Alcohol use among Adolescents

Books

Michael Windle

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Series

    Series Editor: Alan E. Kazdin, Yale University

    Recent volumes in this series …

    • LIFE EVENTS AS STRESSORS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE by James H. Johnson
    • CONDUCT DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE, 2nd Ed. by Alan E. Kazdin
    • CHILD ABUSE, 2nd. Ed. by David A. Wolfe
    • PREVENTING MALADJUSTMENT FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE by Annette U. Rickel and LaRue Allen
    • TEMPERAMENT AND CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY by William T. Garrison and Felton J. Earls
    • EMPIRICALLY BASED ASSESSMENT OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, 2nd Ed. by Thomas M. Achenbach and Stephanie H. McConaughy
    • MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT, 2nd Ed. by Robert E. Emery
    • AUTISM by Laura Schreibman
    • DELINQUENCY IN ADOLESCENCE by Scott W. Henggeler
    • CHRONIC ILLNESS DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE by William T. Garrison and Susan McQuiston
    • ANXIETY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN by Rachel G. Klein and Cynthia G. Last
    • CHILDREN OF BATTERED WOMEN by Peter G. Jaffe, David A. Wolfe, and Susan Kaye Wilson
    • SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS by Steven P. Schinke, Gilbert J. Botvin, and Mario A. Orlandi
    • CHILD PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot
    • EATING AND GROWTH DISORDERS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN by Joseph L. Woolston
    • NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY by George W. Hynd and Stephen R. Hooper
    • ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILDBEARING by Laurie Schwab Zabin and Sarah C. Hayward
    • EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS by John R. Weisz and Bahr Weiss
    • BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME by Elisabeth M. Dykens, Robert M. Hodapp, and James F. Leckman
    • ATTENTION DEFICITS AND HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN by Stephen P. Hinshaw
    • LEARNING DISABILITIES by Byron P. Rourke and Jerel E. Del Dotto
    • PEDIATRIC TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY by Jeffrey H. Snow and Stephen R. Hooper
    • FAMILIES, CHILDREN, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DYSFUNCTION by Mark R. Dadds
    • ADOLESCENTS AND THE MEDIA by Victor C. Strasburger
    • SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS by Joseph A. Durlak
    • CHILDHOOD OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER by Greta Francis and Rod A. Gragg
    • TREATING CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND INPATIENT SETTINGS by Robert D. Lyman and Nancy R. Campbell
    • THE IMPACT OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS by Javad H. Kashani and Wesley D. Allan
    • CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT TO ADOPTION by David M. Brodzinsky, Daniel W. Smith, and Anne B. Brodzinsky
    • MOTOR COORDINATION DISORDERS IN CHILDREN by David A. Sugden and Helen Wright
    • CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE by David M. Fergusson and Paul E. Mullen
    • POVERTY AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT by Suniya S. Luthar
    • ALCOHOL USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS by Michael Windle
    • CREATING HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE by Cheryl L. Perry

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Series Editor's Introduction

    Interest in child development and adjustment is by no means new. Yet only recently has the study of children benefited from advances in both clinical and scientific research. Advances in the social and biological sciences, the emergence of disciplines and subdisciplines that focus exclusively on childhood and adolescence, and greater appreciation of the impact of such influences as the family, peers, and school have helped accelerate research on developmental psychopathology. Apart from interest in the study of child development and adjustment for its own sake, the need to address clinical problems of adulthood naturally draws one to investigate precursors in childhood and adolescence.

    Within a relatively brief period, the study of psychopathology among children and adolescents has grown considerably. Several different professional journals, annual book series, and handbooks devoted entirely to the study of children and adolescents and their adjustment document the proliferation of work in the field. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of resource material that presents information in an authoritative, systematic, and disseminable fashion. There is a need within the field to convey the latest developments and to represent different disciplines, approaches, and conceptual views to the topics of childhood and adolescent adjustment and maladjustment.

    The Sage Series Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry is designed to serve several needs of the field. The Series encompasses individual monographs prepared by experts in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, child development, and related disciplines. The primary focus is on developmental psychopathology, which here broadly refers to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of problems that arise in the period from infancy through adolescence. A working assumption of the Series is that understanding, identifying, and treating problems of youth must draw on multiple disciplines and diverse views within a given discipline.

    The task for individual contributors is to present the latest theory and research on various topics, including specific types of dysfunction, diagnostic and treatment approaches, and special problem areas that affect adjustment. Core topics within clinical work are addressed by the Series. Authors are asked to bridge potential theory, research, and clinical practice and to outline the current status and future directions. The goals of the Series and the tasks presented to individual contributors are demanding. We have been extremely fortunate in recruiting leaders in the fields who have been able to translate their recognized scholarship and expertise into highly readable works on contemporary topics.

    In this book, Dr. Michael Windle examines alcohol use among adolescents. This book carefully documents the latest research on the scope of the problem, assessment, diagnosis, screening youth for alcohol use, risk and protective factors, treatment, prevention, and social-policy-based intervention programs. Among the many topics that are covered are the relation of alcohol use to substance abuse more generally; biological, psychological, and contextual influences on adolescent drinking; and ethnic, cultural, and gender-based variations in patterns of alcohol use over the course of development. There is a remarkable balance in the coverage of conceptual models of the problem, empirical research, and methodological challenges in evaluating alcohol use over the course of development. The book is forward looking in suggesting promising leads for understanding etiology and effective interventions and in pointing to several lines of research that are priorities for the upcoming years. Dr. Windle's own research on the interrelation of alcohol use to other domains of functioning in adolescents, alcohol use at different points in development, and key developmental themes (e.g., peer relations, cognitive functioning, and sex differences) make this book broad in scope and developmentally informed. The book conveys the significance of adolescent alcohol use as a social and clinical problem and also points to promising leads for its amelioration.

    —Alan E.Kazdin, Ph.D.

