An Introduction to Game Studies: Games in Culture

Books

Frans Mäyrä

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables and Figures

    Tables
    • 5.1 All-time top twenty games by sales 77
    • 5.2 Four game categories as a matrix between the temporality of interaction and the randomness of game world 80
    • 5.3 The Ultima IV virtues, character classes and starting towns 83
    • 7.1 Available subscription data for twenty popular online game worlds 134
    • 7.2 Ten different player perceptions of RMT [real money trade] 140
    • 8.1 Selected titles of papers presented in Chancing Views – Worlds in Play155
    Figures
    • 1.1 The focus of game studies in the interaction between game and player 2
    • 2.1 Screenshot from Breakout15
    • 2.2 The dialectic of core and shell, or gameplay and representation in the basic structure of games 18
    • 3.1 Primary Schemas 37
    • 3.2Tic-Tac-Toe, created by A. S. Douglas, 1952 40
    • 3.3Tennis for Two – a screenshot and a controller 41
    • 3.4 The seven interlocking spheres of performance 46
    • 4.1Pong cabinet and an in-game screenshot 60
    • 4.2Space Invaders arcade console, set of instructions, and a screenshot with overlay colour effects 63
    • 5.1Pac-Man arcade console and screenshots 71
    • 5.2Donkey Kong console and screenshots 74
    • 5.3 Sample screen elements from Roguelike games 79
    • 5.4 Screenshots from Ultima IV, taken from the Commodore 64 version 83
    • 5.5 A cloth map of Britannia 88
    • 6.1 Commodore 64 and Nintendo Gameboy 92
    • 6.2 A collection of Civilization screenshots from different phrases of the game 97
    • 6.3 A collection of screenshots from Doom103
    • 6.4 Changes in the design of game level ‘Episode 1, Map 4’ from Doom106
    • 6.5 (a) Screenshot from the original Tomb Raider game and (b) image of Lara from Tomb Raider: Legend production 107
    • 6.6 Gameplay experience model with three types of immersion 110
    • 6.7 (a) Screenshot from ‘Castle Smurfenstein’ mod (1981) and (b) screenshot from Counter-Strike (1991) 113
    • 7.1 (a) Screenshot from Meridian 59 (b) Screenshot from EverQuest (c & d) Screenshots from World of Warcraft131
    • 7.2 (a) Foot Craz pad for Atari 2600 (b) EyeToy camera (c) DDR dance game players (d) Guitar Hero package 144
    • 8.1 Hermeneutic circle as a spiralling process of inquiry 153

    List of Boxes

    • 1.1 Game Studies Resources Online 5
    • 1.2 On Hypertext, Cybertext, and Interactive Fiction 9
    • 2.1 What is Gameplay? 16
    • 2.2 On Subcultures 26
    • 4.1 On the History of Digital Games 55
    • 4.2 On the history of Game Controllers 62
    • 6.1 On Understanding and Analysing Game Spaces 102
    • 7.1 On New Games Movement 149

    Acknowledgements

    I want to thank all my colleagues in Hypermedia Laboratory at the University of Tampere who have over years contributed greatly to my thinking about digital games and game studies, as well as to that knowledgeable and wide-reaching international community of scholars who have worked with me in DiGRA. Particular thanks to Aki Järvinen and Olli Sotamaa who read the manuscript and made many very useful comments and suggestions. And my warmest thanks go to Laura who has been both a co-author and an inspiration in many of the key ideas that have now taken the form of this book. It has been an adventure and it is nowhere over yet!

  • References

    All online sources accessed in July 2006.
    Aarseth, Espen (1997) Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins.
    Aarseth, Espen (2003) ‘Playing Research: Methodological Approaches to Game Analysis’. Proceedings of DAC 2003. Melbourne: RMIT University. Online: http://hypertext.rmit.edu.au/dac/papers/Aarseth.pdf
    Aarseth, Espen (2004) ‘Genre Trouble: Narrativism and the Art of Simulation’. In: NoahWardrip-Fruin and PatHarrigan (eds), First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, pp. 45–55.
    Alasuutari, Pertti (1995) Researching Culture: Qualitative Method and Cultural Studies. London: Sage Publications.
    Aliaga-Buchenau, Ana-Isabel (2003) The ‘Dangerous’ Potential of Reading: Readers and the Negotiation of Power in Nineteenth-Century Narratives. New York: Routledge.
    Altman, Rick (1999) Film/Genre. London: British Film Institute.
    Arnold, Matthew (1869/1909) Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticism. London: Nelson.
    Avedon, Elliott M. and BrianSutton-Smith (1971) The Study of Games. New York and London: John Wiley and Sons.
    Azuma, Ronald (1997) ‘A Survey of Augmented Reality’. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(4): 355–85.
    Baer, Ralph (1996) ‘PONG: Who Did It First?’ In: DavidWinter (ed), ‘Pong Story’ 1996–2006. Online: http://www.pong-story.com/inventor.htm
    Baer, Ralph H. (2005) Videogames: In the Beginning. Springfield (NJ): Rolenta Press.
    Bakhtin, Mikhail (1965/1984) Rabelais and His World. trans. HeleneIswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Barker, Martin and JulianPetley (eds) (2001) Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate (
    2nd edn
    ). London and New York: Routledge.
    Barthes, Roland (1972) Mythologies. New York: Paladin.
