Alchemies of Violence: Myths of Identity and the Life of Trade in Western India


Lawrence A. Babb

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures

    A Note on Transliteration

    I have given most Indic terms in italics with standard diacritical marks. I have not italicised proper names and titles. I have provided diacritical marks for the names of authors of Hindi materials and names appearing in Hindi writings or discourse. I have not used diacritics on place names appearing in standard English-language maps and have used standard English spellings for these. I have, however, given the names of more obscure locations with diacritics. With some exceptions, the criterion on which I have based this judgement is whether or not a given term appears in The Rajasthan Road Atlas (Arya and Arya 1997). In keeping with the vernacular character of this study's subject, I have privileged the Hindi as opposed to Sanskrit versions of most terms where there is a choice to be made (thus, TirthaṄkar as opposed to TirthaṄkara and dān as opposed to dāna), but have kept the Sanskrit ending in the case of terms most familiar in that form (such as Śaiva or karma).


    The research on which this book is based took place, sometimes episodically, over period of several years. The bulk of the research was done was in Jaipur from August 1996 to May 1997 and was supported by an American Institute of Indian Studies Senior Research Fellowship. Additional material (appearing in portions of Chapters Two, Three and Five) was gathered during the spring of 1998 while engaged in a collaborative research project on the temple complexes at Goṭh-Mānglod (Dadhimatī) and Osian conducted with John E. Cort and Michael W. Meister and supported by the J. Paul Getty Trust. I would like to thank my Getty colleagues whose fellowship and intellectual stimulation have added to this book in many ways and at many levels. Amherst College Faculty Fellowships supported brief visits to Rajasthan in 2000 and 2002. I would like to thank Dr R. C. Swarankar and the Department of Anthropology, University of Rajasthan, for institutional hospitality in 1996–97 and the Institute for Rajasthan Studies and its then Director, the late Professor Rajendra Joshi, for providing an institutional base for the Getty project.

    The individuals who assisted me in the course of this lengthy investigation are far too many for all to be singled out by name, but some deserve special mention. For assistance and kindnesses of various kinds I am grateful to Ashok Bhandari, M. C. Khandelval, Gyan Chandra Khinduka, Jyoti Kothari, Fateh and Indu Singh, Rajendra Shrimal and Ranbir Sinh. Radhe Shyam Dhoot and I explored Khandela and Lohargal together—a happy memory for both of us—and he assisted my investigations in many other important ways. Mukund Lath and Rajendra Joshi were sources of valuable advice and intellectual stimulation throughout the period of research. Vivek Bhandari took the time to give me a valuable critical reading of a portion of the manuscript. John Cort, companion in the field and critical reader of this manuscript, is the very model of what a colleague should be: interested, always willing to lend a hand, and the sharpest of critics. Surendra Bothara is a friend and colleague whose helping hand, warm support, and invaluable advice have long been indispensable to my work in Jaipur, and the Bothara family has been my family away from home. To all of the above I am deeply grateful. To these expressions of gratitude, however, I must append the declaration that all errors of fact and interpretation in this book are my responsibility alone.

    I would also like to thank the editors of Contributions to Indian Sociology and International Journal of Hindu Studies for permission to include reworked materials from two previous articles of mine (Babb 1998 and 1999 respectively).

    My wife, Nancy, supports my endeavours in too many ways to describe. For her patience and so much else, my thanks indeed.

    Figure 1 Rajasthan with selected locations.

  • Bibliography

    Agravāl, Cumiīlāl.1915. Agravāl Itihās. Kolkata: Lalit Press.
    AgravālSamāj. 1995. Paricay Smārikā (Agravāl Yuvak Yuvatī Vaivāhik Paricay Sammelan [1995]). Jaipur: Šrī Agravāl Samāj Samiti.
    AkhilBhāratīya. 1983. Akhil Bhāratīya Agravāl Sammelan ke Āṭh Varṣ. Published on the occasion of the meeting convened at Vārāṇasī, 22–23 January, 1983. New Delhi: Rāmešvardās Gupt.
