Academic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

Books

June E. Downing

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword

    It is with a sense of honor that I write the foreword for this book! In case you are unaware of it, let me inform you that not only is June Downing one of the preeminent scholars in the field of significant disabilities, but all of her work is grounded in the reality of both the lives of students with significant disabilities and the day-to-day operational tempo of schools. Both are replete with daily frustrations and challenges that must be met with expertise, creativity, enthusiasm, and perseverance. Each of these characteristics is evident in each chapter of this book in the explanations of practices, the importance of each practice for students with significant disabilities, and strategies for educational teams to implement each practice in their own school. Just as important, this information comes at time that is crucial for the future of students with significant disabilities. Let me explain why.

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001) and the latest reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA, 2004), which mandates that all students have access to the general curriculum, have changed the dialogue related to services for students with significant disabilities in the education community. Specifically, school administrators, teachers, parents, researchers, and teacher educators are interpreting these mandates in different ways. On the one hand, some of these personnel are interpreting the mandates as being limited to a focus on the content of the formal general curriculum (i.e., core curriculum; state standards). This selective focus allows discussion of both group and one-to-one instruction on that curriculum content without regard for context. Personnel, therefore, do not comprehend the importance of context and do not call to question the instruction of students with significant disabilities in self-contained classes and schools. The logic used to support this interpretation is belief that the essence of these mandates relates only to the explicit content of the general curriculum at any grade level. This interpretation, however, does not consider several variables that inform us about effective instructional practices for students with significant disabilities. For instance, one such variable is the learning needs of students with significant disabilities. Research tells us to teach these students during naturally occurring activities in contexts that are meaningful and important to each student. Said another way, students with significant disabilities learn more content, and learn that content more quickly, when their instruction is embedded within activities that naturally occur in contexts that are naturally experienced by students of the same age and grade level. From preschool through 12th grade, this context is that of general education, including classes, school environments, curriculum content, instructional and noninstructional activities, and classmates; basically, all of the components that make up the general education experience for students who do not have disabilities at any given grade level. No self-contained setting (i.e., class or school) can replicate this general education context or, therefore, replicate the activities and experiences that are inherent within general education contexts.

    A second variable that informs us about effective instructional practices for students with significant disabilities is the outcome data available from services previously provided for students with significant disabilities in self-contained settings. These longitudinal data tell us that teaching in self-contained classes and schools did not result in graduates having the desired type of high-quality life that reflects meaningful interdependence with individuals who are naturally present across real-life contexts. Such desired outcomes might be reflected in long-term employment in the competitive workplace, living in situations that are similar to those of most adults in the individual's home community, frequent access of the community consistent with the access of most adults in the individual's home community, and a natural support network that is consistent with networks of most individuals without disabilities. Neither such poor outcomes nor the type of services that historically have resulted in those outcomes (i.e., services in self-contained classes and schools) would be acceptable for general education students; for that reason they are not acceptable for any students, including students with significant disabilities. Consequently, efforts to provide access to the general curriculum must be grounded in meaningful participation in general education contexts.

    A third variable that informs us about effective instructional practices for students with significant disabilities is the body of research related to educational services for students with significant disabilities. This body of research tells us that (a) students with significant disabilities can and do learn, including content from the general curriculum; (b) instructional strategies that are effective for students with significant disabilities have been identified and can be embedded in both instructional and noninstructional activities that naturally occur in contexts in which general education students are engaged (i.e., general education contexts); and (c) embedding instruction for students with significant disabilities in general education contexts results in more acquisition and use of content from the general curriculum of skills required to participate in general education contexts. Instruction, therefore, does not need to be provided using a one-to-one format and does not need to be provided in self-contained settings that are believed to limit distractions and focus students on an adult instead of other students. Not only is this type of instruction not provided in the least restrictive environment, but it also eliminates the motivation inherently present by the proximity of general education classmates and participation in the same activities as those classmates. It ignores the importance of peers, peer pressure, and the desire to be a “member of a group” with peers. It also eliminates the student's equal opportunity for incidental learning opportunities that are present for general education students across the school day.

    In contrast, a second interpretation of the legislative mandates for access to the general curriculum uses a broader conceptualization of general curriculum, believing that the general curriculum extends beyond the explicit content (i.e., core; standards) and incorporates the contexts in which the explicit curriculum is taught. Such contexts are comprised of the expertise of a highly qualified general education teacher, the general education instructional strategies and activities implemented and evaluated by that teacher, the materials used during those instructional activities, and the instructional and ‘experiences of the general education students. The logic used to support this interpretation is that, when the three variables discussed above (i.e., students’ learning needs, outcome data, and research findings) are considered both independently and collectively, the importance and interrelatedness of curriculum, context, and instruction for students with significant disabilities become apparent (see Jackson, Ryndak, & Wehmeyer [in press] and Ryndak, Moore, & Delano [in press] for further discussion of the importance and interrelatedness of curriculum, context, and instruction). It becomes impossible to discuss curriculum in isolation from context, or context in isolation from instruction, or instruction in isolation from curriculum. Each influences the others, and each is intertwined with practices related to the others. Thus, to meet the mandates for access to the general curriculum, educational teams must embrace the provision of effective instructional practices in general education contexts and embedded within general education instruction and experiences. Interestingly, these concepts also are consistent with the findings of a study we conducted a decade ago about the components of definitions of inclusive education submitted by experts in the field of significant disabilities (see Ryndak, Jackson, & Billingsley, 2000). The content analysis of the submitted definitions indicated that instruction for students with significant disabilities in general education contexts does not occur on the sidelines of the class or separate from the class activities. Rather, the systematic instruction needed by students with significant disabilities can occur in the center of general education instruction, allowing all students to share experiences (i.e., the positive and the negative; the successes and the struggles) and learn general education content.

    The information and strategies provided in this book for developing and implementing effective instruction in general education contexts for students with significant disabilities are based in the understanding of the importance and interrelatedness of curriculum, context, and instruction for all students but especially for students with significant disabilities. In addition, the information and strategies are grounded solidly in general education practices observed in classrooms across the country. School administrators and teachers will recognize the instructional contexts and practices described and will be able to envision how the educational team strategies will complement, rather than conflict with, their current practices. June Downing offers a wealth of expertise and experience for educational teams seeking to provide true access to the entire general curriculum for all students. Enjoy reading this book, and relish the experience of implementing its strategies and seeing the difference in your students' learning and outcomes!

    Diane LeaRyndak, PhD University of Florida

    Preface

    Inclusion is not just putting students together of differing abilities and hoping that everyone learns. We have learned that students with disabilities, especially those with more severe disabilities, will require specific instruction to acquire the skills that they need to learn. Close physical placement with peers who are not disabled will not lead to social interactions and the development of social skills unless they are specifically taught (Carter & Hughes, 2005; C. Hughes, Carter, Hughes, Bradford, & Copeland, 2002). Likewise, these students are not likely to pick up all the possible academic skills in general education classrooms unless the material has been adapted and the skills taught to them.