    Bartle, Richard (1996) ‘Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs’. The Journal of Virtual Environments, 1(1). Online: http://www.brandeis.edu/pubs/jove/HTML/v1/bartle.html
    Bartle, Richard (2004) ‘Pitfalls of Virtual Property’. The Themis Group. Online: http://www.themis-group.com/uploads/Pitfalls%20of%20Virtual%20Property.pdf
    Bates, Daniel G. and ElliotM. Fratkin (2002) Cultural Anthropology (
    3rd edn
    ). Boston (MA): Allyn and Bacon.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1988/1994) Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Baym, Nancy K. (1995) ‘The Emergence of Community in Computer-Mediated Communication’. In: StevenG. Jones (ed), Cybersociety. Newbury (CA): Sage Publications, pp. 138–63.
    BBC (2005) ‘Gamers in the UK: Digital Play, Digital Lifestyles’. Commissioned by BBC Creative Research and Development, authored by Rhianna Pratchett. Online: http://crystaltips.typepad.com/wonderland/files/bbc_uk_games_research_2005.pdf
    Bennett, Andy and KeithKahn-Harris (eds) (2004) After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Bittanti, Matteo (ed) (2005) Civilization: Storie Virtuali, Fantasie Reali. Videoludica, Game Culture series. Trans. ValentinaPaggiarin. Milan: Costa and Nolan.
    Björk, Staffan and JussiHolopainen (2003) ‘Describing Games: An Interaction-Centric Structural Framework’. In: MarinkaCopier and JoostRaessens (eds), Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings. Utrecht: DiGRA and University of Utrecht. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05150.10348
    Björk, Staffan and JussiHolopainen (2005) Patterns in Game Design. Hingham (MA): Charles River Media.
    Bogost, Ian (2005) ‘The Rhetoric of Exergaming’. Proceedings of DAC 2005. Copenhagen: IT University.
    Bolter, Jay David and RichardGrusin (1999) Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Brand, Stewart (1972) ‘SPACEWAR: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums’. Rolling Stone, 7 December 1972. Online: http://www.wheels.org/spacewar/stone/rolling_stone.html
    Bryce, Jo and JasonRutter (2003) ‘Gender Dynamics and the Social and Spatial Organization of Computer Gaming’. Leisure Studies, 22(1): 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614360306571
    Burghardt, Gordon M. (1984) ‘On the Origins of Play’. In: Peter K.Smith (ed), Play in Animals and Humans. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, pp. 5–41.
    Burnham, Van (2001) Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age 1971–1984. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Byers, John A. (1984) ‘Play in Ungulates’. In: Peter K.Smith (ed), Play in Animals and Humans. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, pp. 43–65.
    Caillois, Roger (1958/2001) Man, Play and Games. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
    Campbell-Kelly, Martin (2003) From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Carr, Diane (2002) ‘Playing with Lara’. In: GeoffKing and TanyaKrzywinska (eds), ScreenPlay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces. London: Wallflower Press, pp. 178–80.
    Carr, Diane (2007) ‘The Trouble with Civilization’. In: BarryAtkins and TanyaKrzywinska (eds), Videogame, Player, Text. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 222–36.
    Carter, Cynthia and C. KayWeaver (2003) Violence and the Media. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Castro, Radford (2004) Let Me Play: Stories of Gaming and Emulation. Tucson (AZ): Hats Off Books.
    Castronova, Edward (2001) ‘Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier’. CESifo Working Paper No. 618, December 2001. Online: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=294828
    Castronova, Edward (2005) SyntheticWorlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Chan, Alexander (2004) ‘CPR for the Arcade Culture: A Case History on the Development ofDance Dance Revolution Community’. Unpublished coursework, History of Computer Game Design, Stanford University. Online: http://pdf.textfiles.com/academics/ddr-case-history-chan.pdf
    Cherny, Lynn (1999) Conversation and Community: Chat inAVirtual World. Stanford (CA): CSLI Publications.
    Clarke, John, StuartHall, TonyJefferson and BrianRoberts (1975) ‘Subcultures, Cultures and Class: A Theoretical Overview’. In: StuartHall and TonyJefferson (eds), Resistance Through Rituals. London: Routledge, 9–74.
    Cohen, Stanley (1972/2002) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: Creation of Mods and Rockers (
    3rd edn
    ). London and New York: Routledge.
    Computer Industry Almanac (2006) ‘Worldwide Internet Users Top 1 Billion in 2005’. Computer Industry Almanac, Inc. Press Release, January 4, 2006. Online: http://www.c-i-a.com/pr0106.htm
    Costikyan, Greg (2002) ‘I Have No Words & I Must Design: Toward a Critical Vocabulary for Games’. In: FransMäyrä (ed), CGDC Conference Proceedings. Studies in Information Sciences. Tampere: Tampere University Press, pp. 9–33.
    Crawford, Chris (1982/1997) The Art of Computer Game Design. The electronic edition. Online: http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/peabody/game-book/ACGD.pdf
    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1991) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Culin, Stewart (1907/1992a) Games of the North American Indians. Vol. 1: Games of Chance. Lincoln and London: Bison Books/University of Nebraska Press.
    Culin, Stewart (1907/1992b) Games of the North American Indians. Vol. 2: Games of Skill. Lincoln and London: Bison Books/University of Nebraska Press.
    Davis, John P., KeithSteury and RandyPagulayan (2005) ‘A Survey Method for Assessing Perceptions of a Game: The Consumer Playtest in Game Design’. Game Studies, 5(1). Online: http://www.gamestudies.org/0501/davis_steury_pagulayan/
    DeKoven, Bernie (2002) The Well Played Game: A Playful Path to Wholeness (
    3rd edn
    ). San Jose (CA): Writers Club Press. Online: http://www.deepfun.com/WPG.pdf
    Delaney, Kevin J. (2004) ‘When Art Imitates Videogames, You Have “Red vs. Blue” ’. The Wall Street Journal, 9 April 2004. Online: http://interactive.wsj.com/dividends/retrieve.cgi?id=/text/wsjie/data/SB108145721789778243.djm&d2hconverter=display-d2h&template=dividends
    DeMaria, Rusel and Johnny L.Wilson (2004) High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne.