    Preface

    Adolescent alcohol use is pervasive in the United States, with the vast majority of adolescents having consumed alcohol by their senior year of high school. However, public knowledge that most adolescents use alcohol by their senior year of high school provides the health care community and social policymakers with little guidance as to the prevalence of different patterns of drinking behavior (e.g., light versus heavy drinking), the presumed underlying causes of drinking, or the optimal ways to intervene to reduce or eliminate alcohol use among youth. The study of adolescent alcohol use is an interdisciplinary endeavor, with disciplinary contributions from epidemiologists, biologists, clinical and developmental psychologists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, economists, counselors, nurses, and educators. Many of these professionals are concerned with common issues about adolescent alcohol use but due to time constraints and the proliferation of profession-specific journals, they may not be cognizant of relevant research in cognate professions. Likewise, researchers in other specialty areas, graduate students, and health care professionals often seek resources that provide a relatively rapid overview of key issues in a field such as adolescent alcohol use.

    This book attempts to provide representative coverage to a broad and rapidly expanding literature on adolescent alcohol use. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the scope of issues related to adolescent alcohol use, including data on the prevalence of various alcohol use indicators, such as frequency of use and binge drinking. In Chapter 2, a review is provided of approaches to the measurement of alcohol-related behaviors among adolescents, drawing on strategies used in both social survey and clinical diagnostic traditions. Chapter 3 reviews literature that has identified a large number of risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. In Chapter 4, literature is reviewed pertinent to a range of psychosocial, community, and social policy interventions that have attempted to reduce adolescent alcohol use and related problems. Findings from the treatment literature are also included in this chapter. Chapter 5 focuses on some major conceptual and methodological issues that the field of adolescent alcohol use must confront to advance the field toward more optimal solutions for the drinking behaviors of youth.

    I am indebted to the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse for their ongoing support of my research on adolescent alcohol use. The support of a Method-to-Extend Research in Time Award (R37AA07861) has significantly affected my career development in adolescent alcohol use and enabled me to broaden my horizons for subsequent research in the field. I am also indebted to my colleagues at the Research Institute on Addictions in Buffalo, New York, where I conducted research for 11 years prior to assuming my current position. I am particularly grateful to Dr. Howard Blane who assisted me early in my career development in the study of adolescent alcohol use. I am also grateful to Peggy Nicholson, my Administrative Assistant, for her technical assistance in preparing this monograph. She was patient and helpful through my many revisions of this book. Last, but certainly not least, I am quite grateful to my wife, Rebecca Windle, who served as a sounding board and editor for much of the material presented in this book. She willingly assisted in this endeavor and was especially pleased (I daresay ecstatic) when it was sent off to the publishers.