    We know that students with the most severe types of disabilities can learn a number of skills when systematically instructed in a manner that is appropriate for the task and accounts for individual learning needs. This information will be presented in Chapter 2 and so not repeated here. This acquired knowledge over many years of teaching and research should not be discarded because the placement of the students may have changed from special education environments to inclusive ones. Applying what we know about how students learn to inclusive environments makes sense, given the necessary adjustments.

    This text will present evidence-based practice in the field of severe disabilities with suggestions based on personal experience of how to effectively incorporate them into general education classes. Chapter 1 provides the foundation for the text with descriptions of recommended practices that are to be assumed throughout the entire text. Such factors as family involvement, inclusion, and positive behavior support are integral to any high-quality educational program. The information hopefully will assist teachers as they include their students in general education lessons that address the core curriculum. Chapter 2 covers researched and evidence-based strategies that address the “how to” of instruction. Such strategies can be effective when students are in general education classes, although adjustments will need to be made, especially during lessons involving large group instruction. Chapter 3 targets assessment issues, both of the student and the learning environment. Identifying learning opportunities during typical classroom activities must be part of any assessment when the goal is to enhance the student's access to the core curriculum. Chapter 4 describes numerous and very specific examples of different students, ages five to twenty-one, who have severe disabilities and are learning a variety of subject matter (e.g., science, social studies, reading, Spanish). The focus is on techniques to shape desired behavior using adapted material while still keeping the student as an integral member of the overall class activity. Of course, the ideas suggested in this text will have to be adjusted to meet the individual needs of specific students.

    One premise of this text is that students will have multiple teachers across any one school day who must work collaboratively to provide the most meaningful education. Chapter 5 highlights the many different potential teachers any one student may have and the need for the student to learn to work with many different individuals. Chapter 6, cowritten with Dr. Kathy Peckham-Hardin, stresses the importance of collecting data on meaningful skills to show accountability. Students cannot just be exposed to core curriculum; they must also be expected to learn and acquire new skills. Finally, the issue of next steps to take is addressed in Chapter 7. A person-centered approach is recommended, keeping the student's needs and interests in the forefront of any future steps taken to support the individual.

    Too often, students with severe disabilities are denied access to general education classrooms because educational teams cannot see how they could benefit from this placement. They may not know how to adapt the core curriculum to make it meaningful for students of such different abilities. They may not know of positive behavioral support strategies to assist students with severe behavior challenges to control their unwanted and problematic behaviors. They may not know how to employ direct and systematic instruction to teach meaningful skills during typical classroom activities. While these issues are real and do pose a hindrance to inclusive learning opportunities, they should not bar the students with moderate or severe disabilities from the general education classroom. Students with disabilities have the right to obtain an appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. Those providing educational support for these students must acquire the skills needed to ensure such placement occurs. One major purpose of this text is to offer some information pertaining to this goal. My hope is that those on the educational team, both professional and family, will find the information and examples provided in this text helpful toward creating inclusive opportunities that are beneficial to all students.

    Acknowledgments

    Even when a book is primarily written by one person, several people offer a helping hand along the way. I owe much to these individuals and would like to acknowledge their support. First, I am very grateful to my friend and past colleague at California State University, Northridge (CSUN), Dr. Kathy Peckham-Hardin, for her contribution of Chapter 6 on assessment. Despite her hectic schedule (made worse by my departure from CSUN), she found the time to create a very practical chapter on assessment that represents a critical area of need in our field. I love writing with Kathy and admire her attention to detail and her profound belief in the need to assess what we are teaching as well as to determine what we should be teaching before jumping into the fray.

    I was able to obtain a few photographs for this text with the aid of two past graduate students—one from the University of Arizona and one from CSUN. Antonia Pond, a graduate from CSUN's special education program and a high school teacher for students with severe disabilities in the Phoenix area, captured some nice photographs of students with and without disabilities learning together in typical classrooms. She has created an exemplary peer-tutor program at her high school, and these young people were very helpful in obtaining these photos. I really appreciate her contribution to this text. The photographs of elementary students were provided by Susie Speelman, one of my first graduate students from the University of Arizona. Susie has taught for many years as both a general educator and special educator and loves to see students of all ability levels learning together. She's very much a team player and so not only took pictures herself but also involved one of her paraprofessionals, Kristina Zeider, in taking pictures. I am so very grateful for these great photographs. They add so much!

    Susie Speelman also shared one of many adaptations, see Figure 4.1, for inclusion in the text. She gave me lots of options, and I probably could have included nothing but her adaptations in the book—there were so many. Jean Slater of Slater Software readily agreed to permit the use of her graphics, which were part of some of these adaptations. Thanks to both of these women.

    I must also acknowledge the several families who so willingly (and quickly) signed the photograph release forms and allowed their son or daughter to be pictured in this text. These pictures bring to life the concepts discussed in this text, and I'm sure they draw the attention of the reader. So a very big thank you goes out to all the students and their families who helped with this project. I'd also like to thank those parents who acted as a catalyst for me to write this text in the first place. Their questions regarding the lack of instruction occurring for their son or daughter prompted me to take on the challenge of writing another book. I'm very grateful for these family members who continue to push for the improved education of their child. I'm grateful (as I feel most professionals are) for their continued and much needed energy toward this effort.

    Finally, I'd like to thank the many individuals at Corwin for their support and guidance throughout the development, editing, and publication phases. They were the ones to make this effort come to fruition. My name may be the one on the book cover, but many were involved in the process and I am very grateful to everyone for their support.

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    Nanci Lee Adkinson-Smith, Specialist in Education

    Christensen Middle School

    Livermore Valley Joint Unified School

    District Livermore, CA

    Karen Harrison, Special Education Teacher

    Center Ridge Elementary School

    Centerville, VA

    Ronda Schelvan, Special Education Teacher

    Hathaway Elementary School

    Washougal, WA

    Brenda Shelton, First-Grade Teacher

    Lenoir City Elementary School

    Lenoir City, TN

    Kathy Tritz-Rhodes, Principal

    Marcus-Meridian-Cleghorn Community Schools

    Marcus, IA

    About the Author

    June E. Downing, PhD, is Professor Emerita of Special Education at California State University, Northridge, and prior to that was at the University of Arizona in Tucson, where she did research and prepared teachers to work in the area of moderate, severe, and multiple disabilities. She is a national leader in the field of special education that targets the needs of students with severe disabilities, especially with regard to inclusive education. She has published numerous articles, chapters, monographs, and seven books on students having severe and multiple disabilities. She served for six years on the Executive Board of TASH, an international advocacy organization for individuals with severe disabilities, and was a past president of the California Chapter of this organization—CalTASH as well as AZTASH. She has served as an associate editor of Research and Practices for Persons With Severe Disabilities and currently serves on this board as well as several other professional editorial boards. She is presently serving as an educational consultant, traveling extensively in the United States and abroad to do presentations on various subjects.