    Dibbell, Julian (1993/1998) ‘A Rape in the Cyberspace (Or TINYSOCIETY, and How to Make One)’. In: JulianDibbell, My Tiny Life: Crime and Passion in a Virtual World. New York: Henry Holt, pp. 11–30. Online: http://www.juliandibbell.com/texts/bungle.html
    Dibbell, Julian (2006) Play Money: Or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot. New York: Basic Books.
    Douglas, Christopher (2002) ‘“You Have Unleashed a Horde of Barbarians!”: Fighting Indians, Playing Games, Forming Disciplines’. Postmodern Culture13: 1 (September 2002). Online: http://www.iath.virginia.edu/pmc/text-only/issue.902/13.1douglas.txthttp://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pmc.2002.0029
    Dovey, Jon and Helen W.Kennedy (2006) Game Cultures: Computer Games as New Media. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    du Gay, Paul, StuartHall, LindaJanes, HughMackay and KeithNegus (1997) Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. Culture, Media & Identities, Vol. 1. London: Sage Publications.
    Ducheneaut, Nicolas, NicholasYee, EricNickell and Robert J.Moore (2006) ‘“Alone together?” Exploring the Social Dynamics of Massively Multiplayer Online Games’. In: Proceedings of CHI 2006 Conference. New York: ACM, pp. 407–16.
    Duke, Richard (2003) ‘Closing Remarks of Richard Duke, ISAGA 2003, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan’. ISAGA Newsletter1. Online: http://www.isaga.info/newsletters/newsletter1.pdf
    Durkin, Kevin (1995) Computer Games – Their Effects on Young People: A Review. Sydney: Office of Film and Literature Classification.
    Ermi, Laura, SatuHeliö and FransMäyrä (2004) ‘Pelien voima ja pelaamisen hallinta: Lapset ja nuoret pelikulttuurien toimijoina’. (The Power of Games and Control of Playing: Children as the Actors of Game Cultures.) Hypermedialaboratorion verkkojulkaisuja – Hypermedia Laboratory Net Series; 6. Tampere: University of Tampere. Online: http://tampub.uta.fi/haekokoversio.php?id=53
    Ermi, Laura and FransMäyrä (2005) ‘Fundamental Components of the Gameplay Experience: Analysing Immersion’. In: Suzannede Castell and JenniferJenson (eds), Proceedings of Chancing Views – Worlds in Play. Digital Games Research Association's Second International Conference. Vancouver: DiGRA and Simon Fraser University. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/06276.41516.pdf
    ESA (2006) ‘Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry 2006: Sales, Demographic and Usage Data’. Entertainment Software Association. Online:http://www.theesa.com/archives/files/Essential%20Facts%202006.pdf
    Eskelinen, Markku (2001) ‘The Gaming Situation’. Game Studies, 1(1). Online: http://www.gamestudies.org/0101/eskelinen/
    EverQuest-Widows (2006) EverQuest-Widows email discussion list. Online: http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/EverQuest-Widows/
    Fine, Gary Alan (1983) Shared Fantasy: Role-Playing Games as Social Worlds. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    Fiske, John (1989) Reading the Popular. London and New York: Routledge.
    Fluegelman, Andrew (ed) (1976) New Games Book. New Games Foundation. New York: Dolphin/Doubleday.
    Frasca, Gonzalo (1999) ‘Ludology Meets Narratology. Similitude and Differences between (Video)games and Narrative’. Originally published in Finnish inParnasso 1999: 3, 365–71. Online: http://www.ludology.org/articles/ludology.htm
    Frasca, Gonzalo (2001) ‘Simulation 101. Simulation versus Representation’. Online: http://www.ludology.org/articles/sim1/simulation101.html
    Frasca, Gonzalo (2003a) ‘Ludologists Love Stories, Too: Notes from a Debate that Never Took Place’. In: MarinkaCopier and JoostRaessens (eds), Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings. Utrecht: DiGRA and University of Utrecht. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05163.01125
    Frasca, Gonzalo (2003b) ‘Simulation versus Narrative: Introduction to Ludology’. In: Mark J. P.Wolf and BernardPerron (eds), Video Game Theory Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 221–35.
    Freedman, Jonathan L. (2002) Media Violence and Its Effect on Aggression: Assessing the Scientific Evidence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Friedl, Markus (2003) Online Game Interactivity Theory. Hingham (MA): Charles River Media.
    Fromme, Johannes (2003) ‘Computer Games as a Part of Children's Culture’. Game Studies, 3(1). Online: http://www.gamestudies.org/0301/fromme/
    Frow, John (2005) Genre. The New Critical Idiom. London: Routledge.
    Fullerton, Tracy, ChristopherSwain and StevenHoffman (2004) Game Design Workshop: Designing, Prototyping and Playtesting Games. San Francisco (CA): CMP Books.
    Funk, Jeanne B. (1992) ‘Commentary: Video Games; Benign or Malignant?’Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13(1): 53–4.
    GameSpot (1997) ‘The Ultima Legacy’. Online: http://www.gamespot.com/features/ultima/contents.html
    Gee, James Paul (2003) What Video Games Have To Teach Us About Learning And Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Gelber, Steven M. (1999) Hobbies: Leisure and the Culture of Work in America. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Gelder, Ken and SarahThornton (eds) (1997) The Subcultures Reader. London and New York: Routledge.