  • References

    Adler, I., & Kandel, D. B. (1983). Risk periods for drug involvement in adolescence in France and in Israel: Application of survival analysis to cross-sectional data. Social Forces, 62, 375–394.
    Aguirre-Molina, M., & Gorman, D. M. (1996). Community-based approaches for the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Annual Review of Public Health, 17, 337–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.17.050196.002005
    Alterman, A. I., O'Brien, C. P., & McLellan, A. J. (1991). Differential therapeutics for substance abuse. In R. J.Frances & S. I.Miller (Eds.), Clinical textbook of addictive disorders (pp. 369–390). New York: Guilford.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    3rd ed.
    , rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    4th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    American School Health Association, Association for the Advancement of Health Education, and Society for Public Health Education, Inc. (1989). The National Adolescent Student Health Survey: A report on the health of America's youth. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing.
    Arnett, T. (1992). Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 339–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2892%2990013-R
    Ary, D. V., Tildesley, E., Hops, H., & Andrews, J. (1993). The influence of parent, sibling, and peer modeling and attitudes on adolescent use of alcohol. The International Journal of the Addictions, 28, 853–880.
    August, G. J., Stewart, M. A., & Holmes, C. S. (1983). A four-year follow-up of hyperactive boys with and without conduct disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 192–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.143.2.192
    Bachman, J. G., Wallace, J., Jr., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Kurth, C. L., & Neighbors, M. W. (1991). Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976–1989. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 372–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.3.372
    Bahr, S. J., Hawks, R. D., & Wang, G. (1993). Family and religious influences on adolescent substance abuse. Youth & Society, 24, 443–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X93024004007
    Bailey, S. L., Flewelling, R. L., & Rachal, J. V. (1992). The characterization of inconsistencies in self-reports of alcohol and marijuana use in longitudinal study of adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 636–647.
    Bailey, S. L., & Rachal, J. V. (1993). Dimensions of adolescent problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 54, 555–565.
    Barnes, G. M. (1990). Impact of the family on adolescent drinking patterns. In R. L.Collins, K. E.Leonard, and J. S.Searles (Eds.), Alcohol and the family: Research and clinical perspectives (pp. 137–161). New York: Guilford.
    Barnes, G. M., & Welte, J. W. (1986). Patterns and predictors of alcohol use among 7–12th grade students in New York State. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47, 53–62.
    Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1173–1182.
    Bauman, K. E., & Ennett, S. T. (1996). On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: Commonly neglected considerations. Addiction, 91, 185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03175.x
    Bauman, K. E., Fisher, L. A., Bryan, E. E. S., & Chenowith, R. L. (1985). Relationships between subjective expected utility and behavior: A longitudinal study of adolescent drinking behavior. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 32–38.
    Baumrind, D., & Moselle, K. A. (1985). A developmental perspective on adolescent drug abuse. Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Adolescence, 2, 41–67.
    Bettes, B. A., Dusenbury, L., Kerner, J., James-Ortiz, S., & Botvin, G. J. (1990). Ethnicity and psychosocial factors in alcohol and tobacco use in adolescence. Child Development, 61, 557–565. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131115
    Biderman, J. (1992). New developments in pediatric psychopharmacology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 14–15.
    Blackson, T. C., Tarter, R. E., Loeber, R., Ammerman, R. T., & Windle, M. (1996). The influence of paternal substance abuse and difficult temperament in fathers and sons on son's disengagement from family to deviant peers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 389–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537392
    Blouin, A. G. A., Bornstein, R. A., & Trites, R. L. (1978). Teenage alcohol use among hyperactive children: A five-year follow-up study. Journal of Pediatric Psychiatry, 116, 188–194.
    Blum, K., Noble, E. P., Sheridan, P. J., Montgomery, A., Ritchie, T., Jagadeeswaran, P., Nogam, H., Briggs, A. H., & Cohen, J. B. (1990). Allelic associations of human dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 2055–2060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03440150063027
    Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Botvin, E. M., & Diaz, T. (1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1106–1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520380042033
    Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 437–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.437
    Brook, J. S., Brook, D. W., Gordon, A. S., Whiteman, M., & Cohen, P. (1990). The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: A family interactional approach. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 116, 111–267.
    Brown, S. (1993). Recovery patterns in adolescent substance abuse. In J. S.Baer, G. A.Marlott, & R. J.McMahon (Eds.), Addictive behaviors across the life span: Prevention, treatment, and policy issue (pp. 161–183). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Brown, S. A., Gleghorn, A., Schuckit, M. A., Myers, M. G., & Mott, M. A. (1996). Conduct disorder among adolescent alcohol and drug abusers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 314–324.
    Brown, S. A., Mott, M. A., & Myers, M. G. (1990). Adolescent alcohol and drug treatment outcome. In R. R.Watson (Ed.), Drug and alcohol abuse prevention (pp. 373–403). Clifton, NJ: Humana.
    Brown, S. A., Vik, P. W., & Creamer, V. A. (1989). Characteristics of relapse following adolescent substance abuse treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 14, 291–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2889%2990060-9
    Bryant, K. J., West, S. G., & Windle, M. (1997). Overview of new methodological developments in prevention research: Alcohol and substance abuse. In K. J.Bryant, M.Windle, & S. G.West (Eds.), The science of prevention: Methodological advances from alcohol and substance abuse research (pp. xvii–xxxii). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10222-000
    Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling with the HLM/2L and HLM/3L programs. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
    Bukstein, O., & Kaminer, Y. (1994). The nosology of adolescent substance abuse. American Journal of Addictions, 3, 1–13.
    Bukstein, O. G. (1994). Treatment of adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol Health and Research World, 18, 196–301.
    Bukstein, O. G., Brent, D. A., & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance use and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1131–1141.
    Buydens-Branchey, L., Branchey, M. H., Noumair, D., & Lieber, C. S. (1989). Age of alcoholism onset. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 231–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810030037005
    Campanelli, P. C., Dielman, T. E., & Shope, J. T. (1987). Validity of adolescents' self-reports of alcohol use and misuse using a bogus pipeline procedure. Adolescence, 22, 7–22.
    Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., Wells, E. A., Miller, J., & Brewer, D. D. (1991). Evaluation of the effectiveness of adolescent drug abuse treatment, assessment of risks for relapse, and promising approaches for relapse prevention. International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 1085–1140.
    Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J. D., Newcomb, M. D., & Abbott, R. D. (1996). Modeling the etiology of adolescent substance use: A test of the social development model. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 429–455.
    Chassin, L., Pillow, D. R., Curran, P. J., Molina, B. S. G., & Barrera, M. (1993). Relation of parental alcoholism to early adolescent substance use: A test of three mediating mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.102.1.3