  • References

    Agran, M., Blanchard, C., Wehmeyer, M., & Hughes, C. (2002). Increasing the problem-solving skills of students with developmental disabilities participating in general education. Remedial and Special Education, 23, 279–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325020230050301
    Agran, M., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2003). Self-determination. In D. L.Ryndak & S.Alper (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (pp. 259–276). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Alberto, P. A., Fredrick, L., Hughes, M., McIntosh, L., & Cihak, D. (2007). Components of visual literacy: Teaching logos. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 234–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10883576070220040501
    Albin, R. W., & Horner, R. H. (1988). Generalization with precision. In R.H.Horner, G.Dunlap, & R. L.Koegel (Eds.), Generalization and maintenance: Lifestyle changes in applied settings (pp. 99–120). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Angell, M. E., Bailey, R. L., & Larson, L. (2008). Systematic instruction for social-pragmatic language skills in lunchroom settings. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 342–359.
    Ault, M. J., Gast, D. L., & Wolery, M. (1988). Comparison of progressive and constant time-delay procedures in teaching community-sign word reading. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 93, 44–56.
    Barnes, K. J. (2003). Service delivery practices and educational outcomes of the related service of occupational therapy. Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, XX(2), 31–48.
    Barudin, S. I., & Hourcade, J. J. (1990). Relative effectiveness of three methods of reading instruction in developing specific recall and transfer skills in learners with moderate and severe mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 25, 286–291.
    Beadle-Brown, J., Murphy, G., & Wing, L. (2005). Long-term outcome for people with severe intellectual disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017%282005%29110%3C1:LOFPWS%3E2.0.CO;2
    Beukelman, D. R., & Mirenda, P. (2005). Augmentative and alternative communication: Management of severe communication disorders in children and adults (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Biederman, G. B., Fairhall, J. L., Raven, K. A., & Davey, K. A. (1998). Verbal prompting, hand-over-hand instruction, and passive observation in teaching children with developmental disabilities. Exceptional Children, 64, 503–512.
    Billingsley, F. (1998). Behaving independently: Considerations in fading instructor assistance. In A.Hilton & R.Ringlaben (Eds.), Best and promising practices in developmental disabilities (pp. 157–167). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Billingsley, F. (2003). Principles and practices for instructing students with significant needs in inclusive settings. In D.L.Ryndak & S.Alper (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 362–381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Billingsley, F. F., & Kelley, B. (1994). An examination of the acceptability of instructional practices for students with severe disabilities in general education settings. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 19, 75–83.
    Blatt, B. (1981). In and out of mental retardation: Essays on educability, disability, and human policy. Baltimore: University Park Press.
    Blue-Banning, M., Summers, J. A., Frankland, H. C., Nelson, L. L., & Beegle, G. (2004). Dimensions of family and professional partnerships: Constructive guidelines for collaboration. Exceptional Children, 70, 167–184.
    Boe, E. E., & Cook, L. H. (2006). The chronic and increasing shortage of fully certified teachers in special and general education. Exceptional Children, 72, 443–460.
    Bolton, J., & Mayer, M. D. (2008). Promoting the generalization of paraprofessional discrete trial teaching skills. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, 103–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088357608316269
    Bond, R. J., & Castagnera, E. (2003). Supporting one another: Peer tutoring in an inclusive San Diego high school. In D.Fisher & N.Frey (Eds.), Inclusive urban schools (pp. 119–142). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Bradford, S., Shippen, M., Alberto, P., Houchins, D., & Flores, M. (2006). Using systematic instruction to teach decoding skills to middle school students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 333–343.
    Brady, N. C., & McLean, I. K. (1996). Arbitrary symbol learning by adults with severe mental retardation: Comparison of lexigrams and printed words. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 100, 423–427.
    Broer, S. M., Doyle, M. B., & Giangreco, M. F. (2005). Perspectives of students with intellectual disabilities about their experiences with paraprofessional support. Exceptional Children, 71, 415–430.
    Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 5, 144–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10983007030050030301
    Browder, D. M., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Flowers, C., Karvonen, M., Spooner, F., & Algozzine, R. (2005). How states implement alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 14, 209–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10442073050150040301
    Browder, D. M., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Spooner, F., Mims, P. J., & Baker, J. N. (2009). Using time delay to teach literacy to students with severe developmental disabilities. Exceptional Children, 75, 343–364.
    Browder, D., Flowers, C., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Karvonen, M., Spooner, F., & Algozzine, R. (2004). The alignment of alternate assessment content with academic and functional curricula. The Journal of Special Education, 37, 211–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00224669040370040101
    Browder, D. M., Mims, P. J., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Lee, A. (2008). Teaching elementary students with multiple disabilities to participate in shared stories. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 33(1–2), 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.33.1-2.3
    Browder, D. M., & Spooner, F. (2003). Understanding the purpose and process of alternate assessment. In D.L.Ryndak & S.Alper (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 51–72). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Browder, D. M., & Spooner, F. (Eds.). (2006). Teaching language arts, math, and science to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooke.
    Browder, D. M., Spooner, F., Algozzine, R., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Flowers, C., & Karvonen, M. (2003). What we know and need to know about alternate assessment. Exceptional Children, 70, 45–61.
    Browder, D. M., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Flowers, C., Karvonen, M., & Algozzine, R. (2003). A content analysis of the curricular philosophies reflected in states’ alternate assessments. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 28, 165–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.28.4.165
    Browder, D. M., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Harris, A. A., & Wakeman, S. (2008). A meta-analysis on teaching mathematics to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Exceptional Children, 74, 407–432.
    Browder, D. M., Trela, K., & Jimenez, B. (2007). Training teachers to follow a task analysis to engage middle school students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities in grade-appropriate literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 206–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10883576070220040301
    Browder, D. M., Wakeman, S. Y., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Algozzine, B. (2006). Research on reading instruction for individuals with significant cognitive disabilities. Exceptional Children, 72, 392–408.
    Browder, D. M., & Xin, X. P. (1998). A meta-analysis and review of sight word research and its implications for teaching functional reading to individuals with moderate and severe disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 32, 130–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002246699803200301
    Brown, L., Branston, M. B., Hamre-Nietupski, S., Johnson, F., Wilcox, B., & Gruenewald, L. (1979). A rationale for comprehensive longitudinal interactions between severely handicapped students and nonhandicapped students and other citizens. American Association for the Education of the Severely/Profoundly Handicapped, 4, 3–14.
    Brown, L., Branston, M. B., Hamre-Nietupski, S., Pumpian, I., Certo, N., & Gruenewald, L. (1979). A strategy for developing chronological age-appropriate and functional curricular content for severely handicapped adolescents and young adults. Journal of Special Education, 13, 81–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002246697901300113
    Brown, L., Ford, A., Nisbet, J., Sweet, M., Donnellan, A., & Gruenewald, L. (1983). Opportunities available when severely handicapped students attend chronological age appropriate regular schools. The Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 8(1), 16–24.
    Brown, L., Nietupski, J., & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (1976). The criterion of ultimate functioning and public school services for severely handicapped students. In M. A.Thomas (Ed.), Hey, don't forget about me: Education's investment in the severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped (pp. 58–82). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