    Giammattei, Joyce, GlenBlix, HelenHoppMarshak, AlisonOkadaWollitzer and David J.Pettitt (2003) ‘Television Watching and Soft Drink Consumption’. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 157(9): 882–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.157.9.882
    Giddens, Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Goffman, Erving (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Revised edn). (Orig. 1956.) New York: Anchor Books.
    Goldsmith, Thomas T., Jr, CedarGrove and EstleBay Mann (1948) ‘Cathode-Ray Tube Amusement Device’. United States Patent Office, Patent Number 2,455,992 (patent application filed in January 25, 1947). Online: http://www.pong-story.com/2455992.pdf
    Goldstein, Jeffrey H. (ed) (1998) Why We Watch: Attractions of Violent Entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Gosney, John W. (2005) Beyond Reality: A Guide to Alternate Reality Gaming. Boston (MA): Thomson Course Technology.
    Griffiths, Mark (1999) ‘Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the Literature’. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4: 2 (Summer 1999), pp. 203–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789%2897%2900055-4
    Griffiths, Mark (2005) ‘Video Games and Health’. British Medical Journal, 331 (16 July 2005): 122–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.331.7509.122
    Grossberg, Lawrence (1992) We Gotta Get Out of This Place: Popular Conservatism and Postmodern Culture. London: Routledge.
    Grossberg, Lawrence (1997) Dancing in Spite of Myself: Essays on Popular Culture. Durham: Duke University Press.
    GuilloryJohn (1993) Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary Canon Formation. London: University of Chicago Press.
    Gunawardena, Charlotte N. (1995) ‘Social Presence Theory and Implications for Interaction and Collaborative Learning in Computer Conferences’. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2/3): 147–66. Online: http://www.aace.org/dl/files/IJET/IJET12147.pdf
    Hall, Stuart (1980) ‘Encoding/decoding’. (Orig. 1973.) In: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (eds), Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972–79. London: Hutchinson, pp. 128–38.
    Hall, Stuart and TonyJefferson (eds) (1975/2002) Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. First published as Working Papers in Cultural Studies, No. 7/8. London: Routledge.
    Hebdige, Dick (1979) Subculture: the Meaning of Style. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203139943
    Herman, Leonard, JerHorwitz, SteveKent and SkylerMiller (2002) ‘The History of Video Games’. Gamespot feature article. Online: http://www.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
    Herz, J. C. (1997) Joystick Nation: How Video Games Gobbled Our Money, Won Our Hearts, and Rewired Our Minds. London: Abacus.
    Hess, Elizabeth (2003) Yib's Guide to MOOing: Getting the Most from Virtual Communities on the Internet. Victoria: Trafford. Online: http://www.yibco.com/
    Holmes, Robyn M. and AnthonyD. Pellegrini (2005) ‘Children's Social Behaviour During Video Game Play’. In: JoostRaessens and JeffreyGoldstein (eds), Handbook of Computer Game Studies. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, 2005. pp. 133–44.
    Höysniemi, Johanna (2006a) ‘International Survey on the Dance Dance Revolution Game’. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 4(2), Article No. 8, April 2006.
    Höysniemi, Johanna (2006b) Design and Evaluation of Physically Interactive Games. Dissertations in Interactive Technology, 5. Acta Electronica Universitatis Tamperensis, 544. Tampere: University of Tampere. Online: http://acta.uta.fi/pdf/951–44-6694–2.pdf
    Huhtamo, Erkki (2005) ‘Slots of Fun, Slots of Trouble: An Archaeology of Arcade Gaming’. In: JoostRaessens and JeffreyGoldstein (eds), Handbook of Computer Game Studies. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, pp. 3–21.
    Huizinga, Johan (1938/1971) Homo Ludens. A Study of the Play-Element in Culture. Boston: Beacon Press.
    id Sofware (n.d.) ‘id History’. Online: http://www.idsoftware.com/business/history/
    id Software (1993) ‘Data Utility License’. Online: http://www.johnromero.com/lee_killough/history/dul.txt
    IGDA (2004) ‘Quality of Life in the Game Industry: Challenges and Best Practices’. International Game Developers Association Whitepaper. Online: http://www.igda.org/qol/
    IGDA (2006) ‘2006 Casual Games Whitepaper’. International Game Developers Association Whitepaper. Online: http://www.igda.org/casual/
    Internet Systems Consortium (2006) ‘ISC Domain Survey: Number of Internet Hosts’. Online: http://www.isc.org/index.pl?/ops/ds/host-count-history.php
    IPerG (2006) ‘Deliverable D5.3b: Domain of Pervasive Gaming’. Integrated Project on Pervasive Gaming. Authors: Markus Montola, Annika Waern, Eva Nieuwdorp. Online: http://iperg.sics.se/Deliverables/D5.3b-Domain%20of%20Pervasive%20Gaming.pdf
    Järvinen, Aki (2002a) ‘Gran Stylissimo: The Audiovisual Elements and Styles in Computer and Video Games’. In: FransMäyrä (ed), Proceedings of the Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference. Tampere: Tampere University Press, pp. 113–28. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05164.35393
    Järvinen, Aki (2002b) ‘Kolmiulotteisuuden aika. Audiovisuaalinen kulttuurimuoto 1992–2002’. In: ErkkiHuhtamo and SonjaKangas (eds), Mariosofia. Elektronisten pelien kulttuuri. Helsinki: Gaudeamus, pp. 70–91.