    Appadurai, Arjun.1986. ‘Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value’, in A.Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, pp. 3–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Arya, R.P. and Arya, J.1997. Rajasthan Road Atlas. Jodhpur: Indian Map Service.
    Asopa, JaiNarayan. 1988. The Brahmanas, Dadhici and Dahimas. Jaipur: Shri Sahitya Shodha Evam Prakashan Samiti.
    Babb, LawrenceA.1996. Absent Lord: Ascetics and Kings in a Jain Ritual Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Babb, LawrenceA.1998. ‘Rejecting Violence: Sacrifice and the Social Identity of Trading Communities’, Contributions to Indian Sociology (n.s.), 32(2): 387–407.
    Babb, LawrenceA.1999. ‘Mirrored Valor: On the Social Identity of Rajasthani Traders’, International Journal of Hindu Studies, 3(1): 1–25.
    Babb, LawrenceA.2000. ‘Time and Temples: On Social and Metrical Antiquity’, in M.Meister (ed.), Ethnography and Personhood: Notes from the Field, pp. 193–222. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Babb, LawrenceA.2002. ‘Violence and the Construction of Trading-Caste Identity’, in L.A.Babb, V.Joshi and M.Meister (eds), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, pp. 15–38. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Babb, LawrenceA.2003. ‘Thwarted Sacrifice: On the Origin Myths of Jain Castes’, in O.Qvarnström (ed.), Jainism and Early Buddhism: Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini. Freemont, California: Asian Humanities Press.
    Bansal, Captain KamalKišor. 1992. Vīrtā kī Vīrāsat: Agravāl (Vaišya) Vitrõ ke Šaurya, Tyāg evam Karttavyaparāyaṇtāū kā Sankṣipt Paricay. Agroha: Agroha Vikas Trust.
    Baṛjātyā, Rājmal.1910. Khaṇḍelvāl Jain—Itihās. Mumbai: S. V. Press.
    Baruā, Ṛṣi Jaiminī Kaušik. 1985. Main Apne Mārvāṛī Samāj ko Pyār Kartā Hun. Kolkata: Jaininī Publications.
    Bateson, Gregory.1958. Naven: A Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe Drawn from Three Points of View.
    Second Edition
    . Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    Bayly, C.A.1983. Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bayly, Susan.1999. Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (The New Cambridge History of India: IV.3). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bhaṇḍārī, S.R., Bhaṇḍārī, C.R., Gupt, K.L., Sonī, B.L. and Ratnāvat, B.R.1934. Osvāl Jāti kā Itihās. 2 vols. Bhānpurā (Indaur): Osvāl History Publishing House.
    Bhansālī, Sohanrāj.1982. Osvāl Vaṃš, Anusandhān ke Alok me. Jodhpur: Kušalam Jain Granthālaya.
    Bhūtoṛiyā, Māngīlāl.1995. Itihās kī Amar Bel: Osvāl. Pratham Khaṇḍ
    Second Edition
    . Lādnūn: Priyadaršī Prakāšan.
    Biardeau, Madeleine.1994. Hinduism: The Anthropology of a Civilization. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Bihāṇī, Rāmcandra.1983. Māhešvarī Vamšotpatti. Bikaner: Māhešvarī Sevak.
    Bloch, Maurice.1989. ‘The Symbolism of Money in Imerina’, in J.Parry and M.Bloch (eds), Money and the Morality of Exchange, pp. 165–90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cadène, Philippe.1997. ‘The Part Played by Merchant Castes in the Contemporary Indian Economy: The Case of the Jains in a Small Town in Rajasthan’, in P.Cadène and D.Vidal (eds), Webs of Trade: Dynamics of Business Communities in Western India, pp. 136–158. New Delhi: Manohar.
    Carstairs, MorrisG.1961. The Twice-Born: A Study of a Community of High-Caste Hindus. Second Impression. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Chandra, Sudhir.1992. The Oppressive Present: Literature and Social Consciousness in Colonial India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Cheesman, David.1982. ‘“The Omnipresent Bania:” Rural Moneylenders in Nineteenth-Century Sindh’, Modern Asian Studies, 16(3): 445–62.