    Brown, L., Nisbet, J., Ford, A., Sweet, M., Shiraza, B., York, J., & Loomis, R. (1983). The critical need for nonschool instruction in educational programs for severely handicapped students. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 8, 71–77.
    Bui, Y. N., & Turnbull, A. (2003). East meets west: Analysis of person-centered planning in the context of Asian American values. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 18–31.
    Campbell, D. J., Reilly, A., & Henley, J. (2008). Comparison of assessment results of children with low incidence disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 217–225.
    Cannella, H. I., O'Reilly, M. F., & Lancioni, G. E. (2005). Choice and preference assessment research with people with severe to profound developmental disabilities: A review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2004.01.006
    Capizzi, A. M. (2008). From assessment to annual goal: Engaging a decision-making process in writing measureable IEPs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(1), 18–25.
    Carlson, E., & Billingsley, B. (2001). Working conditions in special education: Current research and implications for the field. Paper presented at OSEP Project Directors’ conference, July 2001.
    Carnahan, C. R., Williamson, P., Clarke, L., & Sorensen, R. (2009). Asystematic approach for supporting paraeducators in educational settings: Aguide for teachers. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(5), 34–43.
    Carroll, S. Z., Blumberg, E. R., & Petroff, J. G. (2008). The promise of liberal learning: Creating a challenging postsecondary curriculum for youth with intellectual disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 40(9), 1–12.
    Carter, E. W., Clark, N., Cushing, L., & Kennedy, C. H. (2007). Moving from elementary to middle school: A smooth transition for students with severe disabilities. In K.Freiberg (Ed.), Educating exceptional children (
    18th ed.
    , pp. 187–192). Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill.
    Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). The effects of peer support interventions on students’ access to the general curriculum and social interactions. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30, 15–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.30.1.15
    Carter, E. W., Cushing, L.S., & Kennedy, C.H. (2009). Peer support strategies for improving all students’ social lives and learning. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2005). Increasing social interaction among adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their general education peers: Effective interventions. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30, 179–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.30.4.179
    Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2006). Including high school students with severe disabilities in general education classes: Perspectives of general and special educators, paraprofessionals, and administrators. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31, 174–185.
    Carter, E. W., Hughes, C., Copeland, S. R., & Breen, C. (2001). Differences between high school students who do and do not volunteer to participate in peer interaction programs. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 26, 229–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.26.4.229
    Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2006). Promoting access to the general curriculum using peer support strategies. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31, 284–292.
    Carter, E. W., Lane, K. L., Pierson, M. R., & Stang, K. K. (2008). Promoting self-determination for transition-age youth: Views of high school general and special educators. Exceptional Children, 75, 55–70.
    Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Brown, L., Brickham, D., & Al-Khabbaz, Z. A. (2008). Peer interactions and academic engagement of youth with developmental disabilities in inclusive middle and high school classrooms. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 113, 479–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:479-494
    Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Melekoglu, M. A., & Kurkowski, C. (2007). Peer supports as an alternative to individually assigned paraprofessionals in inclusive high school classrooms. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 32, 213–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.32.4.213
    Casale-Giannola, D., & Kamens, M. (2006). Inclusion at a university: Experiences of a young woman with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation, 44, 344–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765%282006%2944%5B344:IAAUEO%5D2.0.CO;2
    Causton-Theoharis, J. N., Giangreco, M. F., Doyle, M. B., & Vadasy, P. (2007). Paraprofessionals: The sous chefs of literacy instruction. TEACHINGExceptional Children, 37(6), 18–24.
    Causton-Theoharis, J. N., & Malmgren, K. W. (2005). Increasing peer interactions for students with severe disabilities via paraprofessional training. Exceptional Children, 71, 431–444.
    Chen, D., & Downing, J. E. (2006). Tactile strategies for children who have visual impairments and multiple disabilities: Promoting communication and learning skills. New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
    Cihak, D., Alberto, P. A., Taber-Doughty, T., & Gama, R. I. (2006). A comparison of static picture prompting and video prompting stimulation strategies using group instructional procedures. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 89–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10883576060210020601
    Clark, K. M., & Green, G. (2004). Comparison of two procedures for teaching dictatedword/symbol relations to learners with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 503–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-503
    Clayton, J., Burdge, M., Denham, A., Kleinert, H. L., & Kearns, J. (2006). A four-step process for accessing the general curriculum for students with significant cognitive disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 38(5), 20–27.
    Cloninger, C. J. (2004). Designing collaborative educational services. In F. P.Orelove, D.Sobsey, & R. K.Silberman (Eds.), Educating children with multiple disabilities: A collaborative approach (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 1–30). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Cole, C. M., Waldron, N., & Majd, M. (2004). Academic progress of students across inclusive and traditional settings. Mental Retardation, 42, 136–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765%282004%2942%3C136:APOSAI%3E2.0.CO;2
    Colozzi, G. A., Ward, L. W., & Crotty, K. E. (2008). Comparison of simultaneous prompting procedure in 1:1 and small group instruction to teach play skills to preschool students with pervasive disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 226–248.
    Conroy, M. A., Asmus, J. M., Ladwig, C. N., Sellers, J. A., & Valcante, G. (2004). The effects of proximity on the classroom behaviors of students with autism in general education settings. Behavioral Disorders, 29, 119–129.
    Copeland, S. R., Hughes, C., Agran, M., Wehmeyer, M. L., & Fowler, S. E. (2002). An intervention package to support high school students with mental retardation in general education classrooms. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 32–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017%282002%29107%3C0032:AIPTSH%3E2.0.CO;2
    Copeland, S. R., Hughes, C., Carter, E. W., Guth, C., Presley, J., Williams, C. R., & Fowler, S. E. (2004). Increasing access to general education: Perspectives of participants in a high school peer support program. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 342–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325040250060201
    Copeland, S. R., McCall, J., Williams, C. R., Guth, C., Carter, E. W., Presley, J. A., et al. (2002). High school peer buddies: A win-win situation. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35(1), 16–21.
    Cramer, S. F. (2006). The special educator's guide to collaboration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Crawford, L., & Tindal, G. (2006). Police and practice: Knowledge and beliefs of education professionals related to the inclusion of students with disabilities in a state assessment. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 208–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325060270040201
    Cross, A. F., Traub, E. K., Hutter-Pishgaki, L., & Shelton, G. (2004). Elements of successful inclusion for children with significant disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24, 169–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02711214040240030401
    Cummings, K., Atkins, T., Allison, R., & Cole, C. (2008). Response to intervention: Investigating the new role of special educators. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(4), 24–31.
    Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Access to the general education curriculum for students with severe disabilities: What it means and how to accomplish it. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 38(2), 6–13.
    Cushing, L. S., & Kennedy, C. H. (1997). Academic effects on students without disabilities who serve as peer supports for students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 139–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1997.30-139
    Danzer, G. A., de Alva, J. J. K., Krieger, L. S., Wilson, L. E., & Woloch, N. (2007). The Americans. Geneva, IL: McDougal Littell.
    Devlin, P. (2005). Effect of continuous improvement training on student interaction and engagement. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30, 47–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.30.2.47