    Järvinen, Aki (2003) ‘The Elements of Simulation in Digital Games System: Representation and Interface in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City’. Dichtung-digital: Journal für digitale ästhetik, 2004(4). Online: http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2003/issue/4/jaervinen/index.htm
    Järvinen, Aki (2005) ‘Theory as Game: Designing the Gamegame’. In: Suzannede Castell and JenniferJenson, Proceedings of Chancing Views – Worlds in Play. Digital Games Research Association's Second International Conference. Vancouver: DiGRA and Simon Fraser University. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/06276.43287.pdf
    Järvinen, Aki, SatuHeliö and FransMäyrä (2002) ‘Communication and Community in Digital Entertainment Services’. Prestudy Research Report. Hypermedia Laboratory Net Series, 2. Tampere: University of Tampere. Online: http://tampub.uta.fi/tup/951–44-5432–4.pdf
    Jasper, David (2004) A Short Introduction to Hermeneutics. Louisville (KY): Westminster John Knox Press.
    Jenkins, Henry (1992) Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York and London: Routledge.
    Jenkins, Henry (1998) ‘“Complete Freedom of Movement”: Video Games as Gendered Play Spaces’. In: HenryJenkins and JustineCassell (eds), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games. Cambridge: MIT Press. Online: http://web.mit.edu/cms/People/henry3/complete.html
    Jenkins, Henry (2000) ‘Lessons From Littleton: What Congress Doesn't Want to Hear About Youth and Media’. Independent School Magazine, Winter 2000. Online: http://www.nais.org/ismagazinearticlePrint.cfm?print=Y&ItemNumber=144264
    Jenkins, Henry (2006) Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.
    Jenkins, Henry and KurtSquire (2002) ‘The Art of Contested Spaces’. In: LucienKing (ed) Game On: The History and Culture of Videogames. London: Laurence King, pp. 64–75. Online: http://web.mit.edu/cms/People/henry3/contestedspaces.html
    Jeppesen, Lars Bo (2004) ‘Profiting from Innovative User Communities: How Firms Organise the Production of User Modifications in the Computer Games Industry’. Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy, Copenhagen Business School Working Papers. Online: http://ep.lib.cbs.dk/download/ISBN/8778690978.pdf
    Jones, Gerard (2002) Killing Monsters. Why Children Need Fantasy, Super Heroes, and Make-Believe Violence. New York: Basic Books.
    Jones, Steve and the research group (2003) ‘Let the Games Begin: Gaming Technology and Entertainment among College Students’. Washington (DC): Pew Internet and American Life Project. Online: http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_College_Gaming_Reporta.pdf
    Juul, Jesper (1999/2001) ‘A Clash Between Game and Narrative: A Thesis on Computer Games and Interactive Fiction’. (Orig. version in Danish; English translation, 2001.) Institute of Nordic Language and Literature, University of Copenhagen. Online: http://www.jesperjuul.dk/thesis/AClashBetweenGameAndNarrative.pdf
    Juul, Jesper (2002) ‘The Open and the Closed: Games of Emergence and Games of Progression’. In: FransMäyrä (ed), CGDC Conference Proceedings. Studies in Information Sciences. Tampere: Tampere University Press, pp. 323–9.
    Juul, Jesper (2005) Half-Real: Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Kallio, KirsiPauliina, Kirsikka Kaipainen and FransMäyrä (2007) ‘Gaming Nation? Piloting the International Study of Games Cultures in Finland: Hypermedia Laboratory Net Series, 14Tampere: University of Tampere. Online: http://tampub.uta.fi/haekokoversio.php?id=202
    Kapell, Matthew (2002) ‘Civilization and its Discontents: American Monomythic Structure as Historical Simulacrum’. Popular Culture Review, 13(2) (Summer 2002): 129–36.
    Kelley, David (1988) The Art of Reasoning. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
    Kennedy, Helen W. (2002) ‘Lara Croft: Feminist Icon or Cyberbimbo? On the Limits of Textual Analysis’. Game Studies, 2(2). Online: http://www.gamestudies.org/0202/kennedy/
    Kent, Steven L. (2001) The Ultimate History of Video Games: From Pong to Pokémon and Beyond – The Story Behind the Graze That Touched Our Lives and Changed the World. New York: Three Rivers.
    Kerr, Aphra (2006) The Business and Culture of Digital Games: Gamework/Gameplay. London: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446211410
    Killough, Lee (n.d.) ‘Doom Editing History’. Online: http://www.johnromero.com/lee_killough/history/edhist.shtml
    Kim, John H. (1998–2006) ‘The Threefold Model’. Online: http://www.darkshire.net/~jhkim/rpg/theory/threefold/
    King, Brad and JohnBorland (2003) Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture from Geek to Chic. New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne.
    Klein, Naomi (2000) No Logo: No Space, No Choice, No Jobs. London: Flamingo.
    Kline, Stephen, NickDyer-Witheford and GreigDe Peuter (2003) Digital Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Knuth, Patricia (1994) ‘Wargaming: A Selected Bibliography’. April 1994. U.S. Army War College Library. Online: http://carlisle-www.army.mil/library/bibs/wargame.htm
    Kohler, Chris (2005) Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Indianapolis (IN): BradyGAMES/Pearson Education.
    Krueger, Myron W., ThomasGionfriddo and KatrinHinrichsen (1985) ‘VIDEOPLACE: An Artificial Reality’. Proceedings of CHI 1985. New York: ACM, pp. 35–40.
    Krzywinska, Tanya and GeoffKing (2002) Screenplay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces. London: Wallflower Press.
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1996) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (
    3rd edn
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kuittinen, Jussi, AnnakaisaKultima, JohannesNiemelä and JannePaavilainen (2007) ‘Casual Games Discussion’. In: Proceedings of the Future Play 2007 Conference. Toronto: Algoma University.
    Kushner, David (2003) Masters of Doom. How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture. New York: Random House.