    Christiansen, B. A., & Teahan, J. E. (1987). Cross-cultural comparisons of Irish and American adolescent drinking practices and beliefs. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 558–562.
    Christiansen, B. A., Goldman, M. S., & Inn, A. (1982). Development of alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents: Separating pharmacological from social-learning influences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 336–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.3.336
    Christiansen, B. A., Smith, G. T., Roehling, P. V., & Goldman, M. S. (1989). Using alcohol expectancies to predict adolescent drinking behavior after one year. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 93–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.1.93
    Clark, D. B., Jacob, R. G., & Mezzich, A. (1994). Anxiety and conduct disorders in early onset alcoholism. In T. F.Babor, V.Hesselbrock, R.Meyer, & W.Shoemaker (Eds.), Types of alcoholics (pp. 181–186). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
    Cloninger, C. R., Sigvardsson, S., & Bohman, M. (1988). Childhood personality predicts alcohol abuse in young adults. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 12, 494–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1988.tb00232.x
    Cloninger, C. R., Bohman, M., & Sigvardsson, S. (1981). Inheritance of alcohol abuse: Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 861–868. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780330019001
    Coate, D., & Grossman, M. (1988). Effects of alcoholic beverage prices and legal drinking ages on youth alcohol use. Journal of Law & Economics, 31, 145–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/467152
    Cohen, P., Cohen, J., Kasen, S., Velez, C. N., Hartmark, C., Johnson, J., Rojas, M., Brook, J., & Streuning, E. L. (1993). An epidemiological study of disorders in late childhood and adolescence: I. Age- and gender-specific prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 851–867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb01094.x
    Coie, J. D., Watt, N. F., West, S. G., Hawkins, J. D., Asarnow, J. R., Markman, H. J., Ramey, S. L., Shure, M. B., & Long, B. (1993). The science of prevention: A conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 48, 1013–1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.10.1013
    Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6, 117–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.117
    Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., & George, W. H. (1988). Coping, expectancies, and alcohol abuse: A test of social learning formulations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 218–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.97.2.218
    Dawson, D. A. (1998). Volume of ethanol consumption: Effects of different approaches to measurement. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 191–197.
    Deckel, A. W., Hesselbrock, V., & Bauer, L. (1995). Relationship between alcohol-related expectancies and anterior brain functioning in young men at risk for developing alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 19, 476–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1995.tb01534.x
    Dielman, T. E., Shope, J. T., Butchart, A. T., & Campanelli, P. C. (1986). Prevention of adolescent alcohol misuse: An elementary school program. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1, 259–282.
    Dielman, T. E., Shope, J. T., Leech, S. L., & Butchart, A. T. (1989). Differential effectiveness of an elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program. Journal of School Health, 59, 255–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1989.tb04718.x
    Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D. W., Kavanaugh, K., & Soberman, L. H. (1996). Preventive interventions for high-risk youth: The Adolescent Transitions Program. In R. D.Peters & R. J.McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp. 184–214). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Dobkin, P. L., Tremblay, R. E., Masse, L. C., & Vitaro, F. (1995). Individual and peer characteristics in predicting boys' early onset of substance abuse: A seven-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1198–1214. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131807
    Donovan, J. E., & Jessor, R. (1978). Adolescent problem drinking: Psychosocial correlates in a national sample study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39, 1506–1524.
    Duncan, T.E., Tildesley, E., Duncan, S. C., & Hops, H. (1995). The consistency of family and peer influences on the development of substance use in adolescence. Addiction, 90, 1647–1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1995.tb02835.x
    Ellickson, P. L., & Bell, R. M. (1990). Drug prevention in junior high: A multi-site longitudinal test. Science, 247, 1299–1304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2180065
    Ellickson, P. L., Bell, R. M., & McGuigan, K. (1993). Preventing adolescent drug use: Long-term results of a junior high program. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 856–861. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.6.856
    Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1989). Multiple problem youth. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9637-6
    Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
    Fingarette, H. (1989). Heavy drinking: The myth of alcoholism as a disease. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Fleisch, B. (1991). Approaches in the treatment of adolescents with emotional and substance abuse problems. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (Eds.). (1983). Stress, coping and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Giancola, P. R., & Zeichner, A. (1997). The biphasic effects of alcohol on human physical aggression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 598–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.106.4.598
    Gillmore, M. R., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Day, L. E., & Moore, M. (1991). Structure of problem behavior in preadolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 499–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.4.499
    Goldstein, H. (1995). Multilevel statistical models (
    2nd ed.
    ). London: Edward Arnold.
    Gorman, D. M. (1992). Using theory and basic research to target primary prevention programs: Recent developments and future prospects. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 27, 583–594.
    Gorman, D. M. (1995). Are school-based resistance skills training programs effective in preventing alcohol misuse? Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 41, 74–98.
    Gorman, D. M. (1996a). Do school-based social skills training programs prevent alcohol use among young people? Addiction Research, 4, 191–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/16066359609010757
    Gorman, D. M. (1996b). Etiological theories and the primary prevention of drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 505–520.
    Gorman, D. M. (1998). The irrelevance of evidence in the development of school-based drug prevention policy, 1986–1996. Evaluation Review, 22, 118–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9802200106
    Gorman, D. M., & Speer, P. W. (1996). Preventing alcohol abuse and alcohol-related problems through community interventions: Areview of evaluation studies. Psychology and Health, 11, 95–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449608401978
    Grant, B., & Dawson, D. A. (1998). Age of alcohol onset and alcohol disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse.
    Grossman, M., Coate, D., & Arluck, G. M. (1987). Price sensitivity of alcoholic beverages in the United States: Youth alcohol consumption. In H.Holder (Ed.), Control issues in alcohol abuse prevention: Strategies for states and communities (pp. 169–198). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Gruenewald, P. J., Miller, A. B., Treno, A. J., Yang, Z., Ponicki, W. R., & Roeper, P. (1996). The geography of availability and driving after drinking. Addiction, 91, 967–983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03594.x
    Harrell, A. V., Sowder, B., & Kapsak, K. (1988). Field Validation of Drinking and You: A screening instrument for adolescent problem drinking (Contract No. ADM 281-85-0007). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
    Harrell, A. V., & Wirtz, P. W. (1989). Screening for adolescent problem drinking: Validation of a multidimensional instrument for case identification. Psychological Assessment, 1, 61–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.1.1.61
