom Press
Angel Alley, 84b Whitechapel High Street
London, E1 7QX
UK-based independent research group investigating the social and environmental impacts of corporations and corporate power.
Defenders of Wildlife
1130 17th Street NW
US-based not-for-profit organization founded in 1947 with a remit to protect and restore the USA’s native wildlife and safeguard wildlife habitats. Defenders’ main focus is restoring wolves to their surviving former habitats in the lower 48 states of the USA and to challenge efforts to reduce the protection afforded to wolves under US law. It also works to prevent the extinction of other North American wildlife and to prevent cruelty to wildlife. Defenders of Wildlife have offices in nine US states and Mexico, in addition to its Washington DC headquarters.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
17 Smith Square
The UK government department with responsibility for environmental issues, including: wildlife crime, sustainable development and rural communities. DEFRA’s website contains a wildlife crime section covering aspects of UK wildlife [Page 188]crime and links to the website for its Partnership for Action on Wildlife Crime (PAW), the body that coordinates UK wildlife crime policy via a partnership between government and NGOs.
50 California Street, Suite 500
Earthjustice is a not-for-profit public interest law firm originally founded in 1981 as the Sierra Club Legal Defense fund. Earthjustice lawyers litigate on behalf of US citizens in environmental cases, in particular litigating in cases involving the Endangered Species Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act and Natural Environment Policy Act. In addition, Earthjustice’s campaigning work highlights current environmental threats and provides details of campaign work required to improve environmental protection. In addition to its San Francisco headquarters, Earthjustice has regional offices across the USA in Anchorage, Bozeman, California, Denver, Florida, Honolulu, New York, Seattle and Washington.
The Environmental Investigations Agency (EIA)
62–63 Upper Street
EIA is an international campaigning organization that investigates and exposes environmental crime primarily through the use of undercover investigations using the evidence gained in investigations in advocacy and lobbying campaigns. EIA has published investigative reports and policy documents on various wildlife and environmental crime issues and has also produced documentaries on various aspects of wildlife crime. In addition to its London office EIA has a US office in Washington.
Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF)
1 Amwell Street
The EJF is a registered charity that works on the protection of the natural environment and combating environmental abuses. EJF provides film and advocacy [Page 189]training to individuals and grassroots organizations (primarily in the Global South) and campaigns internationally to raise awareness of environmental issues facing its grassroots partners and vulnerable communities. EJF publishes a range of environmental research reports and campaign materials and in addition to its team of campaigners and film-makers based at its headquarters in London also works with partners in Brazil, Vietnam, Mali, Sierra Leone, Uzbekistan, Mauritius and Indonesia.
Environmental Protection Agency US (EPA)
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
The EPA is a US governmental agency with a remit to protect human health and the environment. The EPA is responsible for enforcing federal environmental laws, developing and enforcing these laws by writing regulations that states and tribes enforce through their own regulations. The EPA also publishes information on environmental crimes and its regulatory activities. The EPA has 10 regional offices across the USA, each of which is responsible for several states and territories.
The European Commission Environment Directorate
B – 1049 Brussels
The Environment Directorate of the EU publishes information on European wildlife trade regulations, threats to wildlife and wildlife trade issues in the EU.
Friends of the Earth
1100 15th Street NW
Washington, DC 20005
Friends of the Earth is a global campaigning organization employing advocacy, policy-analysis and litigation to achieve environmental protection and change or develop effective environmental policy. Friends of the Earth International has member groups in 76 countries covering Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America and Russia.
[Page 190]Greenpeace (UK)
Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning organization working to defend the natural world and promote peace by investigating, exposing and confronting environmental abuse, and championing environmentally responsible solutions. Greenpeace works on a range of issues including: climate change; marine protection; nuclear disarmament; anti-fracking; and an end to the use of toxic chemicals. Greenpeace has a range of country offices across the globe including: Australia, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Russia and South Africa.
Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)
The Humane Society of the United States
2100 L St., NW
US animal protection organization with approximately 10 million members and a network of regional offices across the USA.
Institute for Critical Animal Studies (ICAS)
PO Box 4293
The Institute for Critical Animal Studies (ICAS) is an interdisciplinary scholarly non-profit animal protection centre that provides education policy, research and analysis. The ICAS was originally formed in 2001 as the Centre on Animal Liberation affairs and changed its name to the ICAS in 2007. In addition to publishing the Journal for Critical Animal Studies, the ICAS organizes annual critical animal studies conferences in the USA and Europe.
International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)
290 Summer Street
[Page 191]United States
Animal Advocacy group based in the UK, originally formed to protest against the culling of seals in Canada but now working globally on animal welfare and animal cruelty issues. IFAW works to prevent the elephant ivory trade and the extinction of whales. In addition to its US international office there is a UK office based in London.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
IUCN Conservation Centre
Rue Mauverney 28
The IUCN is a global environmental network and democratic membership union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and some 10,000 volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries. Its priority work areas are biodiversity, climate change, sustainable energy, the development of a green economy and helping governments to understand the link between nature conservation and human well-being.
Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP)
The Nonhuman Rights Project
5195 NW 112th Terrace
NhRP employs education and litigation as tools to pursue legal rights for nonhuman animals. The NhRP describes its mission as changing the common law status of at least some nonhuman animals from mere ‘things’ that lack the capacity to possess any legal right, to ‘persons’ who possess fundamental rights including bodily integrity and bodily liberty. The NhRP files cases in the courts in order to pursue legal rights for animals via the common law. Founder and President Steven Wise also publishes extensively on legal rights for nonhumans.
Partnership for Action against Wildlife Crime (PAW)
Temple Quay House
2 The Square
[Page 192]PAW is a UK-based multi-agency body comprising representatives of statutory agencies and NGOs involved in UK wildlife law enforcement. Its secretariat is hosted by DEFRA (see above) and maintains the PAW website, the distribution of PAW’s email bulletins and publicizes PAW’s activities.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)
501 Front St.
PETA is one of the largest animal rights organizations in the world with a global support base in excess of 3 million (members and supporters). PETA predominantly campaigns against animal cruelty on factory farms, in the clothing trade, in laboratories, and in the entertainment industry. Its work includes high-profile campaigning, advocacy, public education, cruelty investigations, animal rescue and legislative work aimed at changing animal protection laws.
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)
A UK-based charity that works to prevent cruelty to, the causing of unnecessary suffering to and the neglect of animals in England and Wales. A uniformed Inspectorate investigates cruelty offences, while a plain-clothes and undercover unit called the Special Operations Unit (SOU) deals with more serious offences and ‘low-level’ organized animal crime such as dog-fighting and badger-baiting. The RSPCA has a network of branch offices across England and Wales.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
[Page 193]The RSPB is a conservation charity that campaigns for the protection of wild birds and their environment. An in-house investigations section carries out investigations into wild bird crime and advises the police and others, as well as publishes annual reports on bird crime in the UK and a quarterly investigations newsletter on bird crime problems, sometimes with an EU slant. The charity is UK based but has international offices and is part of Birdlife International, a global network of bird conservation organizations.
The Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SSPCA)
Website – www.scottishspca.org
The SSPCA is the Scottish counterpart to the RSPCA. The SSPCA works to prevent cruelty to, the causing of unnecessary suffering to and the neglect of animals in Scotland.
85 Second Street, 2nd Floor
The Sierra Club is a US-based grassroots environmental organization with a remit to protect communities and wild places and to restore the quality of the natural environment. In addition to its national headquarters in San Francisco the Sierra Club has a legislative office in Washington DC and regional offices across the USA. In addition to campaigning and publishing research and policy documents on wildlife and environmental issues the Sierra Club has also employed strategic legal action and regulatory advocacy to protect US wildlife and the environment.
TRACE Wildlife Forensics Network
Royal Zoological Society of Scotland
[Page 194]TRACE is an international NGO that aims to promote the use of forensic science in biodiversity conservation and the investigation of wildlife crime. The TRACE network brings together forensic scientists and enforcement agencies in order to exchange information on the latest challenges facing wildlife law enforcement and modern techniques for tackling them.
219a Huntingdon Rd
TRAFFIC is the wildlife trade-monitoring arm of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It mainly investigates compliance with CITES and related trade in endangered species, TRAFFIC has regional offices in Africa, Asia, the Americas, Europe and Oceania supported by a Central Secretariat based in the UK.
Transparency International is a campaigning NGO that describes its mission as to ‘stop corruption and promote transparency’, accountability and integrity at all levels and across all sectors of society. The NGO publishes a range of reports and makes anti-corruption resources freely available through its website.
The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS)
38 St Paul Street
WDCS is a global charity dedicated to the conservation and welfare of all cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises). It has regional offices in the UK, Latin America, Germany, North America and Australasia. In addition to its campaigning work WDCS conducts investigations work to expose abuses of wildlife [Page 195]regulations and advises governments and regulatory bodies on the working of conventions and other mechanisms needed and intended to protect cetaceans.
World Animal Protection (WAP)
222 Grays Inn Road
World Animal Protection (formerly the World Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) is an animal welfare and anti-cruelty charity with a global remit. WAP campaigns for the protection of companion animals, against commercial exploitation of wildlife and against intensive farming, long-distance transport and slaughter of animals for food. It has regional offices in the USA (Boston), Australia (Sydney), Asia (Thailand), Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Canada (Toronto), Sweden, South America (Colombia), New Zealand (Auckland), the Netherlands, India (New Delhi), Germany (Berlin) and China (Beijing).
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
WWF International, Gland (Secretariat)
Av. du Mont-Blanc 1196 Gland
+41 22 364 91 11
+41 22 364 88 36
The World Wide Fund for Nature is an independent conservation network working in more than 90 countries. A registered charity in the UK with campaigning interests in wildlife trade, threats to endangered species and their habitats. Its main regional offices are in the USA (Washington), Australia (Sydney), China (Beijing), Brazil (Brasilia), Canada (Toronto), France (Paris), Germany (Frankfurt), India (New Delhi), Japan (Tokyo), Sweden (Solna), South America (Colombia), New Zealand (Wellington), the Netherlands (Zeist), Pakistan (Lahore), Spain (Madrid), Switzerland (Zurich) and the United Kingdom (Godalming).
references[Page 196]2008) ‘Biopiracy and Protection of Traditional Knowledge: Intellectual Property Rights and Beyond’, Working Paper Series No. 629. Calcutta: Indian Institute of Management. Online at: https://facultylive.iimcal.ac.in/sites/facultylive.iimcal.ac.in/files/WPS-629_1.pdf (Accessed 19 March 2015).(2011) ‘Dire forecast: a theoretical model of the impact of climate change on crime’, Theoretical Criminology, 16 (1): 21–42.(2003) ‘The jurisdiction of the international criminal court over nationals of non-parties: legal basis and limits’, Journal of International Criminal Justice, 1 (3): 618–50.(2012) Dismantling Wildlife Crime. Washington: World Wildlife Fund.and (2004) Strengthening the Weakest Links: Strategies for Improving the Enforcement of Environmental Laws Globally. Washington DC: Center for Conservation and Government, Conservation International.and (2005) ‘Socially and environmentally responsible business practices: an Australian perspective corporate’, Governance Law Review, 1 (2): 329–38.and (2011) ‘Human rights, ethics and international business: the case of Nigeria’, in and (eds), The Business of Human Rights: An Evolving Agenda for Corporate Responsibility. London: Zed Books/The Open University, pp. 188–213.(Amnesty International (2009) Nigeria: Petroleum, Pollution, and Poverty in the Niger Delta. London: Amnesty International Publications.Amnesty International and CEHRD (2011) The True ‘Tragedy’: Delays and Failures in Tackling Oil Spills in the Niger Delta. London: Amnesty International Publications.1998) ‘Neocolonialism, anticommons property, and biopiracy in the (not-so-brave) new world order of international intellectual property protection’, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 6 (1): Article 2.(1997) ‘Physical cruelty toward animals in Massachusetts 1975–1976’, Society & Animals, 5 (3): 195–204.and (1993) ‘Children who are cruel to animals: a review of research and implications for developmental psychopathology’, Anthrozoos, 4: 226–7.([Page 197] (ed.) (2008) The International Handbook of Animal Abuse and Cruelty: Theory, Research and Application. Indiana: Purdue University Press.1997) ‘The abuse of animals and domestic violence: a national survey of shelters for women who are battered’, Society and Animals, 5 (3): 205–18., and (1992) Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate. New York: Oxford University Press.and (2006) ‘Climate change: insecurity and injustice’, in , , and (eds), Fairness in Adaptation in Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2011) Constitutional and Administrative Law ((9th edn). Abingdon: Routledge.Basel Action Network (BAN) (2011a) ‘Environmentally sound management and the Basel ban amendment’. Online at: http://ban.org/library/esmban.html (Accessed 14 August 2015).Basel Action Network (BAN) (2011b) ‘Recycling news: first federal criminal charges brought against recycler for exporting toxic e-waste in Denver co.’ Online at: http://www.ban.org/news (Accessed 14 August 2015).1990) ‘Entrepreneurship: productive, unproductive and destructive’, Journal of Political Economy, 98 (5): 893–921.(2011) The Effects of Oil Companies’ Activities on the Environment, Health and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Chatham House., , and (BBC News Online (2010) ‘Thames Water fine for toxic spill in River Wandle cut’. Online at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/8524109.stm (Accessed 15 March 2015).1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.(1968) ‘Crime and punishment: an economic approach’, Journal of Political Economy, 76: 169–217.(1999) ‘For a nonspeciesist criminology: animal abuse as an object of study’, Criminology, 37 (1): 1–32.(2004) ‘From animal abuse to interhuman violence? A critical review of the progression thesis’, Society and Animals, 12 (1): 39–65.