    Lammes, Sybille (2003) ‘On the Border: Pleasures of Exploration and Colonial Mastery in Civilization III Play the World’. In: MarinkaCopier and JoostRaessens (eds), Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings, Utrecht: DiGRA and University of Utrecht, pp. 120–9. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05163.06568
    Lastowka, F. Gregory and DanHunter (2003) ‘The Laws of the Virtual Worlds’. Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series, Research Paper No. 26. University of Pennsylvania Law School. Online: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=402860
    Laukkanen, Tero (2005) ‘Modding Scenes: Introduction to User-Created Content in Computer Gaming’. Hypermedia Laboratory Net Series, 9. Tampere: University of Tampere. Online: http://tampub.uta.fi/tup/951–44-6448–6.pdf
    Laurel, Brenda (ed) (2003) Design Research: Methods and Perspectives. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Lehdonvirta, Vili (2005) ‘Real-Money Trade of Virtual Assets: Ten Different User Perceptions’. Proceedings of DAC 2005. IT University of Copenhagen. Online: http://www.hiit.fi/u/vlehdonv/publications/Lehdonvirta-2005-RMT-Perceptions.pdf
    Levy, Steven (1984/1994) Hackers. Heroes of the Computer Revolution. New York: Delta (1984).
    Loftus, Geoffrey R. and ElizabethF. Loftus (1983) Mind at Play: the Psychology of Video Games. New York: Basic Books.
    Lowood, Henry (2006) ‘A Brief Biography of Computer Games’. In: PeterVorderer and JenningsBryant (eds), Playing Video Games: Motives, Responses, and Consequences. Mahwah (NJ) and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 25–41.
    Mackay, Daniel (2001) The Fantasy Role-Playing Game: A New Performing Art. Jefferson (NC): McFarland.
    Mäyrä, Frans Ilkka (1999) Demonic Texts and Textual Demons: The Demonic Tradition, the Self, and Popular Fiction. Doctoral Dissertation. Tampere: Tampere University Press. Online: http://www.uta.fi/~frans.mayra/Demon_2005/
    McAllister, Ken S. (2004) Game Work: Language, Power, and Computer Game Culture. Tuscaloosa (AL): The University of Alabama Press.
    McGonigal, Jane (2003) ‘“This is not a Game”: Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play’. Proceedings of DAC 2003.Melbourne: RMIT University. Online: http://www.seanstewart.org/beast/mcgonigal/notagame/paper.pdf
    McGonigal, Jane (2005) ‘SuperGaming: Ubiquitous Play and Performance for Massively Scaled Community’. Modern Drama, 48(3): 471–91. Online: http://avantgame.com/McGonigal_SuperGaming_MODERNDRAMA.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mdr.2006.0012
    McMahan, Alison (2003) ‘Immersion, Engagement, and Presence: A Method for Analyzing 3-D Video Games’. In: Mark J. P.Wolf and BernardPerron (eds), The Video Game Theory Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 67–86.
    Meyer, Leonard B. (1956) Emotion and Meaning in Music. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Mitchell, Edna (1985) ‘The Dynamics of Family Interaction Around Home Video Games’. Marriage and Family Review, 8(1): 121–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v08n01_10
    Montfort, Nick (2003) Twisty Little Passages: An Approach to Interactive Fiction. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Montola, Markus (2003) ‘Exploring the Edge of the Magic Circle: Defining Pervasive Games’. Proceedings of DAC 2005. IT University of Copenhagen. Online: http://iperg.sics.se/Publications/Exploring-the-Edge-of-the-Magic-Circle.pdf
    Morningstar, Chip and F. RandallFarmer (1991) ‘The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat’. In: MichaelBenedikt (ed), Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, pp. 273–301. Online: http://www.fudco.com/chip/lessons.html
    Morris, Jeff (n.d.) ‘Civilization Multiplayer – A Fresh Approach’. Online: http://www.civ3.com/devupdate_multi.cfm
    Morrison, Foster (1991) The Art of Modeling Dynamic Systems: Forecasting for Chaos, Randomness, and Determinism. New York: Wiley-Multiscience Press.
    Muggleton, David and RupertWeinzierl (eds) (2004) The Post-Subcultures Reader. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
    Mulligan, Jessica (2002) ‘Talkin’ ‘bout My … Generation’. Biting the Hand Column # 17. Online: http://www.skotos.net/articles/BTH_17.shtml
    Mulligan, Jessica and BridgettePatrovsky (2003) Developing Online Games: An Insider's Guide. Indianapolis (IN): New Riders.
    Murray, HaroldJamesRuthven (1913/2002) A History of Chess. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Murray, Janet (1997) Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. New York: Free Press.
    Myers, David (1990) ‘Chris Crawford and Computer Game Aesthetics’. Journal of Popular Culture, 24(2): 17–28. Online: http://www.loyno.edu/%7Edmyers/F99%20classes/Myers_CrawfordGameAesthetics.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1990.2402_17.x
    Myers, David (2003) The Nature of Computer Games: Play as Semiosis. New York: Peter Lang.
    Myers, David (2004) ‘The Anti-Poetic: Interactivity, Immersion, and Other Semiotic Functions of Digital Play’. In: A.Clarke (ed), COSIGN 2004 Conference Proceedings. Split, Croatia: Art Academy, University of Split. Online: http://www.loyno.edu/%7Edmyers/F99%20classes/Myers_Antipoetic_ARCHIVE1.rtf
    Myers, David (2005) ‘Bombs, Barbarians, and Backstories: Meaning-Making within Sid Meier's Civilization’. Appeared in Italian translation in: MatteoBittanti (ed), Civilization Storie Virtuali, Fantasie Reali. Videoludica, Game Culture series. Trans. ValentinaPaggiarin. Milan: Costa and Nolan, 2005. Original version online: http://www.loyno.edu/%7Edmyers/F99%20classes/Myers_BombsBarbarians_DRAFT.rtf
    Myers, David (2006) ‘Signs, Symbols, Games, and Play’. Games and Culture, 1(1): 47–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1555412005281778
    Nelson, Theodor (1965/2003) ‘A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate’. (Orig. In: LewisWinner (ed), Association for Computing Machinery: Proceedings of the 20th National Conference, 1965, pp. 84–100.) In: NoahWardrip-Fruin and NickMontfort (eds), The New Media Reader. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, pp. 134–45.