    Cimino, RosaMaria. 1983. Life at Court in Rajasthan: Indian Miniatures from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century. Firenze: Mario Luca Giusti.
    Conlon, FrankF.1977. A Caste in a Changing World: The Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmans, 1700–1935. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Cort, JohnE.1990a. ‘Twelve Chapters from the Guidebook to Various Pilgrimage Places, the Vividhatīrthakakalpa of Jinaprabhasūri’, in P.Granoff (ed.), The Clever Adulteress and Other Stories: A Treasury of Jain Literature, pp. 245–90. Oakville (Ontario): Mosaic Press.
    Cort, JohnE.1990b. ‘The Švetāmbar Jain Mūrtipūjak Mendicant’, Man (n.s.), 26: 549–69.
    Cort, JohnE.1998. ‘Who is a King? Jain Narratives of Kingship in Medieval Western India’, in J.Cort (ed.), Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, pp. 85–110. Albany: SUNY Press.
    Cort, JohnE.2000a. ‘Communities, Temples, Identities: Art Histories and Social Histories in Western India’, in M.Meister (ed.), Ethnography and Personhood: Notes from the Field, pp. 101–28. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Cort, JohnE.2000b. ‘Patronage, Authority, Proprietary Rights, and History: Communities and Pilgrimage Temples in Western India’, in M.Meister (ed.), Ethnography and Personhood: Notes from the Field, pp. 165–91. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Cort, JohnE.2001. Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Cort, JohnE.2002. ‘A Tale of Two Cities: On the Origins of Digambar Sectarianism in North India’, in L.A.Babb, V.Joshi and M.Meister (eds), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, pp. 39–83. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Cort, JohnE. Forthcoming. ‘Jains, Caste, and Hierarchy in North Gujarat’, Contributions to Indian Sociology.
    CottamEllis, ChristineM.1991. ‘The Jain Merchant Castes of Rajasthan: Some Aspects of the Management of Social Identity in a Market Town’, in M.Carrithers and C.Humphrey (eds), The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society, pp. 75–107. Berkeley: Cambridge University Press.
    Crooke, W.1896. The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh. Vols. I-IV. Kolkata: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing.
    Dalmia, Vasudha.1997. The Nationalization of Hindu Traditions: Bhāratendu Harišchandra and Nineteenth-century Banaras. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Darak, Šivkaraṇ Rāmratan. 1923. Vaišyakulbhūṣaṇ va Itihāskalpdrum Māhešvarī-kulšuddhdarpaṇ aur Sāṛhī Bārah va Caurāsī Nyātkā Varṇan (
    Fourth edition
    ; original V. S. 1950). Mumbaī: Gangāviṣṇu Srīkrṣṇḍās.
    Datta, Nonica.1999. Forming an Identity: A Social History of the Jats. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Devra, G. S. L.1980. Bureaucracy in Rajasthan (1745–1829 A.D.). Bikaner: Dharti Prakashan.
    Dhaky, M.A.1968. ‘Some Early Jaina Temples in Western India’, in Shri Mahavir Jaina Vidyalaya Golden Jubilee Volume, Part 1, pp. 290–347. Mumbai: Shri Mahavira Jaina Vidyalaya.
    Dirks, NicholasB.2001. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Dumont, Louis.1970. Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications (Trans. M.Sainsbury). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dundas, Paul.2002. The Jains.
    Second Edition
    . London: Routledge.
    Eck, Diana.1982. Banāras: City of Light. New York: Knopf.
    Eck, Diana.1991. ‘Following Rama, Worshipping Šiva’, in D.L.Eck and F.Mallison (eds), Devotion Divine: Bhakti Traditions from the Regions of India, pp. 49–71. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, Paris: École Frančaise d'Extrême Orient.
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E.1940. The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Freitag, JasonPaul. 2001. ‘The Power which Raised them from Ruin and Oppression: James Tod, Historiography and the Rajput Ideal’, Ph.D. diss., Columbia University.