(2007) ‘Animal rights, animal abuse and green criminology’, in and (eds), Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Cullompton: Willan, pp. 55–83.(2009) Confronting Animal Abuse: Law, Criminology, and Human-Animal Relationships. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.(2007) (eds) Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Cullompton: Willan.and (1789]1970) Introduction to the Principles and Morals of Legislation (eds and ). London: The Athlone Press.([[Page 198] (1998) ‘Rights and justice on a shared planet: more rights or new relations?’, Theoretical Criminology, 2 (2): 149–75.2012) ‘The Alien Tort Claims Act and the Law of Nations’, Emory University School of Law Research Paper No. 05-5 (Forthcoming). Online at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=666146 (Accessed 23 September 2012).(Bipartisan Policy Center (2011) ‘Geoengineering: a national strategic plan for research on the potential effectiveness, feasibility, and consequences of climate remediation technologies’, Washington: Bipartisan Policy Center. Online at: http://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/default/files/BPC%20Climate%20Remediation%20Final%20Report.pdf (Accessed 2 March 2015).2012) ‘Is it all going to waste? Illegal transports of e-waste in a European trade hub’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 58 (3): 221–39.(1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disaster. London: Routledge., , and (1995) ‘Customary (and not so customary) international environmental law’, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 3 (1): 105–19.(2012) ‘Presidential candidates and the sociology of “climate change denial”’, Huffington Post. Online at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/olgabonfiglio/climate-change-denial_1_b_1404412.html (Accessed 10 December 2014).(2002) Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2004) Restorative Justice: Theories and Worries, Visiting Experts’ Papers, 123rd International Senior Seminar, Resource Material Series No. 63, pp. 47–56. Tokyo: United Nations Asia and Far East Institute For the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.(1990) Not Just Deserts. A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.and (1991) Environmental Criminology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.and (2008) ‘The early development of environmental ethics’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online at: http://plato.stanford.edu/ (Accessed 6 October 2015).and (1993) ‘Crime prevention: the British experience’, in: and (eds), The Politics of Crime Control. London: Sage, pp. 62–86.(2014) ‘Of theory and meaning in green criminology’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 3 (2): 21–34.(2013) ‘Resource wealth, power, crime and conflict’, in , and (eds), Debates in Green Criminology: Power, Justice and Environmental Harm. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 57–71.and (2008) Nature Unbound: Capitalism and the Future of Protected Areas. Abingdon: Routledge., and ([Page 199] (2008) Lessons from Ombudsmania. London: National Consumer Council.2009) ‘A recurring anarchy? The emergence of climate change and a threat to international peace and security’, Conflict, Security and Development, 9: 298–305.and (1993) ‘International environmental law: contemporary issues and the emergence of a new world order’, Georgetown Law Journal, 81 (3): 675–710.(2009) ‘The influence of weather on local geographical patterns of police calls for service’, Environment and Planning. B: Planning and Design, 36 (5): 906–26., , , (2009) ‘There is an A in ADR but does anyone know what it means any more?’, Civil Justice Quarterly, 28 (2):218–36.(1999) ‘Deterrence: a strong environmental crime program leads to industry compliance and a cleaner environment’, US Attorneys’ Bulletin: Enforcement Issues, 47 (5), Washington: Department of Justice., , and (Cabinet Office (2011) ‘Red tape challenge’. London: Cabinet Office. Online at: http://www.redtapechallenge.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/home/index (Accessed 29 June 2014).1993) Men, Women and Aggression. New York: Basic Books.(2009) ‘Cross-movement activism: a cognitive perspective on the global justice activities of US environmental NGOs’, Environmental Politics, 18 (3): 351–70.and (2007) The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2010) ‘Enron’s perp walk: status degradation ceremonies as narrative’, Crime Media Culture, 6: 251., and (Center for Health, Environment and Justice (2014) Love Canal. Available at: http://chej.org/about/our-story/love-canal/ (Accessed 12 August 2015).1991) ‘The historical significance and challenges of the first national people of colour environmental leadership summit’, in Proceedings of the First National People of Colour Environmental Leadership Summit. Washington DC: United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice.(2015) Radical Environmentalism: Nature, Identity and Non-human Agency. London: Palgrave Macmillan.(CITES (2010) Activity Report of the CITES Secretariat: 2008–2009. Geneva: CITES/United Nations Environment Programme.CITES (2013) ‘Sixteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties’, Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March, Geneva: CITES/United Nations Environment Programme.2001) Toxic Exports: the Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich to Poor Countries. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.(2009) ‘Canaries in the mine: the priority of human welfare in animal abuse prosecution’, in (ed.), The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, pp. 190–200.([Page 200]Committee on Climate Change (2014) The Climate Change Act and UK Regulations. London: Committee on Climate Change. Online at: http://www.theccc.org.uk/tackling-climate-change/the-legal-landscape/global-action-on-climate-change/ (Accessed 10 March 2015).1999) Politics and the Environment: From Theory to Practice. London: Routledge.and (Convention on Biological Diversity (2014) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, Including Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity/United Nations.2002) The International Wildlife Trade and Organised Crime: A Review of the Evidence and the Role of the UK. Wolverhampton: Regional Research Institute, University of Wolverhampton., and (2006) ‘The commercial impact of environmental law’, Business Law Review, 27 (4): 92–7.(CPS (The Crown Prosecution Service) (2014) Legal Guidance: Restorative Justice. London: CPS. Available at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/p_to_r/restorative_justice/ (Accessed 10 December 2014).2008) Corporate Social Responsibility. Frederiksberg: Ventus Publishing.and (2005) Developing Ecofeminist Theory: the Complexity of Difference. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(1996). Corporate Power, Corruption and the Destruction of the World’s Forests: the Case for a Global Forest Agreement. London/Washington: Environmental Investigations Agency., , , and (eds) (Defenders of Wildlife (2011) Assault on Wildlife: the Endangered Species Act Under Attack. Washington, DC: Defenders of Wildlife.DEFRA (2010) Civil Sanctions for Environmental Offences. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Available at: http://www.fwr.org/WQreg/Appendices/Civil_Sanctions_defra-wag-guidance.pdf (Accessed 16 August 2015).2002) ‘Climate change vulnerability: impacts and adaptation: why does gender matter?’ Gender and Development, 10 (2): 10–20.(2012) ‘Countering Eco-Terrorism in the United States: The Case of “Operation Backfire”,’ Final Report to Human Factors/Behavioral Sciences Division, Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. College Park, MD: START. Available at: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/publications/Countermeasures_OperationBackfire. pdf (Accessed 12 August 2015).and (1915] 1982) Introduction to the Study of the Constitution. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund Free Press.([2007) ‘The capture of corruption: complexity and corporate culture’, Global Business and Development Law Journal, 20: 1–26.([Page 201] and (2011) Zoopolis: A Political Theory of Animal Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2012) ‘Women’s alliance lobbies Clarke over legal aid reforms’, The Guardian. Online at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/law/2012/apr/22/womens-groups-legal-aid-reforms?INTCMP=SRCH (Accessed 10 January 2015).(2000) Green Power: the Environment Movement in Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.(2014) ‘Corporate environmental crime in the electronic waste industry: the case of Executive Recycling, Inc’, in (ed.) Critical Perspectives on Green Criminology. Internet Journal of Criminology. Nottingham: New University Press/flashmousepublishing Ltd.(1982) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and (eds) (1996) ‘From spike to bombs: the rise of eco-terrorism’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 19: 1–18.(EIA (2013) ‘Liquidating the forests: hardwood flooring, organized crime, and the world’s last Siberian tigers’, Environmental Investigation Agency. Online at: http://eia-global.org/images/uploads/EIA_Liquidating_Report__Edits_1.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2015).2012) ‘Green movements as threats to order and economy: animal activists repressed in Austria and beyond’, in , and (eds), Eco-global Crimes: Contemporary Problems and Future Challenges. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 181–205.(2012) Eco-global Crimes: Contemporary Problems and Future Challenges. Farnham: Ashgate., and (eds) (1999) ‘Violence against women in disasters: a study of domestic violence programs in the United States and Canada’, Violence Against Women, 5: 742–68.(Environmental Protection Agency (2013) ‘Greenhouse gas court decisions’. Online at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/endangerment/ghgcourtdecision.html (Accessed 10 March 2015).Environmental Protection Agency (2014) ‘Plain English guide to the Clean Air Act: permits and enforcement’, Washington: EPA. Online at: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/peg_caa/permits.html (Accessed 10 March 2015).2014) ‘Climate change and the International Court of Justice’, Yale Centre for Environmental Law and Policy. Online at: http://envirocenter.yale.edu/uploads/publications/Climate%20Change%20ICJ%208.23.13.pdf (Accessed 3 January 2015).(ed.) (Ernst and Young (2014) ‘Managing bribery and corruption risks in the oil and gas industry’. Online at: http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-Managing-bribery-and-corruption-risk-in-the-oil-and-gas-industry/$FILE/EY-Managing-bribery-and-corruption-risk-in-the-oil-and-gas-industry.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2015).[Page 202] and (2009) ‘Corporate responsibility and group redress mechanisms’, Business Law International, 10 (1): 51–60.2014) ‘Argentine court recognizes orang-utan as “non-human person”’, Jurist, 22 December. Online at: http://jurist.org/paperchase/2014/12/argentina-court-recognizes-orangutan-as-non-human-person.php# (Accessed 23 December 2014).(2014) ‘Precautionary principle: a rational approach to climate change’, New York Law Journal. Online at: http://www.clm.com/publication.cfm?ID=506 (Accessed 13 March 2015).and (1987) ‘Childhood cruelty to animals and later aggression against people: a review’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 144: 710–17.and (2007) Civil Liberties and Human Rights. Abingdon: Routledge.(2000) Youth Crime: Findings from the 1998/99 Youth Lifestyles Survey. London: Home Office., , and (2002) ‘Hunting and illegal violence against humans and other animals: exploring the relationship’, Society & Animals, 10 (2). Washington: Society & Animals Forum Inc.(1998) ‘Dogmen: the rationalisation of deviance’, Society & Animals, 6 (3). Washington: Society & Animals Forum Inc.and (2000) ‘Addressing animal abuse: the complementary roles of religion, secular ethics, and the law’, Society & Animals, 8 (3). Washington: Society & Animals Forum Inc.(1970) ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits’, The New York Times Magazine, 13 September.(2011) ‘A critical exploration of greenwashing claims’, Public Relations Journal, 5 (3): 1–21.(2012) ‘Habeas corpus and due process’ Cornell Law Review, 98: 47–126. Online at: http://cornelllawreview.org/files/2013/02/Garrett-final.pdf (Accessed 20 January 2015).(2011) ‘Two charged in federal indictment with dumping e-waste illegally overseas; Green Electronics Daily, 09/20/11.(2014) ‘Conservative lobby group Alec plans anti-environmental onslaught’, The Guardian. Online at: http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/alec-environmental-protection-agency-climate-change (Accessed 10 March 2015).(1997) ‘Masculinities, fear of crime and fearlessness’, The British Journal of Sociology, 37 (3): 401–18.(2004) State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption. London: Pluto Press.(Greenpeace (2014) ‘Koch Industries: secretly funding the climate denial machine’. Online at: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/global-warming-and-energy/polluterwatch/koch-industries/ (Accessed 17 March 2015).1998) ‘Masculinities and crimes against the environment’, Theoretical Criminology, 2 (2): 249–67.([Page 203] (1997) ‘Environmental protection and the precautionary principle: a response to scientific uncertainty in environmental management’, Environmental and Planning Law Journal, 14 (1): 52–69.1999) ‘Regulatory pluralism: designing policy mixes for environmental protection’, Law and Policy, 21 (1): 49–76.and (2011) Transnational Crime in the Developing World. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity.(2013) ‘Victims of environmental harm’, in , and (eds), Emerging Issues in Green Criminology: Exploring Power, Justice and Harm. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 218–241.(2004) ‘Against green criminology’, British Journal of Criminology, 44 (6): 833–53.(2005) Reducing Administrative Burdens: Effective Inspection and Enforcement, London: HM Treasury.(2005) Young Men and the Squeeze of Masculinity: The Inaugural Paper for the Centre for Young Men’s Studies. Ulster: Centre for Young Men’s Studies., and (2011) ‘Brands corporate social responsibility and reputation management’, in and (eds), The Business of Human Rights: an Evolving Agenda for Corporate Responsibility. London: Zed Books/The Open University.(2011) ‘Combatting transnational corporate corruption: enhancing human rights and good governance’, in and (eds), The Business of Human Rights: An Evolving Agenda for Corporate Responsibility. London: Zed Books/The Open University, pp. 143–165.(1984) Environment and Enforcement: Regulation and the Social Definition of Pollution. London: Clarendon Press.(2002) Law as Last Resort. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1993) ‘The moral and conceptual universe of cockfighters: symbolism and rationalization’, Society and Animals, 1 (2). Washington: Society & Animals Forum Inc.(2005) ‘Assessing re-offending in restorative justice conferences’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 38 (1): 77–101.(2004) ‘The relationship between animal cruelty, delinquency, and attitudes toward the treatment of animals’, Society & Animals, 12 (3). Washington: Society & Animals Forum Inc.(2010) Eradicating Ecocide: Exposing the Corporate and Political Practices Destroying the Planet and Proposing the Laws Needed to Eradicate Ecocide. London: Shepheard-Walwyn Publishers.(2015) ‘What is ecocide?’ Online at: http://eradicatingecocide.com/the-law/what-is-ecocide/ (Accessed 20 March 2015).