    Dole, M. B. (2008). The paraprofessional's guide to the inclusive classroom: Working as a team. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Dore, R., Dion, A., Wagner, S., & Brunet, J. P. (2002). High school inclusion of adolescent with mental retardation: A multiple case study. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37, 253–261.
    Downing, J. E. (2003). Accommodating motor and sensory impairments in inclusive settings. In D. L.Ryndak & S.Alper (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 411–431). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Downing, J. E. (2005). Teaching communication skills to students with severe disabilities (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Downing, J. E. (2006). On peer support, universal design, and access to the core curriculum for students with severe disabilities: A personnel preparation perspective. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31, 327–330.
    Downing, J. E. (2008). Including students with severe and multiple disabilities in typical classrooms: Practical strategies for teachers (
    3rd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Downing, J. E., & Peckham-Hardin, K. D. (2007). Inclusive education: What makes a high quality education for students with moderate-severe disabilities?Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 32, 16–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.32.1.16
    Downing, J. E., Ryndak, D. L., & Clark, D. (2000). Paraeducators in inclusive classrooms: Their own perceptions. Remedial and Special Education, 21, 171–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193250002100308
    Downing, J. E., Spencer, S., & Cavallaro, C. (2004). The development of an inclusive charter elementary school: Lessons learned. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 29, 11–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.29.1.11
    Doyle, M. B. (2008). The paraprofessional's guide to the inclusive classroom: Working as a team. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Doyle, M. B., & Giangreco, M. F. (2009). Making presentation software accessible to high school students with intellectual disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 24–31.
    Duker, P., Didden, R., & Sigafoos, J. (2004). One-to-one training: Instructional procedures for learners with developmental disabilities. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Dymond, S. K., Renzaglia, A., Gilson, C. L., & Slagor, M. T. (2007). Defining access to the general curriculum for high school students with significant cognitive disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 32, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.32.1.1
    Dymond, S. K., Renzaglia, A., Rosenstein, A., Chun, E. J., Banks, R. A., Niswander, V., et al. (2006). Using a participatory action research approach to create a universally designed inclusive high school science course: A case study. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31, 293–308.
    Dymond, S. K., & Russell, D. L. (2004). Impact of grade and disability on the instructional context of inclusive classrooms. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 127–140.
    Edeh, O. M. (2006). Cross-cultural investigation of interest-based training and social interpersonal problem solving in students with mental retardation. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 163–176.
    Education Act for All Handicapped Children of 1975, 20 U.S.C. 1401 (1975).
    Etscheidt, S. (2005). Paraprofessional services for students with disabilities: A legal analysis of issues. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30, 60–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.30.2.60
    Etscheidt, S. (2006). Progress monitoring: Legal issues and recommendations for IEP teams. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 38(3), 56–60.
    Falkenstine, K. J., Collins, B. C., Schuster, J. W., & Kleinert, H. (2009). Presenting chained and discrete tasks as non-targeted information when teaching discrete academic skills through small group instruction. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44(1), 127–142.
    Farmer, J. A., Gast, D. L., Wolery, M., & Winterling, V. (1991). Small group instruction for students with severe handicaps: A study of observational learning. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 26, 190–201.
    Ferguson, P. M. (2008). The doubting dance: Contributions to a history of parent/professional interactions in early 20th century America. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 33(1–2), 48–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.33.1-2.48
    Finke, E. H., McNaughton, D. B., & Drager, K. D. R. (2009). All children can and should have the opportunity to learn: General education teachers’ perspectives on including children with autism spectrum disorders who require AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 25, 110–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07434610902886206
    Fisher, M., & Meyer, L. (2002). Development and social competence after two years for students enrolled in inclusive and self-contained educational programs. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 27, 165–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.27.3.165
    Flowers, C., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Browder, D., & Spooner, F. (2005). Teachers’ perceptions of alternate assessments. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30, 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.30.2.81
    Flowers, C. P., Browder, D. M., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Spooner, F. (2006). Promoting the alignment of curriculum, assessment, and instruction. In D. M.Browder, & F.Spooner (Eds.), Teaching language arts, math, and science to students with significant cognitive disabilities pp. 295–312. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Ford, A., & Davern, L. (1989). Moving forward with school integration: Strategies for involving students with severe handicaps in the life of the school. In R.Gaylord-Ross (Ed.), Integration strategies for students with handicaps (pp. 11–33). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Foreman, P., Arthur-Kelly, M., Pascoe, S., & Smyth-King, B. (2004). Evaluating the educational experiences of students with profound and multiple disabilities in inclusive and segregated classroom settings: An Australian perspective. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 29, 183–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.29.3.183
    Fowler, C. H., Konrad, M., Walker, A. R., Test, D. W., & Wood, W. M. (2007). Self-determination interventions’ effects on the academic performance of students with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 42, 270–285.
    Frank, D. V., Little, J. G., & Miller, S. (2009). Science explorers: Chemical interaction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Friend, M., & Cook, L. (2007). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals (
    5th ed.
    ). Boston: Pearson.
    Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18, 157–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-5826.00072
    Gast, D., Ault, M., Wolery, M., Doyle, P., & Belanger, S. (1988). Comparison of constant time delay and the system of least prompts in teaching sight word reading to students with moderate retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 23, 117–128.
    Ghere, G., & York-Barr, J. (2007). Paraprofessional turnover and retention in inclusive programs: Hidden costs and promising practices. Remedial and Special Education, 28, 21–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325070280010301
    Giangreco, M. F. (2006). Foundational concepts and practices for educating students with severe disabilities. In M. E.Snell & F.Brown (Eds.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (
    6th ed.
    , pp. 1–27). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Giangreco, M. F., Backus, L., Cichoskikelly, E., Sherman, P., & Mavropoulous, Y. (2003). Paraeducator training materials to facilitate inclusive education: Initial field-test data. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 22(1), 17–27.
    Giangreco, M. F., & Broer, S. M. (2005). Questionable utilization of paraprofessionals in inclusive schools: Are we addressing the symptoms or causes?Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20, 10–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10883576050200010201
    Giangreco, M. F., & Doyle, M.B. (2007). Teacher assistants in inclusive schools. In L.Florian (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of special education (pp. 429–439). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781848607989
    Giangreco, M. F., Halvorsen, A., Doyle, M. B., & Broer, S. M. (2004). Alternatives to over-reliance on paraprofessional in inclusive schools. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 17(2), 82–90.
    Giangreco, M. F., Yuan, S., McKenzie, B., Cameron, P., & Fialka, J. (2005). Be careful what you wish for …: Five reasons to be concerned about the assignment of individual paraprofessionals. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 37(5), 28–34.
    Greenwood, C. R., Arreaga-Mayer, C., Utley, C. A., Gavin, K. M., & Terry, B. J. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system: Applications with elementary-level English language learners. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 34–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193250102200105
    Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement time: Current perspectives on research and practice. School Psychological Review, 31, 328–349.