    Fuller, ChrisJ.1989. ‘Misconceiving the Grain Heap: A Critique of the Concept of the Indian Jajmani System’, in J.Parry and M.Bloch (eds), Money and the Morality of Exchange, pp. 33–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Garg, Šivšankar. n.d. Šīlā Mātā kā Jīvan Parica. Mumbaī: Agrohā Vikās Sansthān.
    Granoff, Phyllis.1989. ‘Religious Biography and Clan History among the Švetāmbara Jains in North India’, East and West, 39 (1–4): 195–215.
    Gregory, C.A.1997. Savage Money: The Anthropology and Politics of Commodity Exchange. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.
    Guha, Ranajit.1985. ‘The Career of an Anti-God in Heaven and on Earth’, in A.Mitra (ed.), The Truth Unites: Essays in Tribute to Samar Sen, pp. 1–25. Kolkata: Subarnarekha.
    Gupt, Campālāl.1993. Agrohā: Ek Aitihāsik Paricay.
    First Edition
    . Agrohā: Agrohā Vikās Trust.
    Gupt, Campālāl.1996. Agrohā, Ek Aitihāsik Dharohar.
    Second Edition
    . Agrohā: Agrohā Vikās Trust.
    Gupt, Motïlāl. n.d. Khaṇḍelvāl Jāti kā Prārambhik Itihās. Jaipur: Šrī Khaṇḍelvāl Vaišya Mahāsabhā.
    Gupt, Motïlāl (ed.). 1972. Sundar-aṣṭak. Jaipur: Sāhitya-Prakāšan Upsamiti, Akhil Bharatvarṣiya Khaṇḍelvāl Vaišya Mahāsabhā.
    Gupt, Rāmešvardās (ed.). 1995a. Agrohādhām ke Nirmāṇ kī Kahānī Citrõ kī Zabānī. New Delhi: Agroha Vikas Trust.
    Gupt, Rāmešvardās.1995b. Bhārat ke Agravāl Parivār. New Delhi: Agravāl Nidešikā Samiti.
    Gupta, AnandSwarup (ed.). 1981. The Varāha-Purāṇa (with English Translation). Varanasi: All-India Kashiraj Trust.
    Gupta, Dipankar.2000. Interrogating Caste: Understanding Hierarchy and Difference in Indian Society. New Delhi: Penguin.
    Gupta, BadluRam. 1975. The Aggarwals: A Socio-economic Survey. New Delhi: S. Chand and Co.
    Guptā, Rāmcandra.1926. Agravamš arthāt Agravāl Jāti kā Itihās. Sekhā (Rājya Patiyālā, Panjāb): Sobhārām Smārak Granthmālā Kāryālay.
    Gupta, SatyaPrakash. 1986. The Agrarian System of Eastern Rajasthan (c. 1650-c. 1750). Delhi: Manohar.
    Hardgrove, AnneElizabeth. 1999. ‘Sati Worship and Marwari Public Identity in India’, Journal of Asian Studies, 58(3): 723–52.
    Hardgrove, AnneElizabeth. 2002. Community and Public Culture: The Marwaris in Calcutta 1897–1997. New York: Columbia University Press (Gutenberg-e).
    Hardiman, David.1987. ‘The Bhils and Shahukars of Eastern Gujarat’, in R.Guha (ed.), Subaltern Studies V: Writings on South Asian History and Society, pp. 1–54. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Hardiman, David.1996. Feeding the Baniya: Peasants and Usurers in Western India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Harlan, Lindsey.1992. Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hazra, R.C.1975. Studies in the Purānic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass.
    Hiltebeitel, Alf.1999. Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics: Draupadi among Rajputs, Muslims, and Dalits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hitchcock, JohnT.1959. ‘The Idea of the Martial Rājpūt’, in M.Singer (ed.), Traditional India: Structure and Change, pp. 10–17. Philadelphia: The American Folklore Society.
    Hocart, A.M.1950. Caste: A Comparative Study. London: Methuen and Co.
    Hoernle, A. F. Rudolph. 1890. ‘The Pattavali or List of Pontiffs of the Upkesa-Gachchha’, Indian Antiquary, 19 (August): 233–42.