    Harrington, N. G., & Donohew, L. (1997). Jump Start: A targeted substance abuse prevention program. Health Education & Behavior, 24, 568–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819702400505
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.64
    Haynes, S. N. (1992). Models of causality in psychopathology: Toward dynamic, synthetic, and nonlinear causal models of behavior disorders. New York: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YIC.0b013e32832d6bca
    Heath, A. C. (1995). Genetic influences on drinking behavior in humans. In H.Begleiter & B.Kissin (Eds.), Alcohol and alcoholism: Vol. 1. The genetic factors and alcoholism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000441-195711000-00020
    Heath, A. C., Sluske, W. S., & Madden, P. A. F. (1997). Gender differences in the genetic contribution to alcoholism risk and to alcohol consumption patterns. In R. W.Wilsnack & S. C.Wilsnack (Eds.), Gender and alcohol (pp. 114–149). Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Helzer, J., Canino, G., & Yeh, E. K. (1990). Alcoholism—North America and Asia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 313–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810160013002
    Helzer, J. E., & Pryzbeck, T. R. (1988). The co-occurrence of alcoholism with other psychiatric disorders in the general population and its impact on treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49, 219–224.
    Henly, G. A., & Winters, K. C. (1989). Development of psychosocial scales for the assessment of adolescents involved in alcohol and drugs. International Journal of Addictions, 24, 973–1001.
    Hingson, R., Heeren, T., & Winter, M. (1994). Effects of lower legal blood alcohol limits for young and adult drivers. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 10, 243–251.
    Hingson, R., Heeren, T., & Winter, M. (1996). Lowering state legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08%: The effect on fatal motor vehicle crashes. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1297–1299. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.9.1297
    Holly, A., & Wittchen, H. U. (1998). Patterns of use and their relationship to DSM-IV abuse and dependence of alcohol among adolescents and young adults. European Addiction Research, 4, 50–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000018928
    Hops, H., Tildesley, E., Lichtenstein, E., Ary, D., & Sherman, L. (1990). Parent-adolescent problem-solving interactions and drug use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 16, 239–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952999009001586
    Huba, G. J., & Bentler, P. B. (1982). A developmental theory of drug use: Derivation and assessment of a causal modeling approach. In P. B.Baltes & O. G.Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life Span Development and Behavior (Vol. 4; pp. 147–203). New York: Academic Press.
    Ingvar, M., Ghatan, P. H., Wirsen-Meurling, A., Risberg, J., Von Heijne, G., Stone-Elander, S., & Ingvar, D. M. (1998). Alcohol activates the cerebral reward system in man. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 258–269.
    Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Jacob, T., & Leonard, K. (1994). Family and peer influences in the development of adolescent alcohol abuse. In R.Rucker & J.Howard (Eds.), Development of alcohol problems: Exploring the biopsychosocial matrix of risk (pp. 123–155; NIAA Research Monograph No. 26, NIH Publication No. 94-3495). Rockville, MD: National Institutes for Health.
    Jessor, R., Donovan, J. E., & Costa, F. N. (1991). Beyond adolescence: Problem behavior and young adult development. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527647
    Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic Press.
    Jessor, R., Van Den Bos, J., Vanderryn, J., Costa, F. M., & Turbin, M. S. (1995). Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 31, 923–933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.6.923
    Johnson, C. A., Pentz, M. A., Weber, M. D., Dwyer, J. H., Baer, N., MacKinnon, D. P., Hansen, W. B., & Flay, B. R. (1990). Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 447–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.447
    Johnson, E. O., Arria, A. M., Borges, G., Ialongo, N., & Anthony, J. C. (1995). The growth of conduct problem behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence: Sex differences and the suspected influence of early alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 661–671.
    Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1991). Drug use among American high school students, college students, and other young adults, 1975–1990. Rockville, MA: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1996). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975–1994: Vol. 1. Secondary school students. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Kaminer, Y. (1995). Pharmacotherapy for adolescents with psychoactive substance abuse disorders. In E.Rahdert & D.Czechowicz (Eds.), Adolescent drug abuse: Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions (pp. 291–324; NIDA Research Monograph 156, NIH Publication No. 95-3908). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Kaminer, Y., Tarter, R. E., Bukstein, O. G., & Kabene, M. (1992). Comparison between treatment completers and noncompleters among dually diagnosed substance-abusing adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 1046–1049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199211000-00008
    Kandel, D. B. (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 181, 912–914.
    Kandel, D. B. (1980). Drug and drinking behavior among youth. Annual Review in Sociology, 6, 235–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.06.080180.001315
    Kandel, D. B. (1985). On processes of peer influences in adolescent drug use: A developmental perspective. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 4, 139–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J251v04n03_07
    Kashani, J. M., Beck, N. C., Hoeper, E. W., Fallahi, C., Corcoran, C. M., McAllister, J. A., Rosenberg, T. K., & Reid, C. (1987). Psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 564–589.
    Kendler, K. S., Heath, A. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992). A population based twin study of alcoholism in women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 1877–1882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490140085040
    Kohnstamm, G. A., Bates, J. E., & Rothbart, M. K. (Eds.). (1989). Temperament in childhood. New York: John Wiley.
    Koob, G. F., & Bloom, F. E. (1988). Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug dependence. Science, 242, 715–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2903550
    Kumar, K. M., & O'Brien, C. P. (1994). Substance abuse. In A.Frazier, P.Molinoff, & A.Winokur (Eds.), Biological bases of brain function and disease (pp. 357–384). New York: Raven.
    Kumpfer, K. L., Molgaard, V., & Spoth, R. (1996). The Strengthening Families Program for the prevention of delinquency and drug use. In R. D.Peters & R. J.McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp. 241–267). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Labouvie, E. W. (1986). Alcohol and marijuana use in relation to adolescent stress. International Journal of Addictions, 21, 333–345.
    Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
    Leccese, M., & Waldron, H. B. (1994). Assessing adolescent substance use: A critique of current measurement instruments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 11, 553–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472%2894%2990007-8
    Lemmens, P., Tan, E. S., & Knibbe, R. A. (1992). Measuring quantity and frequency of drinking in a general population survey: A comparison of five indices. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 476–486.
    Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Lerner, J. V., & Lerner, R. M. (1983). Temperament and adaptation across life: Theoretical and empirical issues. In P. B.Baltes & O. G.Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life span development and behavior (Vol. 5; pp 197–231). New York: Academic Press.
    Maddahian, E., Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Risk factors for substance use: Ethnic differences among adolescents. Journal of Substance Abuse, 1, 11–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289%2888%2980004-X