    Gresham, F. M., Reschly, D. J., Tilly, W. D., Fletcher, J., Burns, M., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). A response to intervention perspective. The School Psychologist, 59, 26–33.
    Grigal, M., Neubert, D. A., & Moon, M. S. (2002). Postsecondary options for students with significant disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35(2), 68–73.
    Haberman, M. (1991). The pedagogy of poverty versus good teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 290–294.
    Harcourt. (2007). Social studies. The United States: Making a new nation. Orlando, FL: Harcourt School Publishers.
    Harrower, J., & Dunlap, G. (2001). Including children with autism in general education classrooms: A review of effective strategies. Behavior Modification, 25, 762–784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445501255006
    Harry, B., & Klingner, J. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?New York: Teachers College Press.
    Hart, D., Mele-McCarthy, J., Pasternack, R. H., Zimbrich, K., & Parker, D. R. (2004). Community college: A pathway to success for youth with learning, cognitive, and intellectual disabilities in secondary settings. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 54–66.
    Hart, D., Zimbrich, K., & Parker, D. (2005). Dual enrollment as a postsecondary education option for students with intellectual disabilities. In E. E.Getzel, & P.Wehman (Eds.), Going to college: Expanding opportunities for people with disabilities (pp. 253–267). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Hedeen, D. L., & Ayres, B. J. (2002). “You want me to teach him to read?” Fulfilling the intent of IDEA. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 13, 180–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10442073020130030601
    Higher Education Opportunity Act. (2008). Public Law 110–315. 20 USC 1001.
    Holburn, S., Gordon, A., & Vietze, P. M. (2007). Person-centered planning made easy. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Holburn, S., & Vietze, P. (Eds.). (2002). Person-centered planning: Research, practice, and future directions. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., & Todd, A. W. (2000). Positive behavior support. In M. E.Snell & F.Brown (Ed.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (
    5th ed.
    , pp. 207–243). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
    Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Todd, A. W., & Sprague, J. (2006). Positive behavior support for individuals with severe disabilities. In M. D.Snell & F.Brown (Eds.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (
    6th ed.
    , pp. 206–250). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice.
    Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 165–180.
    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2005). Schoolwide positive behavior support. In L.M.Bambara & L.Kern (Eds.), Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior plans (pp. 359–390). New York: The Guilford Press.
    Hughes, C., & Agran, M. (1993). Teaching persons with severe disabilities to use self-instruction in community settings: An analysis of applications. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 18, 261–274.
    Hughes, C., Carter, E. W., Hughes, T., Bradford, E., & Copeland, S. R. (2002). Effects of instructional versus non-instructional roles on the social interactions of high school students. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37, 146–162.
    Hughes, C., Copeland, S. R., Wehmeyer, M., Agran, M., Cai, X., & Hwang, B. (2002). Increasing social interaction between general education high school students and their peers with mental retardation. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 14, 387–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020386920054
    Hughes, M. W., Schuster, J. W., & Nelson, C. M. (1993). The acquisition of independent dressing skills by students with multiple disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 5, 233–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01047066
    Hunt, P., Soto, G., Maier, J., Muller, E., & Goetz, L. (2002). Collaborative teaming to support students at risk and students with severe disabilities in general education classrooms. Exceptional Children, 69, 315–332.
    Hunt, P., Staub, D., Alwell, M., & Goetz, L. (1994). Achievement by all students within the context of cooperative learning groups. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 19, 290–301.
    Iacono, T. (2003). Pragmatic development in individuals with developmental disabilities who use AAC. In J. C.Light, D. R.Beukelman, & J.Reichle (Eds.), Communicative competence for individuals who use AAC (pp. 323–360). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Idol, L. (2002). Creating collaborative and inclusive schools. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Idol, L. (2006). Toward inclusion of special education students in general education. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 77–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325060270020601
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990, 20 U.S.C. § 1400et seq. (1990).
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, PL 105–17, 20 U.S.C. § 1400et seq. (1997).
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, PL 108–466, 20 U.S.C. §et seq. (2004).
    Jackson, L., Wehmeyer, M., & Ryndak, D. L. (in press). Scientifically based educational practice for ensuring access to general education and the general education curriculum: A case for inclusive education. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities.
    Jameson, J. M., McDonnell, J., Polychronis, S., & Riesen, T. (2008). Embedded, constant time delay instruction by peers without disabilities in general education classrooms. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 346–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.46:346-363
    Jameson, M., McDonnell, J., Johnson, J. W., Riesen, T., & Polychronis, S. C. (2007). A comparison of one-to-one embedded instruction in the general education classroom and one-to-one massed practice instruction in the special education classroom. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/etc.2007.0001
    Janney, R., & Snell, M. E. (2004). Modifying schoolwork (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Janney, R., & Snell, M. E. (2006). Teachers’ guides to inclusive practices: Modifying schoolwork (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1987). Learning together and alone: Cooperation, competition, and individualization. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1993). Circles of learning: Cooperation in the classroom (
    4th ed.
    ). Edina, MI: Interactive Book Company.
    Johnson, E., & Arnold, W. (2004). Validating an alternate assessment. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 266–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325040250050101
    Johnson, J. W., McDonnell, J., Holzwarth, V. N., & Hunter, K. (2004). The efficacy of embedded instruction for students with developmental disabilities enrolled in general classes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 214–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10983007040060040301
    Jorgensen, C. M. (2005). The least dangerous assumption: Presuming competence of students with a label of mental retardation. Disability Solutions, 6(3), 1, 5–9.
    Jorgensen, C. M., McSheehan, M., & Sonnenmeier, R. M. (2007). Presumed competence in the educational programs of students with significant intellectual and developmental disabilities before and after the Beyond Access professional development intervention. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 32, 248–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13668250701704238
    Kampfer, S., Horvath, L., Kleinert, H., & Kearns, J. (2001). Teachers’ perceptions of one states’ alternate assessment portfolio program: Implications for practice and preparation. Exceptional Children, 67, 361–374.
    Kamps, D. M., Greenwood, C., Arreaga-Mayer, C., Veerkamp, M. B., Utley, C., Tapia, Y., et al. (2008). The efficacy of classwide peer tutoring in middle schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 31, 119–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0017
    Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D., Woodruff, N., & Dixon, A. (2005). Transition supports to students with mental retardation: An examination of data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 109–116.
    Kearns, J., Burdge, M. D., Clayton, J., Denham, A. P., & Kleinert, H. L. (2006). How students demonstrate academic performance in portfolio assessment. In D. M.Browder & F.Spooner (Eds.), Teaching language arts, math, and science to students with significant cognitive disabilities (pp. 277–294). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Keefe, E. B., & Moore, V. (2004). The challenge of coteaching in inclusive classrooms at the high school level: What the teachers told us. American Secondary Education, 32(3), 77–88.
    Keefe, E. B., Moore, V., & Duff, F. (2004). The four “knows” of collaborative teaching. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 36(5), 36–43.
    Keogh, B. K., Bernheimer, L. P., & Guthrie, O. (2004). Children with developmental delays twenty years later: Where are they? How are they?American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 219–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017%282004%29109%3C219:CWDDTY%3E2.0.CO;2
    Ketterer, A., Schuster, J. W., Morse, T. E., & Collins, B. C. (2007). The effects of response cards on active participation and social behavior of students with moderate and severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 19, 187–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10882-007-9047-7