    Nelson, Theodor (1980/1990) Literary Machines, 90.1. (Orig. 1980.) Sausalito (CA): Mindful Press.
    Neopets, Inc. (n.d.) ‘Pet Central’. Online: http://www.neopets.com/petcentral.phtml
    Newman, James (2004) Videogames. London: Routledge.
    Newman, John and IainSimons (eds) (2004) Difficult Questions About Videogames. Nottingham: Suppose Partners.
    Nielsen, Jakob (1993) Usability Engineering. Boston: Academic Press.
    Origin (n.d.) ‘Guilds’. Ultima Online Playguide. Online: http://guide.uo.com/miscellaneous_2.html
    Paley, Vivian Gussin (2004) A Child's Work: The Importance of Fantasy Play. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Pearce, Celia (2005) ‘Theory Wars: An Argument Against Arguments in the so-called Ludology/Narratology Debate’. In: Suzanne de Castell and Jennifer Jenson, Proceedings of Chancing Views – Worlds in Play. Digital Games Research Association's Second International Conference. Vancouver: DiGRA and Simon Fraser University. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/06278.03452.pdf
    Piaget, Jean (1966/2000) The Psychology of the Child. (Orig. La Psychologie de l'enfant. Trans., HelenWeaver.) New York: Basic Books.
    Poblocki, Kacper (2002) ‘Becoming-State: The Bio-Cultural Imperialism of Sid Meier's Civilization’. Focaal – European Journal of Anthropology, 39: 163–77. Online: http://www.focaal.box.nl/previous/Forum%20focaal39.pdf
    Poole, Steven (2000) Trigger Happy: The Inner Life of Video Games. London: Fourth Estate.
    Prensky, Marc (2001) Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Radway, Janice (1984/1991) Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.
    Rehak, Bob (2003) ‘Mapping the Bit Girl: Lara Croft and New Media Fandom’. Information, Communication and Society, 6(4): 477–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369118032000163222
    Reid, Elizabeth M. (1994) ‘Cultural Formations in Text-Based Virtual Realities’. Unpublished MA Thesis. Cultural Studies Program, Department of English, University of Melbourne. Online: http://www.aluluei.com/cult-form.htm
    Rouse, Richard, III (2000) ‘Gaming and Graphics: Computer Games, Not Computer Movies’. ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 34(4) (November 2000): 5–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/369215.369219
    Ryan, Marie-Laure (2001) Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Salen, Katie and EricZimmerman (2004) Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Schechner, Richard (2002) Performance Studies: An Introduction. London: Routledge.
    Schiller, Friedrich (1795/1983) In: On the Aesthetic Education of Man: In a Series of Letters English and German Facing. Elizabeth M.Wilkinson and L. A.Willoughby (eds), Oxford University Press.
    Sellers, John (2001) Arcade Fever: The Fan's Guide to the Golden Age of Video Games. Philadelphia: Running Press.
    Sheff, David (1999) Game Over – Press Start to Continue: How Nintendo Conquered the World. With new chapters by Andy Eddy. Wilton (CT): Game Press/CyberActive.
    Simpson, Dan (2005) ‘Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar. FAQ/Walkthrough’. v. 1.61. Online: http://db.gamefaqs.com/computer/doswin/file/ultima_iv.txt
    Smith, Jacob (2004) ‘I Can See Tomorrow in Your Dance: A Study of Dance Dance Revolution and Music Video Games’. Journal of Popular Music Studies, 16(1): 58–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-4146.2004.00011.x
    Smith, Peter K. (ed) (1984) Play in Animals and Humans. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell.
    Sotamaa, Olli (2002) ‘All The World's A Botfighter Stage: Notes on Location-based Multi-User Gaming’. In: FransMäyrä (ed), CGDC Conference Proceedings. Studies in Information Sciences. Tampere: Tampere University Press, pp. 35–44. Online: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05164.14477.pdf
    Sotamaa, Olli (2005) ‘Creative User-Centred Design Practices: Lessons From Game Culture’. In: LeslieHaddon, EnidMante, BartolomeoSapio, Kari-HansKommonen, LeopoldinaFortunati and AnneviKant (eds), Everyday Innovators: Researching the Role of Users in Shaping ICT's. Berlin and New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 104–16. Online: http://members.aol.com/leshaddon/Sotamaa.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3872-0_7
    Spencer, Herbert (1880) The Principles of Psychology. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
    Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1992) ‘Acting Bits/Identity Talk’. Critical Inquiry, 18 (Summer 1992): 770–803. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/448656
    Squire, Kurt D. (2004) ‘Replaying History: Learning World History through PlayingCivilization III’. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Indiana University. Online: http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/dissertation.html
    Stahl, Ted (ed) (2005) ‘Video Games: Golden Age’. In: History of Computing website. Online: http://www.thocp.net/software/games/golden_age.htm
    Stettler, Nicolas, TheoM. Signer and PaoloM. Suter (2004) ‘Electronic Games and Environment Factors Associated with Childhood Obesity in Switzerland’. Obesity Research, 12(6): 896–903. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.109
    Stewart, Sean (n.d.) ‘The A.I. Web Game’. Online: http://www.seanstewart.org/beast/intro/
    Strinati, Dominic (1995) Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture. London: Routledge.