    Hopkins, E. Washburn. 1902. India Old and New with a Memorial Address. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
    Jaffrelot, Christophe.1996. The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Jagannāthdāsjï, ŠrïM Mahant Mahārāj. n.d. Šekhāvāṭī ke Prasiddh Tīrth: Lohārgal Māhātmya. Sīkar: Rādhikā Priṇṭing Press.
    Jain, KailashChand. 1963. Jainism in Rajasthan. Sholapur: Jain Saṃskrti Sanrakṣak Sangh.
    Jain, KailashChand. 1972. Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan: A Study of Culture and Civilization. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
    Jaini, PadmanabhS.1979. The Jaina Path of Purification. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Jenkins, Rob.1998. ‘Rajput Hindutva, Caste Politics, Regional Identity and Hindu Nationalism in Contemporary Rajasthan’, in T.B.@ansen and C.Jaffrelot (eds), The BJP and the Compulsions of Politics in India, pp. 101–20. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Jñānsudarjī Mahārāj, Muni. 1929 (V.S. 1986). Šrī Jain Jātimahoday. Šrī Ratnaprabhākar Jñān Puṣpmālā, Puṣp Nos. 103–108. Phalodi: Šrī Ratnaprabhākar Jñān Puṣpmālā.
    Jñānsudarjī Mahārāj, Muni. 1940. Osvāl Jāti kī Aitihāsiktā. Phalodi: Šrī Ratnaprabhākar Jñān Puṣpmālā.
    Jones, J.HowardM.1991. ‘Jain Shopkeepers and Moneylenders: Rural Informal Credit Networks in South Rajasthan’, in M.Carrithers and C.Humphrey (eds), The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society, pp. 109–38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kane, PandurangVaman. 1974. History of Dharmašāstra (Ancient and Mediaeval Religious and Civil Law). Vol. II, Part I,
    Second Edition
    . Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.
    Kapur, NandiniSinha. 2002. State Formation in Rajasthan: Mewar during the Seventh-Fifteenth Centuries. New Delhi: Manohar.
    Kāslīvāl, Kastūrcand.1989. Khaṇḍelvāl Jain Samāj kā Vṛhad Itihās. Jaipur: Jain Itihās Prakāšan Sansthān.
    Khaṇḍelvāl, M.C.1984. ‘Khaṇḍelvālõ Kī Utpatti’, Khaṇḍelvāl Mahāsabhā Patrikā, 23 (1–2): unnumbered pages.
    Khaṇḍelvāl, Ramanand.1984. ‘Khaṇḍelvālõ Kī Utpatti Kā Itihaās’, Khaṇḍelvāl Mahāsabhā Patrikā, 23 (1–2): unnumbered pages.
    Kramrisch, Stella.1981. The Presence of Šiva. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Kyāl, Bholārām.1995 (V.S. 2052). Šrī Lohārgal Māhātmya evam Malkhet Parikrama Paricay. Basāvā (Jodhpur Dist.): Šrī Syām Satsang.
    Laidlaw, James.1995. Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lath, Mukund.1981. Halfa Tale: A Study in the Interrelationship between Autobiography and History. (The Ardhakathanaka translated, introduced and annotated by Mukund Lath). Jaipur: Rajasthan Prakrit Bharati Sansthan.
    Lévi-Strauss, Claude.1963. Totemism (Trans. RodneyNeedham). Boston: Beacon Press.
    Little, LesterK.1971. ‘Pride Goes Before Avarice: Social Change and the Vices in Latin Christendom’. The American Historical Review, 76(1): 16–49.
    Lodrick, DeryckO.1994. ‘Rajasthan As A Region: Myth or Reality?’, in K.Schomer, J.L.Erdman, D.O.Lodrick and L.I.Rudolph (eds), The Idea of Rajasthan: Explorations in Regional Identity, pp. 1–44. Columbia (MO): South Asia Publications.
    Madan, T.N.1987. Non-Renunciation: Themes and Interpretations of Hindu Culture. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Madādh, Išvar Simh.1987. Rājpūt Vamšāvalī. New Delhi: Cetnā Prakāšan.
