Advertising: A Cultural Economy

Books

Liz McFall

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Culture, Representation and Identities

    Culture, Representation and Identities is dedicated to a particular understanding of ‘cultural studies’ as an inherently interdisciplinary project critically concerned with the analysis of meaning. The series focuses attention on the importance of the contemporary ‘cultural turn’ in forging a radical re-think of the centrality of ‘the cultural’ and the articulation between the material and the symbolic in social analysis. One aspect of this shift is the expansion of ‘culture’ to a much wider, more inclusive range of institutions and practices, including those conventionally termed ‘economic’ and ‘political’.

    Paul du Gay is at the Faculty of Social Sciences at The Open University. Stuart Hall is Emeritus Professor at The Open University and Visiting Professor at Goldsmiths College, the University of London.

    Books in the series:

    Representing Black Britain

    Black and Asian Images on Television

    Sarita Malik

    Cultural Economy

    Cultural Analysis and Commercial Life

    Edited by Paul du Gay and Michael Pryke

    Advertising Cultures

    Gender, Commerce, Creativity

    Sean Nixon

    Advertising

    A Cultural Economy

    Liz McFall

    Copyright

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    List of Illustrations

    • Figure 5.1: Railway Station Advertising 1874
      • (Source: extract from print in Sampson, 1874) 121
    • Figure 5.2: Fashions for Advertisers 1846
      • (Source: Punch's Almanac, Vol. 10: 236, Jan.-Jun. 1846) 122
    • Figure 5.3: An 1826 Advertising Van
      • (Source: Sampson, 1874) 124
    • Figure 5.4: JWT headquarters in 1899
      • (Source: The Thompson Red Book on Advertising, 1899) 126
    • Figure 5.5: Sell's Building 1908
      • (Source: The Propelling Power, SL43 Colour Promotional Leaflet, 1908, HATa) 127
    • Figure 5.6: Typical Letterhead 1908
      • (Source: Sell's Box, HATa) 128
    • Figure 5.7: Edward Steichen's Advertisement for Jergen's Lotion 1923
      • (Source: Steichen, 1962) 136
    • Figure 6.1: 1820 Turner's Blacking advertisement
      • (Source: Lysons’ collection, c103k11 vol. 4, BL) 162
    • Figure 6.2: Warren's Blacking advertisement drawn by Cruikshank
      • (Source: Elliot, 1962) 163
    • Figure 6.3: Advertising stunts to evade restrictions on display
      • (Source: Presbrey, 1929) 165
    • Figure 6.4: Advertisement for the 1769 Shakespeare Jubilee celebrations
      • (Source: Daniel, c.1860, c61, Reprinted with kind permission of the British Library) 167
    • Figure 6.5: Duesbury & Co. Tradecard, 1799
      • (Source: Reprinted with kind permission of John Johnson Collection Exhibitions 2001; Tradecards 6 (20); Bodleian Library) 166
    • Figure 6.6: Panorama advertisement of the Flushing of Malta exhibition
      • (Source: Lysons’ collection, c103k11, BL) 169
    • Figure 6.7: 1930s Advertisement for Chase & Sanborn's tea
      • (Source: Tea for Sale, Fortune, August 1935) 181
    • Figure 6.8: 1914 Woodbury's Soap ‘emotional appeal’ advertisement
      • (Reprinted with kind permission of Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History, Duke University) 183

    Acknowledgements

    It has taken quite some time for this book to emerge in its current form. To those who have helped shape it along the way I owe thanks, not only for their support and kindness, but also for their constancy. The book draws substantially on doctoral research supervised by Paul du Gay and Margaret Wetherall and I continue to be grateful for the training they provided and for the mixture of patience, commitment, inspiration and energy that they brought to the project. Paul du Gay in particular has been an ongoing and indispensable source of ideas, debates and ‘damn fine’ coffee.

    I would like to thank the Open University, especially the Sociology Discipline and the Research School, for providing first the financial support and later the research leave to enable the project to be completed. I also owe thanks to those in the Open University in Scotland who encouraged me to begin the project in the first place, Graham Dawson, Bram Gieben, Katla Helgason and Gerry Mooney.

    A non-historian conducting historical research into a subject as flimsy and ephemeral as advertising relies upon the skills and expertise of archivists and librarians. I am especially grateful to Michael Cudlipp and Margaret Rose of the History of Advertising Trust in Norwich and to Ellen Gartrell of the Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History, Duke University, North Carolina for generously granting me the space, time and help to allow me to navigate my way through their extensive collections. I am also grateful to staff at the British Library; the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford; the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institute and the Guildhall Library, London.

    Many friends and colleagues discussed ideas with me, read drafts and offered feedback. I want to thank in particular Daniel Miller, Sean Nixon, Graeme Salaman and Alan Warde for their responses to earlier versions of parts of this work. I also want to thank Rick Holliman, Sarah Seymour-Smith and Ramaswami Harindranath among others for breaking into the monotony just often enough to keep me sane while this was being written. Special thanks are due to David Featherstone who has listened, read and responded to numerous drafts with unstinting patience, generosity and insight. Extraspecial thanks to the little people, Eavan and Marni, for moderating my progress in the best possible way and to Linda Usherwood (aka Mary Poppins). The book is dedicated to Stephen.