(2011) ‘From “crime” to social harm?’, in and (eds), Radical and Marxist Theories of Crime. The Library of Essays in Theoretical Criminology. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 13–29.and ([Page 204] (2008) Environmental Liability and Ecological Damage in European Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1969) Industry and Empire from 1750 to the Present Day. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(2008) The Reform of Class and Representative Actions in European Legal Systems: A New Framework for Collective Redress in Europe. Oxford: Hart Publishing.(2010) ‘Sea Shepherd Conservation Society v. Japanese Whalers, the showdown: Who is the real villain?’, Stanford Journal of Animal Law and Policy, 3: 159–193.(2013) ‘RSPCA warned on hunt prosecutions by charities watchdog’, The Telegraph. Online at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/9809362/RSPCA-warned-on-hunt-prosecutions-by-charities-watchdog.html (Accessed 1 June 2014).(2014) ‘Tories to legalise fox hunting if they win 2015 general election’, The Telegraph. Online at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/general-election-2015/11307715/Tories-to-legalise-fox-hunting-if-they-win-2015-general-election.html (Accessed 25 April 2015).(2011) ‘The effects of weather on crime’, New Zealand Association of Economics, Working Paper 45. Online at: http://nzae.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Horrocks_and_Menclova__The_Effects_of_Weather_on_Crime.pdf (Accessed 17 January 2015).and (House of Commons (1966) Parliamentary Commissioner Bill. Available at: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1966/oct/18/parliamentary-commissioner-bill (Accessed 12 August 2015).House of Lords (2007) ‘Restorative Justice’, House of Lords, 17 July, Column 126.2012) ‘Victims, the criminal process and restorative justice’, in , and (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology ((5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.1997) Compliance: Regulation and Environment. London: Clarendon Press.(1997) ‘Animal abuse as a diagnostic approach in social work’, in and (eds), Cruelty to Animals and Interpersonal Violence. Indiana: Purdue University Press.(International Council on Human Rights Policy (2002) Beyond Voluntarism: Human Rights and the Developing International Legal Obligations of Companies. Versoix: International Council on Human Rights Policy. Online at: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/F7FA1F4A174F76AF8525741F006839D4-ICHRP_Beyond%20Voluntarism.pdf (Accessed 4 August 2015).Interpol (2012) ‘Red notice issued for Paul Watson at Japan’s request’, Lyon: Interpol. Online at: http://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News-media-releases/2012/N20120914 (Accessed 1 May 2013).[Page 205] IPCC (2014) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [ , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and (eds.)]. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–32.2005) Defining Corporate Environmental Responsibility: Canadian ENGO Perspectives. Canada: The Pembina Institute/Pollution Probe., , , and (1997) The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.(2014) ‘Campaign to put ecocide on a par with genocide in attempt to curb environmental destruction’, The Independent. Online at: http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/campaign-to-put-ecocide-on-a-par-with-genocide-in-attempt-to-curb-environmental-destruction-9789297.html (Accessed 17 March 2015).(2007) ‘Culture and identity-protective cognition: explaining the white-male effect in risk perception’, Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 4: 465–505., , , , (1998) Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain since 1800. London: Reaktion Books.(2008) ‘When putting things right goes wrong: enforcing the recommendations of the ombudsman’, Public Law (3): 510–30.and (1994) The Enforcement of Wildlife Protection Legislation: A Study of the Police Wildlife Liaison Officers’ Network. Leicester: De Montfort University.(2012) ‘Controlling illegal logging in domestic and international markets by harnessing multi-level governance opportunities’, International Journal of the Commons, 6 (2): 1–10.and (2006) ‘Exposing Enron: media representations of ritualized deviance in corporate culture’, Crime, Media and Culture 2 (2): 177–95, , and (2012) ‘Climate change: a state-corporate crime perspective’, Washington: Institute for Environmental Security. Online at: http://www.envirosecurity.org/ecocide/nov2012/Kramer,R.C.%282012%29-ClimateChange_A_state-corporate_crime_perspective.pdf (Accessed 9 January 2015).(2011) ‘Access to environmental justice in oil pollution and gas flaring cases as a human right issue in Nigeria’. Online at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2336093 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2336093 (Accessed 6 October 2015).(2014) State Crime on the Margins of Empire: Rio Tinto, the War on Bougainville and Resistance to Mining. London: Pluto Press.(Law Commission (2012) ‘Wildlife Law: a Consultation Paper’, London: Law Commission. Para 4.46.1993 rev. edn) What Is To Be Done About Law & Order? London: Pluto Press.and ([Page 206] (1951) Social Pathology: Systematic Approaches to the Study of Sociopathic Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill.2011) Crimes Against Nature: Illegal Industries and the Global Environment. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.(2006) ‘Trophy hunting and conservation in Africa: problems and one potential solution’, Conservation Biology, 20: 880–3., , , and (2009) The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press.(ed.) (2002) ‘Dealing with the legacy of native residential school abuse in Canada: litigation, ADR, and restorative justice’, The University of Toronto Law Journal, 52 (3): 253–300.(2013) ‘The Earth Liberation Front: a social movement analysis’, Radical Criminology, (2): 15–45.(1997) Deadly Serious: An FBI Perspective on Animal Cruelty. Washington DC: The Humane Society of the United States.(2014) ‘Captive orangutan has human right to freedom, Argentine court rules’. Online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/21/us-argentina-orangutan-idUSKBN0JZ0Q620141221 (Accessed 10 March 2015).(2002) ‘Animal rights as a post-citizenship movement’, Society & Animals 10 (2). Washington: Society & Animals Forum Inc.and (2002) Crime and Punishment in the Wildlife Trade. Wolverhampton: WWF/TRAFFIC/Regional Research Institute (University of Wolverhampton)., and (2004) Introduction to Animal Rights ((2nd edn). Michigan: Michigan State University.2003) ‘The meaning of green: contrasting criminological perspectives’, Theoretical Criminology, 7 (2): 217–38.and (1990) ‘The greening of criminology: a perspective on the 1990s’, Critical Criminologist, 2: 1–5.(2014) Exploring Green Criminology: Toward a Green Criminological Revolution. Farnham: Ashgate.and (2006) ‘After Enron will “whiter than white collar crime” still wash?’, British Journal of Criminology (November), 46 (6): 1091–109.(2011) ‘Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States’, Global Environmental Change, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.06.003 (Accessed 10 January 2015).and (1997) The Transformation of Democracy: Democratic Politics in the New World Order. Milton Keynes: The Open University.(ed.) (2010) ‘Environmental courts and tribunals in England and Wales – a tentative new dawn’, Journal of Court Innovation, 3 (1): 61–78.([Page 207] and (2003) Modernizing Environmental Justice: Regulation and the Role of an Environmental Tribunal. London: Centre for Law and the Environment, University College.2000) ‘Researching “street criminals”: a neglected art’, in and (eds), Doing Research on Crime and Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 121–152.