    Magnusson, D. (1988). Individual development from an interactional perspective: A longitudinal study. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Mann, L. M., Chassin, L., & Sher, K. J. (1987). Alcohol expectancies and the risk for alcoholism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 411–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.411
    Martin, C., Earlywine, M., Musty, R., Perrine, M., & Swift, R. (1993). Development and validation of the biphasic alcohol effects scale. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 17, 140–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1993.tb00739.x
    Martin, C. S., Kaczynski, N. A., Maisto, S. A., Bukstein, O. M., & Moss, H. B. (1995). Patterns of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in adolescent drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 672–680.
    McCord, W., & McCord, J. (1960). Origins of alcoholism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    McGee, L., & Newcomb, M. D. (1992). General deviance syndrome: Expanded hierarchical evaluations at four ages from early adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 766–776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.5.766
    McGue, M. (1994). Genes, environment and the etiology of alcoholism. In R.Zucker, G.Boyd, and J.Howard (Eds.), Development of alcohol-related problems: Exploring the biopsychsocial matrix of risk (pp. 1–40; National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Research Monograph No. 26). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse.
    McGue, M. (1995). Mediators and moderators of alcoholism inheritance. In J. R.Turner, L. R.Cardon, & J. K.Hewitt (Eds.), Behavior genetic approaches in behavioral medicine (pp. 17–44). New York: Plenum.
    McGue, M., Sharma, A., & Benson, P. (1996). Parent and sibling influences on adolescent alcohol use and misuse: Evidence from a U.S. adoption cohort. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 8–18.
    McLellan, A. T., Arndt, I. O., Metzger, D. S., Woody, G. E., & O'Brien, C. P. (1993). The effects of psychosocial services in substance abuse treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 1953–1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500150065028
    McLellan, T., & Dembo, R. (1993). Screening and assessment of alcohol- and other drug-abusing adolescents (DHHS Publication No. SMA 93-2009). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
    Mosher, J. F. (1980). The history of youthful-drinking laws: Implications for current policy. In H.Wechsler (Ed.), Minimum drinking-age laws (pp. 11–38). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Myers, M. G., & Brown, S. A. (1990). Coping responses and relapse among adolescent substance abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse, 2, 177–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289%2805%2980054-9
    National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1985). Self-report methods of estimating drug use: Meeting current challenges to validity (NIDA Research Monograph No. 57; DHHS Publication No. ADM 85-1402). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1994). Assessing drug abuse among adolescents and adults: Standardized instruments (NIH Publication No. 94-3757). Rockville, MD: Author.
    Needle, R., McCubbin, H., Reineck, R., Lazar, A., & Mederer, H. (1986). Interpersonal influences in adolescent drug use—The role of older siblings, parents, and peers. The International Journal of the Addictions, 21, 739–766.
    Newcomb, M. D., & Felix-Ortiz, M. (1992). Multiple protective and risk factors for drug use and abuse: Cross-sectional and prospective findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 280–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.2.280
    Newcomb, M.D., Huba, G. J., & Bentler, P. M. (1981). A multidimensional assessment of stressful life events among adolescents: Derivation and correlates. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 400–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136681
    Noble, E. P. (1998). The D2 dopamine receptor gene: A review of association studies in alcoholism and phenotypes. Alcohol, 16, 33–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0741-8329%2897%2900175-4
    Norman, E., & Turner, S. (1993). Adolescent substance abuse prevention programs: Theories, models, and research in the encouraging 80's. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 14, 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01324652
    O'Malley, P. M., & Wagenaar, A. C. (1991). Effects of minimum drinking age laws on alcohol use, related behaviors and traffic crash involvement among American youth: 1976–1987. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 52, 478–491.
    Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1986). Peer cluster theory: Drugs and the adolescent. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 17–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01219.x
    Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1990). Adolescent drug use: Findings of national and local surveys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 382–394.
    Office of National Drug Control Policy: The National Drug Control Strategy: 197 [On-line]. Available: http://www.ncjrs.org/htm/chapter2.htm:1997.
    Osgood, D. W., Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1988). The generality of deviance in late adolescent and early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 53, 81–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095734
    Pagliaro, A. M., & Pagliaro, L. A. (1996). Substance use among children and adolescents. New York: John Wiley.
    Parsian, A., Todd, R. D., Devor, E. J., O'Malley, K. L., Suarez, B. K., Reich, T., & Cloninger, C. R. (1991). Alcoholism and alleles of the human D2 dopamine receptor locus: Studies of association and linkage. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 655–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810310073013
    Patterson, G. R. (1982). Antisocial children, coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Pentz, M. A., Dwyer, J. H., MacKinnon, D. P., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Wang, E. Y., & Johnson, C. A. (1989). A multicommunity trial for primary prevention of adolescent abuse. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 3259–3266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03420220073030
    Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstine, P. S., McGovern, P. G., Finnegan, J. R., Forster, J. L., Wagenaar, A. C., & Wolfson, M. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a community wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 956–965. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.7.956
    Petraitis, J., Flay, B. R., & Miller, T. Q. (1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 67–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.67
    Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & McClearn, G. E. (1990). Behavioral genetics: A primer (
    2nd ed.
    ) New York: Freeman.
    Puig-Antich, J., & Chambers, W. (1978). The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-aged children. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.
    Rachal, J. V., Hubbard, R. L., Williams, J. R., & Tuchfeld, B. S. (1976). Drinking levels and problem drinking among junior and senior high school students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 37, 1751–1761.
    Rahdert, E. R. (1991). The adolescent assessment/referral system manual (DHHS Publication No. ADM 91-1735). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Reed, M. D., & Rountree, P. W. (1997). Peer pressure and adolescent substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 13, 143–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02221306
    Reese, F. L., Chassin, L., & Molina, B. S. G. (1994). Alcohol expectancies in early adolescents: Predicting drinking behavior from alcohol expectancies and parental alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 276–284.
    Reich, T., Edenberg, H. J., Goate, A., Williams, J. T., Rice, J. P., Rice, J. P., Van Eerdewegh, P., Foround, T., Hessselbrock, V., Schuckit, M. A., Bucholz, K., Porjesz, B., Li, T. K., Conneally, P. M., NurnbergerJr., J. I., Tischfield, J. A., Crowe, R. R., Cloninger, C. R., Wu, W., Shear, S., Carr, K., Crose, C., Willig, C., & Begleiter, H. (1998). Genome-wide search for genes affecting the risk for alcohol dependence. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 207–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291096-8628%2819980508%2981:3%3C207::AID-AJMG1%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Lefkowitz, E. S., Pakiz, B., & Frost, A. K. (1993). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a community population of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 369–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199303000-00019