    MahilāSamiti. 1994. Sanskār: Jauhrī Bāzār Digambar Jain Mahilā Samiti, Jaipur (1994 Smārikā). Jaipur: Jaipur Digambar Mahilā Samiti.
    Malinowski, Bronislaw.1954. ‘Myth in Primitive Psychology’, in Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays by Bronislaw Malinowski, pp. 93–148. Garden City (N.Y.): Doubleday Anchor Books.
    Manusmṛti. 1989. The Laws of Manu (Trans. WendyDoniger and BrianK.Smith). London: Penguin.
    Marriott, McKim.1976. ‘Hindu Transactions: Diversity without Dualism’, in B.Kapferer (ed.), Transaction and Meaning: Directions in the Anthropology of Exchange and Symbolic Behavior, pp. 109–42. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.
    Marriott, McKim.1990. ‘Constructing an Indian Ethnosociology’, in M.Marriott (ed.), India through Hindu Categories, pp. 1–39. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
    Mayer, AdrianC.1960. Caste and Kinship in Central India: A Village and its Region. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Mehta, Lalit.1999. Caste, Clan and Ethnicity: A Study of Mehtas in Rajasthan. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Meister, MichaelW.1991. Articles on ‘Osian, Saciyāmātā temple’ (p. 128), ‘Osian, Mahāvīra temple’ (pp. 182–91) and ‘Goth-Manglod, Dadhimatimātā temple’ (pp. 252–54), in M.W.Meister and M.A.Dhaky (eds), Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture, North India, Period of Early Maturity, c. A.D. 700–900, New Delhi: American Institute of India Studies.
    Meister, MichaelW.1998. ‘Sweetmeats or Corpses? Community, Conversion, and Sacred Places’, in J.E.Cort (ed.), Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, pp. 111–38. Albany: SUNY Press.
    Meister, MichaelW.2000. ‘Ethnography, Art History, and the Life of Temples’, in M.Meister (ed.), Ethnography and Personhood: Notes from the Field, pp. 17–45. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Meister, MichaelW.2002. ‘Light on the Lotus: Temple Decoration or Essential Form’, in L.A.Babb, V.Joshi and M.Meister (eds), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, pp. 232–53. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Mishra, R.L.1991. The Haldias and Their Role in States Politics. Jaipur: Champa Lal Ranka and Co.
    Mitchiner, JohnE.1982. Traditions of the Seven Rsis. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
    Modï, Bālcand. n.d. Šrī Mahārāj Agrasen: Sankṣipt Jīvan Caritra. Kolkata: Akhil Bhāratvarṣiya Agravāl Mahāsabhā. Date not given, but bound with other booklets dating from the 1930s.
    Nāhtā, Agarcand and Nāhṭā, Bhanvarlāl. 1978. Jainācārya Pratibhodit Gotra evam Jātiya. Pālītāṇā: Šrī Jinharisāgarsūri Jñān Bhaṇḍār.
    Obeyesekere, Gananath.1981. Medusa's Hair: An Essay on Personal Symbols and Religious Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Obeyesekere, Gananath.1992. The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Pandey, Gyanendra.1990. The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Parry, Jonathan.1989. ‘On the Moral Perils of Exchange’, in J.Parry and M.Bloch (eds), Money and the Morality of Exchange, pp. 64–93. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Pātodiyā, Rāmkišor.1986. ‘Khaṇḍelvāl Vaišya Jāti kī Utpatti’, in Sambhāv: A. Bh. Khaṇḍelvāl Vaišya Mahāsabhā 27th Adhivešan, Alvar (Rajasthan). (26–28 December 1986). Unnumbered pages.
    Pïpalvā, Ānand Šarmā.1997. ‘Khāṇḍal Vipra: Vartmān ke Kandhõ par Ṭhaharā Tejasvī Atīt’, in Khāṇḍal Vipra Samāj (Jaypur Mahānagar) Paricay, 1996. Jaipur: Šrī Khāṇḍal Vipra Sākhā Sabhā.