    King, G., Baxter, D., Rosenbaum, P., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Bates, A. (2009). Belief systems of families of children with autism spectrum disorders or Down syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(1), 50–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088357608329173
    Kleinert, H., McGregor, V., Durbin, M., Blandford, T., Jones, K., Owens, J., Harrison, B., & Miracle, S. (2004). Service-learning opportunities that include students with moderate and severe disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 37(2), 28–35.
    Kluth, P., & Schwarz, P. (2008). “Just give him the whale!” Twenty ways to use fascinations, areas of expertise, and strengths to support students with autism. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Knight, T. (2003). Academic access and the family. In P.Kluth, D.Straut, & D.Biklen (Eds.), Access to academics for all students (pp. 49–68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Kohl, F. L., McLaughlin, M. J., & Nagle, K. (2006). Alternate achievement standards and assessments: A descriptive investigation of 16 states. Exceptional Children, 73, 107–123.
    Leblanc, M., Ricciardi, J. M., & Luiselli, J. K. (2005). Improving discrete trial instruction by paraprofessional staff through an abbreviated performance feedback intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 76–82.
    Li, A. (2009). Identification and intervention for students who are visually impaired and who have autism spectrum disorders. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(4), 22–32.
    Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (2009). Accessible literacy learning (All): Evidence-based reading instruction for learners with autism, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and other disabilities. Pittsburgh, PA: Mayer-Johnson LLC.
    Light, J. C., & Binger, C. (1998). Building communicative competence with individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Lipsky, D. K., & Gartner, A. (1992). Achieving full inclusion: Placing the student at the center of educational reform. In W.Stainback & S.Stainback (Eds.), Controversial issues confronting special education (pp. 3–12). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Logan, K., Jacobs, H. A., Gast, D. A., Murray, A. S., Daino, K., & Skala, C. (1998). The impact of typical peers on the perceived happiness of students with profound multiple disabilities. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 23, 309–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.23.4.309
    Lohrmann, S., & Bambara, L. M. (2006). Elementary education teachers’ beliefs about essential supports needed to successfully include students with developmental disabilities who engage in challenging behaviors. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31, 157–173.
    Losardo, A., & Notari-Syverson, A. (2001). Alternative approaches to assessing young children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (2004). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families (
    3rd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Lynch, S., & Adams, P. (2008). Developing standards-based individualized education program objectives for students with significant needs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(4), 36–39.
    Macy, M., & Hoyt-Gonzales, K. (2007). Alinked system approach to early childhood special education eligibility assessment. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(3), 40–44.
    Mainger, R. W., Deshler, D., Coleman, M. R., Kozleski, E., & Rodriquez-Walling, M. (2003). To ensure the learning of every child with a disability. Focus on Exceptional Children, 35(5), 1–12.
    McCarthy, C. B. (2005). Effects of thematic-based, hands-on science teaching versus a textbook approach for students with disabilities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 245–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.20057
    McDonnell, J., Johnson, J. W., Polychronis, S., Riesen, T., Jameson, M., & Kercher, K. (2006). Comparison of one-to-one embedded instruction in general education classes with small group instruction in special education classes. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 125–138.
    McDonnell, J., Mathot-Buckner, C., Thorson, N., & Fister, N. (2001). Supporting the inclusion of students with moderate and severe disabilities in junior high school general education classes: The effects of classwide peer tutoring, multi-element curriculum, and accommodations. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 141–160.
    McLeskey, J., & Billingsley, B. S. (2008). How does the quality and stability of the teaching force influence the research-to-practice gap? A perspective on the teacher shortage in special education. Remedial and Special Education, 29, 293–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0741932507312010
    McLeskey, J., & Henry, D. (1999). Inclusion: What progress is being made across states?TEACHING Exceptional Children, 31(5), 56–63.
    Mechling, L. C. (2005). The effect of instructor-created video programs to teach students with disabilities: A literature review. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 25–36.
    Mechling, L. C. (2008). Thirty-year review of safety skill instruction for persons with intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 311–323.
    Mechling, L. C., & Gustafson, M. (2009). Comparison of the effects of static picture and video prompting on the completion of cooking related tasks by students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 42, 179–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022466907313348
    Meyer, L. H. (2001). The impact of inclusion on children's lives: Multiple outcomes, and friendship in particular. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 48, 9–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10349120120036288
    Mills v. Board of Education, 348 F. Supp. 866 (D.D.C) (1982).
    Minarovic, T. J., & Bambara, L. M. (2007). Teaching employees with intellectual disabilities to manage changing work routines using varied sight-word checklists. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 32, 31–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.32.1.31
    Miracle, S. A., Collins, B. C., Schuster, J. W., & Grisham-Brown, J. (2001). Peer-versus teacher-directed instruction: Effects on acquisition and maintenance. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 36, 373–385.
    Morse, T. E., & Schuster, J. W. (2004). Simultaneous prompting: A review of the literature. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 153–168.
    Naraian, S. (2008). “I didn't think I was going to like working with him, but now I really do!” : Examining peer narratives of significant disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 106–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765%282008%2946%5B106:IDTIWG%5D2.0.CO;2
    Nevin, A. I., Villa, R. A., & Thousand, J. A. (2008). A guide to coteaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K–12 educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, PL 107–110, 115 Stat. 1425, 20 U.S.C §§ 6301et seq. (2001).
    Norman, J. M., Collins, B. C., & Schuster, J. W. (2001). Using an instructional package including videotechnology to teach self-help skills to elementary students with mental disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 16, 5–18.
    Ohtake, Y. (2003). Increasing class membership of students with severe disabilities through contribution to classmates’ learning. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 28, 228–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.28.4.228
    Owens, J. S. (2006). Accessible information for people with complex communication needs. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 22, 196–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07434610600649971
    Parrish, P. R., & Stodden, R. A. (2009). Aligning assessment and instruction with state standards for children with significant disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(4), 22–32, 46–57.
    Peck, C. A., Staub, D., Gallucci, C., & Schwartz, I. (2004). Parent perception of the impacts of inclusion on their nondisabled child. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 29, 135–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.29.2.135
    Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PAEC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 334 F. Supp. 1257 (E.D. Pa.); 343 F. Supp. 279 (E.D. Pa.) (1971, 1972).
    Perner, D. E. (2007). No child left behind: Issues of assessing students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 42, 243–251.
    Pershey, M. G., & Gilbert, T. W. (2002). Christine: A case study of literacy acquisition by an adult with developmental disability. Mental Retardation, 40, 219–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765%282002%29040%3C0219:CACSOL%3E2.0.CO;2
    Post, M., & Storey, K. (2002). Review of using auditory prompting systems with persons who have moderate to severe disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37, 317–327.
    Poston, D., & Turnbull, A. P. (2004). Role of spirituality and religion in family quality of life for families of children with disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 95–108.
    Realon, R. E., Favell, J. E., & Lowerre, A. (1990). The effects of making choices on engagement levels with persons who are profoundly multiply handicapped. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 25, 299–305.
    Reis, S. M., Schader, R., Milne, H., & Stephens, R. (2003). Music and minds: Using a talent development approach for young adults with Williams syndrome. Exceptional Children, 69, 293–314.