    Rhodes, J. E., Gingiss, P. L., & Smith, P. B. (1994). Risk and protective factors for alcohol use among pregnant African-American, Hispanic, and white adolescents: The influence of peers, sexual partners, family members, and mentors. Addictive Behaviors, 19, 555–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2894%2990011-6
    Robins, C. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
    Rorabaugh, W. (1979). The alcoholic republic: An American tradition. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Russell, M. (1990). Prevalence of alcoholism among children of alcoholics. In M.Windle & J.S.Searles (Eds.), Children of alcoholics: Critical perspectives (pp. 9–38). New York: Guilford.
    Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03541.x
    Sadava, S. W. (1985). Problem behavior theory and consumption and consequences of alcohol. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 392–397.
    Saffer, H., & Grossman, M. (1987). Beer taxes, the legal drinking age, and youth motor vehicle fatalities. Journal of Legal Studies, 16, 351–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/467834
    Schulenberg, J., Maggs, J. L., & Hurrelmann, K. (1997). Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Schulenberg, J., Wadsworth, K. N., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Adolescent risk factors for binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood: Variable- and pattern-centered approaches to change. Developmental Psychology, 32, 659–674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.32.4.659
    Seilhamer, R. A., & Jacob, T. (1990). Family factors and adjustment of children of alcoholics. In M.Windle & J. S.Searles (Eds.), Children of alcoholics: Critical perspectives (pp. 168–186). New York: Guilford.
    Sher, K. J. (Ed.). (1991). Children of alcoholics: A critical appraisal of theory and research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//1099-9809.7.3.201
    Sher, K. J. (1994). Individual level risk factors. In R. A.Zucker, G. M.Boyd, & J.Howard (Eds.), The development of alcohol problems: Exploring the biopsychosocial matrix of risk (pp. 77–121; NIAAA Monograph 26, NIH Publication No. 94-3495). Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health.
    Shope, J. T., Dielman, T. E., Butchart, A. T., Campanelli, P. C., & Kloska, D. D. (1992). An elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program: A follow-up evaluation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 106–121.
    Smith, G. T., & Goldman, M. S. (1994). Alcohol expectancy theory and the identification of high-risk adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 229–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0402_4
    Smith, G. T., Goldman, M. S., Greenbaum, P. E., & Christiansen, B. A. (1995). Expectancy for social facilitation from drinking: The divergent paths of high-expectancy and low-expectancy adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 10, 32–40.
    Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Goldman, M. S. (1995). Self-reported drinking and alcohol-related problems among early adolescents: Dimensionality and validity over 24 months. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 383–394.
    Spoth, R., & Redmond, C. (1996). Illustrating a framework for rural prevention research: Project Family studies of rural family participation and outcomes. In R. D.Peters & R. J.McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp. 299–328). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Lepper, H. (in press). Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: One-and two year follow-ups of a controlled study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.
    Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Hockaday, C., & Yoo, S. (1996). Protective factors and young adolescent tendency to abstain from alcohol use: A model using two waves of intervention study data. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 749–770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02511033
    Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Shin, C. (1998). Direct and indirect latent-variable parenting outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: Extending a public health-oriented research base. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 385–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.2.385
    Stacy, A. W., Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1992). Interactive and higher-order effects of social influences on drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 226–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137353
    Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Zhang, Q., Van Kammen, W., & Maguin, E. (1993). The double edge of protective and risk factors for delinquency: Interrelations and developmental patterns. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 683–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006234
    Sussman, S., Petosa, R., & Clarke, P. (1996). The use of empirical curriculum development to improve prevention research. American Behavioral Scientist, 39, 838–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764296039007006
    Swaim, R. C., Beauvais, F., Chavez, E. L., & Oetting, E. R. (1997). The effect of school dropout rates on estimates of adolescent substance use among three racial/ethnic groups. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 51–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.1.51
    Tarter, R. E. (1988). Are there inherited behavioral traits that predispose to substance abuse? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 189–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.2.189
    Tarter, R.E. (1990). Evaluation and treatment of adolescent substance abuse: A decision tree method. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 16, 1–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952999009001570
    Tarter, R. E., & Hegedus, A. (1991). The Drug Use Screening Inventory: Its application in the evaluation and treatment of alcohol and drug abuse. Alcohol Health and Research World, 15, 65–75.
    Thomasson, H. R., Crabb, D. W., & Edenberg, H. J. (1993). Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and alcoholism. Behavior Genetics, 23, 131–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01067417
    Thompson, E. A., Horn, M., Herting, J. R., & Eggert, L. L. (1997). Enhancing outcomes in an indicated drug prevention program for high-risk youth. Journal of Drug Education, 27, 19–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/G6XY-U2CQ-GFQF-PNEV
    Thompson, K. M., & Wilsnack, R. W. (1987). Parental influence on adolescent drinking: Modeling, attitudes, or conflict? Youth and Society, 19, 22–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X87019001002
    Tubman, J. G., & Windle, M. (1995). Continuity of difficult temperament in adolescence: Relations with depression, life events, family support, and substance use across a one year period. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 133–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537146
    Tubman, J. G., Windle, M., & Windle, R. C. (1996). The onset and cross-temporal patterning of sexual intercourse in middle adolescence: Prospective relations with behavioral and emotional problems. Child Development, 67, 327–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131817
    University of Michigan News and Information Services. (1997, December 18). Drug use among American teens shows some signs of leveling after a long rise [Press release]. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1993). National Drugs and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS): 1991 main report (DHHS Pub. No. SMA 93-2007). Rockville, MD: Author.
    Vaillant, G. E. (1983). The natural history of alcoholismCambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    von Knorring, L., Palm, U., & Anderson, H. E. (1985). Relationship between treatment outcome and subtype of alcoholism in men. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 388–391.
    Wagenaar, A. C. (1993). Minimum drinking age and alcohol availability to youth: Issues and research needs. In M. E.Hilton & G.Bloss (Eds.), Economics and the prevention of alcohol-related problems (pp. 175–200). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse.