    Qanungo, KalikaRanjan. 1960. Studies in Rajput History. Delhi: S. Chand and Co.
    Rāmlāljï, Yati.1910. Mahājanvaṃš Muktāvalī. Mumbaī: Nirṇaysāgar Press.
    Ramusack, BarbaraN.1995. ‘The Indian Princes as Fantasy: Palace Hotels, Palace Museums, and Palace on Wheels’, in C.A.Breckenridge (ed.), Consuming Modernity: Public Culture in a South Asian ‘World, pp. 66–89. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    RgVeda. 1981. The Rig Veda: An Anthology (Trans. WendyDoniger O'Flaherty). New York: Penguin.
    Roy, AshimKumar. 1978. History of the Jaipur City. New Delhi: Manohar.
    Rudner, DavidWest. 1994. Caste and Capitalism in Colonial India: The Nattukottai Chettiars. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Rudolph, SusanH., and LloydI.Rudolph. 1984. Essays on Rajputana: Reflections on History, Culture and Administration. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
    Šāh, Bakhatrām.1964. Buddhi-Vilās, PadmadharPāṭhak (ed.), Jodhpur: Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute.
    Sahai, Yaduendra. n.d. ‘Silla Mataji of Amber’ Unpublished Manuscript.
    Šankar Pujārī. 1991. Šrī Sālāsar Bālājī kā Itihās evam Mahimā. Sālāsar: Šrī Bālājī Mandir Samiti.
    Šarmā, Hemant (ed.). 1989. Bhāratendu Samgra. Vārāṇasī: Hindi Pracārak Sansthān.
    Simmel, Georg.1978. The Philosophy of Money (Trans. T.Bottomore and D.Frisby). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Singh, Munšī Hardiyāl. 1986. The Castes of Marwar. Second Edition with Introduction by Komal Kothari (First Edition, 1894). Jodhpur: Books Treasure.
    Singh, Munšī Hardiyāl. 1997. Riport Mardumšumārī Rājmārvār San 1891. Reprint of 1894 edition. Jodhpur: Šrī Jagdiš Simh Sodh Sansthān.
    Singhi, N.K.1991. ‘Jains in a Rajasthan Town’, in M.Carrithers and C.Humphrey (eds), The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society, pp. 139–61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Singh, R.B.1964. History of the Chāhamānas. Varanasi: Nand Kishor and Sons.
    Smith, BrianK.1994. Classifying the Universe: The Ancient Indian Varṇa System and the Origins of Caste. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Smith, FredrickM.1987. The Vedic Sacrifice in Transition: A Translation and Study of the Trikāṇḍamaṇḍana of Bhāskara Mísra. Pune: Bhaṇḍārkar Oriental Research Institute.
    Somānī, Rāmballabh.1997. ‘Khaṇḍelvāl Sarāvgiyõ ke Prācīn Silālekh’, in Mahāvīr Jayantī Smāṛikā, 1997. Jaipur: Rājasthān Jain Sabhā, 3/3–5.
    Spykman, NicholasJ.1925. The Social Theory of Georg Simmel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Šrī Dadhimathī-Purāṇam. 1981. Jaipur: Šrī Dadhimatī Sāhitya Sodh evam Prakāšan Samiti.
    Šrīmāl, Mangal Simh Jain. n.d. Šrīmālõ kā Itihās. Handwritten ms.
    Šrīmāl, Rājendra Kumār. n.d. Šrīmāl Jāti (Ek Paricay). Jaipur: Šrī Lābhcand Pustakālaya.
    Taft, Frances and G. S. L.Devra. 1999. ‘The Thikanas of Rajputana: Some Insights from Ravatsar Thikana of Bikaner’, in N.K.Singhi and R.Joshi (eds), Religion, Ritual and Royalty, pp. 276–83. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications.
    Tāṇṭiyā, Harpatrāy.1996. Agrohā Daršan. Agrohā: Agrohā Vikās Ṭrasṭ
    Taussig, MichaelT.1980. The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
    Temple, RichardC.1977. The Legends of the Panjab. Vol. 1. Reprint of 1884 edition. New York: Arno Press.