    Sudnow, David (1983) Pilgrim in the Microworld: Eye, Mind and the Essence of Video Skill. New York: Warner Books.
    Suits, Bernard Herbert (1978) The Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Sulake (2007) ‘Quick Habbo facts (November 2007)’. Online: http://www.sulake.com/habbo/?navi=2
    Sutton-Smith, Brian (1997) The Ambiguity of Play. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
    Szulborski, Dave (2005) This Is Not a Game: A Guide to Alternate Reality Gaming. Santa Barbara (CA): eXe Active Media Group.
    Tamborini, Ron and PaulSkalski (2006) ‘The Role of Presence in the Experience of Electronic Games’. In: PeterVorderer and JenningsBryant (eds), PlayingVideo Games: Motives, Responses, and Consequences. Mahwah (NJ) and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 225–40.
    TASP (n.d.) ‘History of TASP’. The Association for the Study of Play. Online: http://www.csuchico.edu/kine/tasp/history.htm
    Taylor, Alice (2002) ‘My Story: Girls Playing Games’. In: LucienKing (ed), Game On: The History and Culture of Videogames. London: Laurence King, pp. 56–7.
    Taylor, T. L. (2006) Play Between Worlds: Exploring Online Game Culture. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Thomas, Bruce, BenClose, JohnDonoghue, JohnSquires, Phillip DeBondi and WaynePiekarski (2002) ‘First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake’. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing6(1): 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007790200007
    Todorov, Tzvetan (1990) Genres in Discourse. (Orig. Genres du discours, 1978; trans. CatherinePorter.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tosca, Susana (2002) ‘The EverQuest Speech Community’. In: FransMäyrä (ed), CGDC Conference Proceedings. Studies in Information Sciences. Tampere: Tampere University Press, pp. 341–53.
    Toynbee, Arnold J. (1934–1961) A Study of History. Volumes 1–12. London and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Trice, Harrison M. (1993) Occupational Subcultures in the Workplace. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press.
    Turkle, Sherry (1993) Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone.
    Turkle, Sherry (2005) ‘Computer Games as Evocative Objects: From Projective Screens to Relational Artifacts’. In: JoostRaessens and JeffreyGoldstein (eds), Handbook of Computer Game Studies. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, 2005, pp. 267–79.
    Turner, Victor (1982) ‘Liminal to Liminoid, in Play, Flow, and Ritual: An Essay in Comparative Symbology’. In: VictorTurner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play. New York: PAJ Publications, pp. 20–60.
    Tylor, E. B. (1879/1971) ‘The History of Games’. In: ElliottM. Avedon and BrianSutton-Smith, The Study of Games. New York and London: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 63–76.
    US Census Bureau (2006) Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2006. U.S. Census Bureau. Washington (DC): Department of Commerce. Online: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2006edition.html
    US Department of Labor (1999) ‘Computer Ownership Up Sharply in the 1990s’. Issues in Labor Statistics, Summary 99–4 (March 1999). U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Online: http://www.bls.gov/opub/ils/pdf/opbils31.pdf
    van Gennep, Arnold (1908/2004) The Rites of Passage. London: Routledge.
    Vandewater, Elizabeth A., Mi-sukShim and Allison G.Caplovitz (2004) ‘Linking Obesity and Activity Level with Children's Television and Video Game Use’. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1): 71–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.003
    Vivendi (2006) ‘Introduction to Vivendi Games’. June 2006 investor presentation by Bruce Hack, Mike Morhaime, Jean-Francois Grollemund and Nichol Bradford. Online: http://www.vivendi.com/ir/download/pdf/VIVGames_EuropeRoadshow_June2006.pdf
    Vogel, Harold L. (2004) Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide to Financial Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Vorderer, Peter and JenningsBryant (eds) (2006) Playing Video Games: Motives, Responses, and Consequences. Mahwah (NJ) and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Vygotsky, Lev S. (1980) In: Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. MichaelCole, VeraJohn-Steiner, SylviaScribner, and EllenSouberman. (eds), Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
    Vygotsky, Lev S. (1934/1986) In: AlexKozwin (ed), Thought and Language (Revised edn). (Ed. AlexKozulin.) Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press.
    Wallace, Patricia (2001) The Psychology of the Internet. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Weiser, Mark (1993) ‘Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing’. Communications of the ACM, 36(7): 75–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/159544.159617
    Williams, Dmitri (2006) ‘A (Brief) Social History of Video Games’. In: PeterVorderer, JenningsBryant (eds), Playing Computer Games: Motives, Responses, and Consquences. Mahwah (NJ) and London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Williams, Patrick, J., Q. HendricksSean, and W. KeithWinkler (eds) (2006) Gaming As Culture: Essays on Reality, Identity And Experience in Fantasy Games. Jefferson (NC): McFarland and Company.
    Wolf, Mark J.P. (ed) (2001) The Medium of the Video Game. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Woolley, David R. (1994) ‘PLATO: The Emergence of On-Line Community’. Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine1(3). Online: http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1994/jul/plato.html
    Yee, Nicholas (2001) ‘The Norrathian Scrolls. A Study of EverQuest’. Version 2.5. Online: http://www.nickyee.com/eqt/report.html
    Yee, Nicholas (2002a) ‘Ariadne: Understanding MMORPG Addiction’. Online: http://www.nickyee.com/hub/addiction/home.html
    Yee, Nicholas (2002b) ‘Facets: 5 Motivation Factors for Why People Play MMORPG's’. Online: http://www.nickyee.com/facets/home.html
    Yee, Nicholas (2003–2006) ‘The Daedalus Project’. Online: http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website