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    Primary Sources
    Abbreviations
    HATa – History of Advertising Trust Archives, Norwich
    JWTa – J. Walter Thompson Archive, Hartman Center, Duke University, North
    Carolina HOYTa – Hoyt Archive, Hartman Center, Duke University, North Carolina
    CBa – Charles Barker Archive, Guildhall Library, London
    AYERa – NW Ayer Archive, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Insititute
    BL – British Library
    BOD – Bodlein Library, Oxford
    1906 Post Office Directory
    Account files, Boxes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 13 JWTa.
    Agencies Box, HATa.
    Andrew Jergen's Company, Roll 45, Market Research microfilms, JWTa.
    Charles Barker Letters Book 1825–1847 MS 20011, CBa.
    Bartholomew Faire: A collection of advertisements, cuttings from periodicals, prints … drawings … notes relating … Fair: [1687/1849 London], BL.
    Bernstein Company History Files, Biographical File Series, Box 4. JWTa.
    Browne, Reginald Bousquet (c.1975) T.B. Browne Limited: the first 100 years. Unpublished memoir. Agencies Box, HATa.
    Butler, G. (1985) Bush House, Berlin and Berkeley Square: George Butler Remembers JWT 1925–62. Unpublished Manuscript edited by Jill Frith from conversations with George Butler. JWT Box, HATa.
    Chipchase, P. (c.1977) Manuscript notes on Streets, Streets File, HATa.
    Collection of Ballads, Broadsides etc, cll6.i.4, BL.
    Colmans file, HATa.
    J and JColman (1977) The Advertising Art of J & J Colman. Unpublished internal commemorative document.
    Crowsley, E.G.c.1952James White. Unpublished notes for the Charles Lamb Society, Whites Box HATa.
    Daniel, G. (compiler) (c.1860) A collection of illustrations, portraits, newspaper cuttings, extracts from books and sale catalogues, advertisements, manuscripts and playbills, relating principally to the Shakespeare Jubilee of 1769, and in particular to David Garrick's part therein. 1746–1860, BL.
    Darrow, P. (n.d.) Recollections. Oral History transcript, AYERa.
    Dawkins Papers, Officers and Staff series, Box 1, 3 JWTa.
    Derriman, J. (n.d.) Something in the City: The First 100 Years of Charles Barker and Son. Unpublished Manuscript Agencies Box. HATa.
    Fleishmann's Yeast Roll 55, Market Research microfilms. JWTa.
    Fleishmann's Yeast: 1920 Report on Creative Properties and Food Value. JWTa.
    Hoyt, C. (1926) Agency Training Manual. HOYTa.
    Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (1956) Aims and Functions. London: IPA.
    Jordan, C. (n.d.) Memoirs. Oral History transcript. AYERa.
    J. WalterThompson (1919) Standardisation Committee. JWTa. JWT Junior Newsletter (1936) February JWTa.
    Kohl, H. (1956) Kohl celebrates 50 years with JWT in Round the Square, Dawkins Papers, Officers and Staff series Box 2. JWTa.
    Lysons, D. (c.1825) Collectanea; or a collection of advertisements and paragraphs drawn from the newspapers, relating to various subjects. BL.
    Norris, E. (1967) From Memories. Internal memoir. Sell's Box. HATa.
    The Propelling Power (1908) SL43 Colour Promotional Leaflet, HATa.
    Raymond, C.E. (1923) Memoirs and Reminiscences. Unpublished manuscript. Officers and Staff series, Box 1. JWTa.
    Samson Clark Box, HATa.
    Sala, G. (1891) ‘The world's press and what I have known of it’, in Sell's Dictionary of the World Press. Sell's Box. HATa.
    Sell's Guardbook, 1891, Sell's Box, HATa.
    Sell's Services Presentation document (c.1910) SL53, Sell's Box, HATa.
    Sell's List of Suburban Newspapers (1888) Sell's Box, HATa.
    Sharpe, L. (1964) The Lintas Story. London: Lintas Limited, HATa.
    Sivewright, J. (1820) A Series of 24 illustrated lottery advertisements. BOD.
    Spottiswoode's The Triangle (1909), Spottiswoode's Box, HATa.
    Streets (n.d.) The Story of Streets. Unpublished Manuscript.
    Treasure, J.A.P. (1976) A History of British Advertising Agencies. Edinburgh University Jubilee Lecture, HATa.
    Twin Peaks (1996) Exhibition Leaflet. D&AD Festival of Design and Advertising, 27 November − 1 December.
    Warreniana (c.1830) Warreniana, a tale, after the manner of the Rejected Addresses, BL. RF Whites Box, HATa.

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