    Thapar, Romila.1984. From Lineage to State: Social Formations in the Mid-First Millennium B.C. in the Ganga Valley. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Timberg, ThomasA.1978. The Marwaris: From Traders to Industrialists. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
    Tod, James.1990. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. 3 vols. Reprint of 1829 edition. Delhi: Low Price Publications.
    van Buitenen, J. A. B. (translator and editor). 1975. The Mahāhbārata: 2. The Book of the Assembly Hall; 3. The Book of the Forest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    van der Veer, Peter. 1994. Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    van Gennep, Arnold. 1960. The Rites of Passage (Trans. M.B.Vizedom and G.L.Caffee). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Vatuk, Sylvia.1972. Kinship and Urbanization: White-Collar Migrants in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Vidal, Denis.1997a. ‘Rural Credit and the Fabric of Society in Colonial India: Sirohi District, Rajasthan’, in P.Cadène and D.Vidal (eds), Webs of Trade: Dynamics of Business Communities in ‘Western India, pp. 85–107. New Delhi: Manohar.
    Vidal, Denis.1997b. Violence and Truth: A Rajasthani Kingdom Confronts Colonial Authority. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Vidyālankār, Dharmcandra.1992. Jātõ Kā Nayā Itihās. New Delhi: Akhil Bharatvarṣiya Jāi Mahāsabhā.
    Vidyālankār, Satyaketu.1976. Agravāl Jāti kā Prācīn Itihās. Masūrī: Šrī Sarasvati Sadan.
    Vijayvargïya, Āšārām.1993. ‘Vijayvargīya Vaišya Varṇ kā Itihās’, in L.Vijayvargīya, (ed.), Vaijayantī (Vijayvargīya Niredšukā), pp. 9–14. Jaipur: Akhil Bhāratiya Vijayvargīya Vaišya Mahāsabhā.
    Vijayvargïya, Rāmgopāl.1969. ‘Vijayvargīya Samāj—Udbhav aur Vikās’, in OmšaraṇVijay (ed.), Smārkiā, A. Bh. Vijayvargīya Mahāsabhā kī Kāryakāriṇī ke Jaypur Adhivešan ke Uplakṣ me, 13–14 Sitambar, 1969, pp. 7–14. Jaypur: Šrī Vijayvargīya Vaišya Sabhā.
    Vinaysāgar, Mahopādhyāy (ed.). 1956. Khartargacch kā Itihās. Pratham Khaṇḍ Ajmer: Dādā Jindattsūri Aṣṭam Satābdī Mahotsav Svāgatkāriṇī Samiti.
    Vyās, Kailāšnāth and DevendrasiṃhGahalot. 1986. Rājasthān kī Jātiyõ kā Sāmājik evam Ārthik Jīvan. Jodhpur: Jagdīšsiṃh Gahalot Sodh Sansthān.
    Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine.1999. Ashes of Immortality: Widow Burning in India (Trans. J.Mehlman and D.G.White). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wilson, H.H. (Trans.). 1868. The Viṣṇu Purāṇa: A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition. Volume 4. London: Trübner and Co.
    Winternitz, Maurice.1972. A History of Indian Literature. Vol. 2. Reprint of 1933 edition. New Delhi: Oriental Reprint Corporation.
    Zelizer, VivianaA.1994. The Social Meaning of Money. New York: Basic Books.
    Ziegler, NormanPaul. 1973. ‘Action, Power and Service in Rajasthani Culture: A Social History of the Rajputs of Middle Period Rajasthan’, Ph.D. Diss., University of Chicago.

    About the Author

    Dr Lawrence A. Babb is currently Professor of Anthropology and Asian Studies at Amherst College, Massachusetts, where he has spent most of his career. His previous books are—The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India (1975), Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition (1986) and Absent Lord: Ascetics and Kings in a Jain Ritual Culture (1996). He has also co-edited Media and The Transformation of Religion in South Asia (1995) [with Susan S. Wadley] and Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan (2002) [with Michael Meister and Varsha Joshi].

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website