    Wagenaar, A. C., Komro, K. A., McGovern, P., Williams, C. L., & Perry, C. L. (1993). Effects of a saliva test pipeline procedure on adolescent self- reported alcohol use. Addiction, 88, 199–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb00803.x
    Wagenaar, A. C., & Wolfson, M. (1994). Enforcement of the legal minimum drinking age in the United States. Journal of Public Health Policy, 15, 37–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3342606
    Wagenaar, A. C., & Wolfson, M. (1995). Deterring sales and provision of alcohol to minors: A study of enforcement in 295 counties in four states. Public Health Reports, 110, 41–427.
    Webb, J. A., & Baer, P. E. (1995). Influence of family disharmony and parental alcohol use on adolescent social skills, self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 20(1), 127–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2894%2900054-3
    Webb, J. A., Baer, P. E., McLaughlin, R. J., McKelvey, R. S., & Caid, C. D. (1991). Risk factors and their relation to initiation of alcohol use among early adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 563–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199107000-00006
    Werch, C. E., & DiClemente, C. C. (1994). A multi-component stage model for matching drug prevention strategies and messages to youth stage of use. Health Education Research, 9, 37–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/9.1.37
    Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Weschler, H., Davenport, A., Dowdall, G., Moeykens, B., & Castillo, S. (1994). Health and behavioral consequences of binge drinking in college: A national survey of students at 140 campuses. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1672–1677.
    West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (1997). Toward understanding individual effects in multicomponent prevention programs: Design and analysis strategies. In K. J.Bryant, M.Windle, & S. G.West (Eds.), The science of prevention: Methodological advances from alcohol and substance abuse research (pp. 167–209). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Wheeler, K., & Malmquist, J. (1987). Treatment approaches in adolescent chemical dependency. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 34, 437–447.
    White, H. R., & Huselid, R. F. (1997). Gender differences in alcohol use during adolescence. In R. W.Wilsnack & S. C.Wilsnack (Eds.), Gender and alcohol: Individual and social perspectives (pp. 176–198). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies.
    White, H. R., & Labouvie, E. W. (1989). Towards the assessment of adolescent problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 30–37.
    Williams, C. L., Perry, C. L., Farbakhsh, K., & Veblen-Mortenson, S. (in press). Project Northland: Comprehensive alcohol use prevention for young adolescents, their parents, schools, peers, and communities. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.
    Wills, T. A., Windle, M., & Cleary, S. D. (1998). Temperament and novelty-seeking in adolescence: A test for convergence of dimensions of temperament with constructs from Cloninger's theory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 387–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.2.387
    Windle, M. (1991). Alcohol use and abuse: Some findings from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey. Alcohol Health and Research World, 15, 5–10.
    Windle, M. (1994). A study of friendship characteristics and problem behaviors among middle adolescents. Child Development, 65, 1764–1777. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131292
    Windle, M. (1996). An alcohol involvement topology for adolescents: Convergent validity and longitudinal stability. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 627–637.
    Windle, M. (in press). Critical conceptual measurement issues in the study of resilience. In M. S.Glantz, J.Johnson, & L.Huffman, (Eds.), Resiliency and development: Positive life adaptations. New York: Plenum.
    Windle, M., & Barnes, G. M. (1988). Similarities and differences in correlates of alcohol consumption and problem behaviors among male and female adolescents. International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 707–728.
    Windle, M., Barnes, G. M., & Welte, J. (1989). Causal models of adolescent substance use: An examination of gender differences using distribution-free estimators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 132–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.132
    Windle, M., & Blane, H. T. (1989). Cognitive ability and drinking behavior in a national sample of young adults. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 13, 43–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1989.tb00282.x
    Windle, M., & Davies, P. T. (in press). Developmental theory and research. In K. E.Leonard & H. T.Blane (Eds.), Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholismNew York: Guilford.
    Windle, M., Miller-Tutzauer, C., & Domenico, D. (1992). Alcohol use, suicidal behavior, and risky activities among adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2, 317–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0204_2
    Windle, M., & Searles, J. S. (Eds.). (1990). Children of alcoholics: Critical perspectives. New York: Guilford. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199110000-00010
    Windle, M., & Tubman, J. G. (in press). Children of alcoholics: A developmental psycho-pathological perspective. In W. K.Silverman & T.Ollendick (Eds.), Developmental issues in the clinical treatment of children and adolescents. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Windle, M., & Windle, R. C. (1996). Coping strategies, drinking motives, and stressful life events among adolescents: Associations with emotional and behavioral problems, and academic functioning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 551–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.105.4.551
    Winters, K. C. (1990). The need for improved assessment of adolescent substance involvement. Journal of Drug Issues, 20, 487–502.
    Winters, K. C. (1992). Development of an adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale: Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 479–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2892%2990008-J
    Winters, K. C., & Henly, G. A. (1993). The adolescent diagnostic interview schedule and user's manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
    Winters, K. C., Latimer, W. W., & Stinchfield, R. (in press). Examining psychosocial correlates of drug involvement among drug clinic-referred youth. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.
    Wolfson, M., Wagenaar, A. C., & Hornseth, G. W. (1995). Law officers' view of enforcement of the minimum drinking age: A four-state study. Public Health Reports, 110, 428–438.
    Yu, J., & Williford, W. R. (1992). The age of alcohol onset and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use patterns: An analysis of drug use progression of young adults in New York State. The International Journal of the Addictions, 27, 1313–1323.
    Zucker, R. A., & Gomberg, E. S. L. (1986). Etiology of alcoholism reconsidered. American Psychologist, 41, 783–793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.7.783
    Zucker, R. A., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Moses, H. D. (1995). Emergence of alcohol problems and the several alcoholisms: A developmental perspective on etiologic theory and life course trajectory. In D.Cicchetti & D. J.Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 2: Risk, disorder and adaptation; pp. 677–711). New York: John Wiley.
    Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/01772-1

    Author Index

    About the Author

    Michael Windle is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Doctoral Studies Program in Developmental Psychology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He received his PhD from the College of Human Development and Family Studies at Pennsylvania State University. Prior to this current appointment, he was Senior Research Scientist at the New York State Research Institute on Addictions in Buffalo, New York. He recently received an NIH MERIT Award for his prospective study of risk factors and adolescent drinking. Currently, he is an Associate Editor of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, and on the Editorial Boards of Developmental Psychology, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, and Journal of Adolescent Research. His prior books include Children of Alcoholics: Critical Perspectives and The Science of Prevention: Methodological Advances from Alcohol and Substance Abuse Research.


    • Loading...
Back to Top