(2012) ‘An empirical assessment of climate change in the courts: a new jurisprudence or business as usual?’, Florida Law Review, 64 (1): 15–72.and (1999) Restorative Justice: An Overview. London: Home Office.(2015) ‘Government shelves foxhunting vote after SNP opposition’, The Guardian. Online at: http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jul/14/foxhunting-vote-shelved-by-tories-in-face-of-snp-opposition (Accessed 12 August 2015).(1964) Delinquency and Drift. New Jersey: Transaction.(2002) Corporate Environmental Responsibility: is a Common CSR Framework Possible? Washington DC: World Bank.(2013) Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision in Massachusetts v. EPA: A Chronology. Washington DC: Congressional Research Service.(1968) Social Structure and Social Theory. New York: Free Press.(1993) On Liberty. New York: Bantam.(Ministry of Justice (2014) Restorative Justice Action Plan for the Criminal Justice System for the Period to March 2018. London: Ministry of Justice. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/375581/restorative-justice-action-plan-2014.pdf (Accessed 15 August 2015).2014) ‘Appellate Court Hearing in Tommy Case’. Online at: http://www.nonhumanrightsproject.org/2014/10/09/appellate-court-hearing-in-tommy-case/ (Accessed 10 March 2015).(1994) ‘White-collar crime’, in , and (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 355–92.(2014) The Environmental Crime Crisis – Threats to Sustainable Development from Illegal Exploitation and Trade in Wildlife and Forest Resources. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. Nairobi/Arendal: United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal., , , and (eds) (2007) ‘How to turn the curse of oil into a blessing’, Inter Press Service. Online at: http://www.ipsnews.net/2007/05/trade-africa-how-to-turn-the-curse-of-oil-into-a-blessing/ (Accessed 13 August 2015).(2012) ‘Challenging whiteness in the animal advocacy movement’, Journal for Critical Animal Studies, 10 (1): 142–54.([Page 208] , and (1981) ‘Masculinity and delinquency’, Criminology, 19 (3): 421–33.2003) ‘Participation in victim-offender mediation and the prevalence and severity of subsequent delinquent behavior: a meta-analysis’, Utah Law Review (1): 137–66., and (2003) ‘The nature of wildlife and conservation crime in the UK and its public response’, Working Paper No. 9. Birmingham: University of Central England.(2009) ‘Dealing with animal offenders’, in (ed.), The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, pp. 238–49.(2011) ‘Policing wildlife: Perspectives on criminality in wildlife crime’, Papers from the British Criminology Conference, 11: 38–53.(2012) ‘Repainting the thin green line: the enforcement of UK wildlife law’, Internet Journal of Criminology, October: 1–20.(2013a) Animal Harm: Perspectives on Why People Harm and Kill Animals. Farnham: Ashgate.(2013b) ‘Privatising the green police: the role of NGOs in wildlife law enforcement’, Crime Law and Social Change, 59 (3): 305–18.(2014) ‘The beginning of the end? The International Court of Justice’s decision on Japanese Antarctic whaling’, Journal of Animal Welfare Law, Spring: 14–17.(2015a) Policing Wildlife: Perspectives on the Enforcement of Wildlife Legislation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2015b) ‘Creative compliance, constructive compliance: corporate environmental crime and the criminal entrepreneur,’ in and (eds), Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research Policy and Practice: 5 (Contemporary Issues in Entrepreneur Research). Bingley: Emerald Publishing, pp. 97–120.(2014) ‘Cats and the law: evolving protection for cats and owners’, Journal of Animal Welfare Law, December: 1–6.and (Office of the Ombudsman (2014) ‘Environmental Ombudsman: a briefing paper’, Quezon City: Office of the Ombudsman. Online at: http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/docs/investmentOmbudsman/EnviTeam.pdf (Accessed 20 December 2014).Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2015) ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights – in six cross-cutting themes’. Online at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/CrossCuttingThemes.aspx (Accessed 20 March 2015).2012) ‘The North American model of wildlife conservation’, The Wildlife Society Technical Review, 12-04. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society., , , , , , , , , , , , , , and ([Page 209] (2011) The Declaration of Animal Rights. Online at: http://www.declarationofar.org (Accessed 25 October 2015).1999) ‘The Ombudsman: essential elements and common challenges,’ in (ed.), The International Ombudsman Anthology: Selected Writings from the International Ombudsman Institute. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, pp. 51–72.(2005) ‘The fox-hunting debate in the United Kingdom: a puritan legacy?’, Human Ecology Review, 12 (1): 143–55.and (2004) ‘Restorative justice in business regulation? The Australian competition and Consumer Commission’s use of enforceable undertakings’, Modern Law Review, 67 (2): 209–46.(1968) Middle Class Radicalism: the Social Bases of the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Manchester: Manchester University Press.(* 2001) ‘Bio-Pirates raid trees in the swamps of Borneo’, The Independent, Thursday, 2 August.(2010) ‘The conservation of British cetaceans: a review of the threats and protection afforded to whales, dolphins, and porpoises in UK waters, Part 1’, Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy, 13: 1–62, 201., , and (2011) ‘BP oil spill: compensation, agency costs, and restitution’, Washington & Lee Law Review, 68 (3): 1341–75.and (2002) Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust. New York: Lantern Books.(1998) Toxic Capitalism: Corporate Crime and the Chemical Industry. Aldershot: Dartmouth.and (2015) ‘Teens Take Politicians To Court Over Climate Change’, Huffington Post. Online at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/17/climate-change-lawsuit-teens-oregon_n_6490036.html (Accessed 14 March 2015).(1998) The Necessary Disobedience. Oslo: Folkereisning Mot Krig.and (2008) Representative Actions and Restorative Justice: a Report for the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. Lincoln: University of Lincoln Law School.and (2009) ‘Desperately seeking reason—new directions for European environmental criminal law’, Scandinavian Studies in Law, 54: 409–30.(2008) ‘Towards an analysis of the “success” of UK green protests’, British Politics, 3: 92–109.(2004) ‘The regulation dilemma: cooperation and conflict in environmental governance’, Public Administration Review, 64 (2): 152–63.and (2010) ‘What is green criminology?’, Sociology Review, November: 8–12.(2009) ‘Specialized environmental courts and tribunals at the confluence of human rights and the environment’, Oregon Review of International Law, 11 (2): 301–30.and ([Page 210] (1970) The Social Reality of Crime. Boston, MA: Little Brown.2009) ‘The crude realities of diplomacy’, Financial Times, 8 September, p.13.(2001) Animal Welfare Law in Britain: Regulation and Responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2014) ‘Crime, weather, and climate change’, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 67 (3): 274–302.(1998) Environmental Pressure Groups in Transition (Issues in Environmental Politics). Manchester: Manchester University Press.(2004) The Case for Animal Rights. Berkely, CA: University of California Press.(2007) ‘Vivisection: the case for abolition’, in and (eds), Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Devon: Willan Publishing, pp. 114–39.(2000) The Politics of the Police. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Restorative Justice Council (2014) ‘What is restorative justice? Online at: http://www.restorativejustice.org.uk/what_is_restorative_justice/ (Accessed 7 January 2014).Reuters (2014) ‘Sandra the orangutan granted limited human rights’, The Telegraph Online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/argentina/11307205/Sandra-the-orangutan-granted-limited-human-rights.html (Accessed 10 March 2015).2006) Illegal Logging: a Market-Based Analysis of Trafficking in Illegal Timber. Washington: ABT Associates/US Department of Justice., and (2001) ‘Wildlife crime in the UK: towards a national crime unit’, Wolverhampton: Department for the Environment, Food & Rural Affairs/Centre for Applied Social Research (University of Wolverhampton)., , and (2009) ‘Eco-terrorism and piracy on the high seas: Japanese whaling and the rights of private groups to enforce international conservation law in neutral waters’, The Villanova Environmental Law Journal, 20 (1): 99–136.(2006) Animal Rights and Human Morality. New York: Prometheus Books.(RSPCA (2015) ‘Facts and figures’. Online at: http://media.rspca.org.uk/media/facts (Accessed 15 March 2015).RSPCA Australia (2014) ‘RSPCA Australia national statistics 2013-2014’. Online at: http://www.rspca.org.au/sites/default/files/website/The-facts/Statistics/RSPCA_Australia-Annual_Statistics_2013-2014.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2015).1997) ‘The case of the Speluncean polluters: six themes of environmental law, policy, and ethics’, Environmental Law, 27: 343–73.(2011) An Introduction to Animals and the Law. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.([Page 211] (2007) Defining Environmental Justice: Theories, Movements, and Nature. Oxford/Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.2008) ‘Reducing the illicit trade in endangered wildlife: the market reduction approach’, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24 (3): 274–95.(2012) Sold into Extinction: The Global Trade in Endangered Species. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.(2006) Animal Rights and Wrongs. London: Continuum.(2007) ‘Restorative justice: the views of victims and offenders, the third report from the evaluation of three schemes’, Ministry of Justice/University of Sheffield., , , , , , , and (2008) ‘Restorative justice: does restorative justice affect reconviction. The fourth report from the evaluation of three schemes’, Ministry of Justice Research Series 10/08. London: Ministry of Justice. Online at: www.justice.gov.uk/publications/restorative-justice.htm (Accessed 13 February 2015)., , , , , , , , and (2007) Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute.and (1975) Animal Liberation. New York: Avon.(2000) Environmental Crime: the Criminal Justice System’s Role in Protecting the Environment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.and (2010) ‘Exploring the consequences of soft law and hard law: implementing international nutrient commitments in Norwegian agriculture’, International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 10 (1): 1–14.(2011) ‘Violent corporate crime, corporate social responsibility and human rights’, in and (eds), The Business of Human Rights: an Evolving Agenda for Corporate Responsibility. London: Zed Books/The Open University, pp. 79–100.(2003) ‘Illegal logging, collusive corruption and fragmented governments in Kalimantan, Indonesia’, International Forestry Review, 5 (3): 293–302., and (2010) Texts and Materials on International Human Rights. Abingdon: Routledge.(2008) ‘Eco-crime: the tropical timber trade’, Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies, 7: 97–111.(2012) ‘Speciesism as doxic practice versus valuing difference and plurality’, in , and (eds), Eco-Global Crimes: Contemporary Problems and Future Challenges. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 91–113.(2007) ‘The corporate colonisation of nature: bio-prospecting, bio-piracy and the development of green criminology’, in and (eds), Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Willan, Devon, pp. 230–47.([Page 212] (2010) ‘The ecocidal tendencies of late modernity: transnational crime, social exclusions, victims and rights’, in (ed.), Global Environmental Harm: Criminological Perspective. Devon: Willan, pp. 228-47.1998) ‘Editors’ Introduction’, Theoretical Criminology, 2 (2): 147–8.and (2011) ‘Comparing illicit trades in wildlife and drugs: an exploratory study’, Deviant Behavior, 32 (6): 538–61.and (2011) ‘Corporate social responsibility in the oil and gas industry: the importance of reputational risk’, Chicago-Kent Law Review, 86 (1): 59–85. Online at: http://scholarship.kentlaw.iit.edu/cklawreview/vol86/iss1/4 (Accessed 20 March 2015).(2008) Understanding Environmental Law. London: Sweet and Maxwell.(2010) Double Standard: Shell Practices in Nigeria Compared with International Standards to Prevent and Control Pipeline Oil Spills and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Amsterdam: Friends of the Earth Netherlands.(1995) ‘Two cheers for specialisation’, 61 Brook. Law Review, 67: 88–9.(2001) ‘ESRC global environmental change programme (2001) environmental justice: rights and means to a healthy environment for all’, Special Briefing No.7. Brighton: University of Sussex., and (2010) Civil Liberties and Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2004) ‘Introduction: What are animal rights’, in and (eds), Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions. New York: Open University Press, pp. 3–15.(1973) On Analysing Crime ( , ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press (original work published 1942).(1957) ‘Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency’, American Sociological Review, 22: 664–73.and (1995) ‘Nonhuman animals and the law: property, cruelty, rights’, in (ed.) Humans and Other Nonhuman Animals. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.(TCEQ (2012) ‘Environmental crimes investigators pursue worst willful polluters’, Natural Outlook, February. Online at: https://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/comm_exec/pubs/pd/020/2012/Outlook-Feb-2012-x.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2015).2014) ‘Environmental lawyers gear up for fighting climate change in the courts’, Vice News, 21 October. Online at: https://news.vice.com/article/environmental-lawyers-gear-up-for-fighting-climate-change-in-the-courts (Accessed 9 January 2015).(2011) ‘Monsanto, world’s largest genetically modified food producer, to be charged with biopiracy in India’, Huffington Post. Online at: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2011/10/03/monsanto-india-biopiracy-farmers_n_992259.html?ir=Green&just_reloaded=1 (Accessed 12 August 2015).([Page 213] (2009) ‘Terrorism’, Oxford Bibliographies. Online at: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0023.xml (Accessed 12 August 2015).The Economist (2015) ‘The Petrobas scandal: he’s got a little list’. Online at: http://www.economist.com/news/americas/21645703-now-brazilian-politicians-will-face-investigation-hes-got-little-list (Accessed 20 March 2015).2003) ‘Unmasking the crimes of the powerful’, Critical Criminology, 11 (3): 217–36.and (2015) The Corporate Criminal: Why Corporations Must Be Abolished. Abingdon: Routledge.and (Transparency International (2015) ‘Corruption by topic: oil and gas’. Online at: http://www.transparency.org/topic/detail/oil_and_gas (Accessed 20 March 2015).1992) Environmental Policy: An Economic Approach to the Polluter Pays Principle. Norwich: University of East Anglia.(United Nations (1999) 55th Session of the Commission on Human Rights (22 March to 30 April 1999) – Documentation. Online at: www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CHR/55/Pages/Documentation.aspx (Accessed 30 October 2015).United Nations (1992) Framework Convention on Climate Change Online at: https://unfcc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf (Accessed 20 October 2015).UNECE/UNEP (2006) ‘Your right to a healthy environment’. New York and Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe/United Nations Environment Programme.United Nations Environment Programme (2011) ‘Environmental assessment of Ongoniland’. Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Online at: <http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/OEA/UNEP_OEA.pdf> (Accessed 14 December 2014).United Nations Human Rights Council (2011) ‘Guiding principles on business and human rights: implementing the United Nations “protect, respect and remedy” framework’. New York: The United Nations. Online at: http://www.business-humanrights.org/media/documents/ruggie/ruggie-guiding-principles-21-mar-2011.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2014).UNODC (2012) Wildlife and Forest Crime Analytic Toolkit. Vienna: UNODC.US Department of State (2009) Against Wildlife Trafficking: Working Together to End the Illegal Trade in Wildlife. Washington DC: US Department of State (Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs).United States District Court of Colorado (2012) Criminal Case No. 11-cr-00376-WJM. Verdict Form – United States of America v. Executive Recycling Inc., Brandon Richter, Tor Olson. Filed December 21, 2012.2014) ‘Reforming wildlife law: proposals by the Law Commission for England and Wales’, International Journal of Crime Justice and Social Democracy, 3 (2): 68–81.([Page 214] (2008) ‘The contribution of the International Court of Justice to the development of international environmental law: a contemporary assessment’, Fordham International Law Journal, 32 (1): 232–58. Online at: http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/ilj/vol32/iss1/14 (Accessed 18 March 2015).2011) The Business of Human Rights: An Evolving Agenda for Corporate Responsibility. London: Zed Books/The Open University.and (eds) (2014) ‘Deconstructing the poaching phenomenon: a review of typologies for understanding illegal hunting’, British Journal of Criminology, 54 (4): 632–51., , , and (2007) ‘“At risk”: climate change and its bearing on women’s vulnerability to male violence’, in and (eds) Issues in Green Criminology. Cullompton: Willan, pp. 161–85.(2013) ‘A trial of criminology’. Online at: http://blog.oup.com/2013/07/policing-criminology-modern-state/ (Accessed 25 April 2015).(2007) ‘Crime, regulation and radioactive waste in the United Kingdom’, in and (eds), Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Cullompton: Willan, pp. 186–205.(2013) Emerging Issues in Green Criminology: Exploring Power, Justice and Harm. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., and (eds) (2014) ‘Are problem-solving courts the way forward for justice? Howard League What is Justice?’ Working Papers 2/2014. London: Howard League.(2010) ‘Fears for BP’s future as US launches criminal inquiry’, The Guardian 2 June. Online at: www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jun/02/bp-criminal-inquiry-gulf-of-mexico (Accessed 19 June 2015).and (1964) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. (Talcott Parsons, ed.). New York: The Free Press.(1997) ‘The looting and smuggling and fencing and hoarding of impossibly precious, feathered and scaly wild things’, New York Times Magazine, 16 February 1997.(1996) ‘Critical criminology, social justice, and an alternative view of incarceration’, Critical Criminology, 7 (2): 43–58.(2010) ‘The applicability of crime prevention to problems of environmental harm; A consideration of illicit trade in endangered species’, in (ed.) Global Environmental Harm; Criminological Perspectives. Cullompton: Willan Publishing, pp. 132–49.(2011) ‘Wildlife crime: the problems of enforcement’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 17/2: 125–48.(2013) Green Governance: Ecological Survival, Human Rights and the Law of the Commons. New York: Cambridge University Press.and (2007) ‘Green criminology and the pursuit of ecological justice’, in and (eds) Issues in Green Criminology. Cullompton: Willan Publishing, pp. 32–54.([Page 215] (2008) Crimes Against Nature: Environmental Criminology and Ecological Justice. Cullompton: Willan.2009) ‘Dealing with climate change and social conflict: A research agenda for eco-global criminology’, in and (eds), Eco-crime and Justice. Turin: UNICRI, pp. 13–35.(2011) Transnational Environmental Crime: Toward an Eco-Global Criminology. New York: Routledge.(2012a) ‘Land theft as rural eco-crime’, International Journal of Rural Criminology, 1 (2): 203–17.(2012b) ‘NGO engagement in environmental law enforcement: critical reflections’, Australasian Policing, 4 (2): 7–12.(2012c) Climate Change from a Criminological Perspective. New York: Springer.(ed.) (2012d) ‘The foundations of eco-global criminology’, in , and (eds) Eco-global Crimes: Contemporary Problems and Future Challenges. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 15–31.(2013a) ‘Environmental crime and problem-solving courts’, Crime Law and Social Change, 59: 267–78.(2013b) ‘The conceptual contours of green criminology’, in , and (eds), Emerging Issues in Green Criminology: Exploring Power, Justice and Harm. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 17–33.(2014) Green Criminology: an Introduction to the Study of Environmental Harm. London: Routledge.and (2014) ‘NY court questions lawyer’s novel bid to win rights for chimps’. Online at: http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/382787/news/world/ny-court-questions-lawyer-s-novel-bid-to-win-rights-for-chimps (Accessed 10 March 2015).(2002) ‘What is a non-governmental organization?’ London: City University. Online at: http://www.staff.city.ac.uk/p.willetts/CS-NTWKS/NGO-ART.HTM (Accessed 25 April 2015).(2011) ‘Climate change law: creating and sustaining social and economic insecurity’, Social and Legal Studies, 20 (4): 499–513.(1985) Thinking about Crime ((2nd edn). New York: Vintage Books.2007) The Conservation of Seals Act 1970: The Case for Review. Scotland: Seal Forum., and (2000) Rattling the Cage: Towards Legal Rights For Animals. London: Profile.(2014) ‘Tommy’s Appeal – What the Judges May Say’. Online at: http://www.nonhumanrightsproject.org/2014/11/10/tommys-appealwhat-the-judges-may-say/ (Accessed 6 August 2015).(2015) ‘That’s One Small Step for a Judge, One Giant Leap for the Nonhuman Rights Project’. Online at: http://www.nonhumanrightsproject.org/2015/08/04/thats-one-small-step-for-a-judge-one-giant-leap-for-the-nonhuman-rights-project/ (Accessed 6 August 2015).([Page 216] (2009) ‘Advancing the sovereign trust of government to safeguard the environment for present and future generations (Part 1): Ecological realism and the need for a paradigm shift’, Environmental Law, 39: 43–89.1992) ‘Are the judiciary environmentally myopic?’ Journal of Environmental Law, 4 (1): 1–14. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jel/4.1.1.(WWF (2014) ‘Living Planet Report 2014’. Switzerland: WWF International. Online at: http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/living_planet_report/ (Accessed 2 January 2015).2011) ‘Criminal Involvement in Wildlife Smuggling’. Online at: http://ips.cap.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/IPS/IR/TEC/WYATT_Criminal_involvement_in_wildlife_smuggling.pdf (Accessed 12 August 2015).(2013) Wildlife Trafficking: a Deconstruction of the Crime, the Victims and the Offenders. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(1994) ‘Incessant chatter: recent paradigms in criminology’, in , and (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 69–124.(2011) ‘Biopiracy and states’ sovereignty over their biological resources’, African Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (58): 12395–408. Online at: http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB (Accessed 20 April 2015)., , and (2003) ‘The black market for wildlife: combating transnational organized crime in the illegal wildlife trade’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 36: 1657–89.(