    Renzaglia, A., Karvonen, M., Drasgow, E., & Stoxen, C. C. (2003). Promoting a lifetime of inclusion. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 140–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10883576030180030201
    Reynolds, M. (1962). A framework for considering some issues in special education. Exceptional Children, 28, 367–370.
    Riesen, T., McDonnell, J., Johnson, J. W., Polychronis, S., & Jameson, M. (2003). A comparison of constant time delay and simultaneous prompting within embedded instruction in general education classes with students with moderate to severe disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12, 241–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026076406656
    Riley, G. A. (1995). Guidelines for devising a hierarchy when fading response prompts. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 30, 231–242.
    Roach, A., & Elliott, S. (2006). The influences of access to the general education curriculum on alternate assessment performance of students with significant cognitive disabilities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28, 181–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/01623737028002181
    Rogers-Atkinson, D. L., Ochoa, T. A., & Delgado, B. (2003). Developing cross-cultural competence: Serving families of children with significant developmental needs. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 4–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108835760301800102
    Rose, D., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Rose, D., & Meyer, A. (Eds.). (2006). A practical reader in universal design for learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    Rosenberg, M. S., Boyer, K. L., Sindelar, P. T., & Misra, S. K. (2007). Alternative route programs for certification in special education: Program infrastructure, instructional delivery, and participant characteristics. Exceptional Children, 73, 224–241.
    Ryndak, D. L., & Alper, S. (2003). Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Ryndak, D. L., Jackson, L., & Billingsley, F. (2000). Defining school inclusion for students with moderate to severe disabilities: What do experts say?Exceptionality, 8, 101–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327035EX0802_2
    Ryndak, D. L., Moore, M., & DelanoM. (in press). Access to the general curriculum: The mandate and the role of context in research-based practice. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities.
    Ryndak, D. L., Morrison, A. P., & Sommerstein, L. (1999). Literacy before and after inclusion in general education settings: A case study. Journal of The Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 24, 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.24.1.5
    Ryndak, D. L., & Pullen, P. C. (2003). Education teams and collaborative teamwork in inclusive settings. In D. L.Ryndak & S.Alper (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (pp. 131–150). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Ryndak, D. L., & Ward, T. (2003). Adapting environments, materials, and instruction to facilitate inclusion. In D. L.Ryndak & S.Alper (Eds.), Curriculum and instruction for students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 382–411). Boston: Pearson.
    Salend, S. J. (2008). Determining appropriate testing accommodations: Complying with NCLB and IDEA. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(4), 4–22.
    Salend, S. J. (2009). Technology-based classroom assessments: Alternatives to testing. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(6), 48–58.
    Salisbury, C., Palombaro, M. M., & Hollowood, T. M. (1993). On the nature and change of an inclusive elementary school. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 18, 75–84.
    Sarokoff, R., & Sturmey, P. (2004). The effects of behavioral skill training on staff implementation of discrete trail teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 535–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-535
    Schnorr, R. F. (1990). “Peter? He comes and goes …”: First graders’ perspectives on a part-time mainstream student. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 15, 231–240.
    Schuster, J. W., Griffen, A. K., & Wolery, M. (1992). Comparison of simultaneous prompting and constant time delay procedures in teaching sight words to elementary students with moderate mental retardation. Journal of Behavioral Education, 2, 305–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00948820
    Schuster, J. W., Morse, T. E., Griffen, A. B., & Wolery, M. (1996). Teaching peer reinforcement and grocery words: An investigation of observational learning and instructive feedback. Journal of Behavioral Education, 6, 511–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02110520
    Schwarz, P. (2006). From disability to possibility: The power of inclusive classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Science,
    Arizona Edition
    . (2006). Orlando, FL: Harcourt School Publishers.
    Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & McDuffie, K. A. (2007). Coteaching in inclusive classrooms: A metasynthesis of qualitative research. Exceptional Children, 73, 392–416.
    Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Okolo, C. M. (2008). Science and social studies for students with disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(2), 1–24.
    Seo, S., Brownell, M. T., Bishop, A. G., & Dingle, M. (2008). Beginning special education teachers’ classroom reading instruction: Practices that engage elementary students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 75, 97–122.
    Sheppard-Jones, K., Prout, H. T., & Kleinert, H. (2005). Quality of life dimensions for adults with developmental disabilities: A comparative study. Mental Retardation, 43, 281–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765%282005%2943%5B281:QOLDFA%5D2.0.CO;2
    Shipley-Benamou, R., Lutzker, J. R., & Taubman, M. (2002). Teaching daily living skills to children with autism through instructional video modeling. Journal of Positive Behavioral Intervention, 4, 165–178.
    Shukla, S., Kennedy, C. H., & Cushing, L. S. (1999). Intermediate school students with severe disabilities: Supporting their social participation in general education classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 130–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109830079900100301
    Shumaker, J. B., Deshler, D. D., Bulgren, J. A., Davis, B., Lenz, B. K., & Grossen, B. (2002). Access of adolescents with disabilities to general education curriculum: Myth or reality?Focus on Exceptional Children, 35(3), 1–16.
    Siegel, E., & Allinder, R. M. (2005). Review of assessment procedures for students with moderate and severe disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 343–351.
    Sigafoos, J., Arthur-Kelly, M., & Butterfield, N. (2006). Enhancing everyday communication for children with disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Simonsen, B., Sugai, G., & Negron, M. (2008). Schoolwide positive behavior supports: Primary systems and practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(6), 32–43.
    Singer, G. H. S., & Irvin, L. K. (1991). Supporting families of persons with severe disabilities: Emerging findings, practices, and questions. In L.H.Meyer, C. A.Peck, & L.Brown (Eds.), Critical issues in the lives of people with severe disabilities (pp. 271–312). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Smith, V. M. (2003). “You have to learn who comes with the disability”: Students’ reflections on service learning experiences with peers labeled with disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 28, 79–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.28.2.79
    Snell, M. E. (2002). Using dynamic assessment with learners who communicate non-symbolically. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 18, 163–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07434610212331281251
    Snell, M. E., & Brown, F. (2006). Designing and implementing instructional programs. In M. E.Snell, & F.Brown, Instruction of students with severe disabilities (
    6th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Snell, M. E., & Janney, R. (2005). Collaborative teaming (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Soukup, J. H., Wehmeyer, M. L., Bashinski, S. M., & Bovaird, J. (2007). Classroom variables and access to the general education curriculum of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Exceptional Children, 74, 101–120.
    Spooner, F., Baker, J. N., Harris, A. A., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Browder, D. M. (2007). Effects of training in universal design for learning on lesson plan development. Remedial and Special Education, 28, 108–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325070280020101
    Spooner, F., DiBase, W., & Courtade-Little, G. (2006). Science standards and functional skill: Finding the links. In D. M.Browder & F.Spooner (Eds.), Teaching language arts, math, and science to students with significant cognitive disabilities (pp. 229–244). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Spriggs, A., Gast, D. L., & Ayres, K. M. (2007). Using picture activity schedule books to increase on-schedule and on-task behaviors. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 42, 209–223.
    Stecker, P. M., Lembke, E. S., & Folgen, A. (2008). Using progress-monitoring data to improve instructional decision making. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 48–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/PSFL.52.2.48-58
    Stromer, R., Mackay, H. A., Howell, S. R., & McVay, A. A. (1996). Teaching computerassisted spelling to individuals with developmental and hearing disabilities: Transfer of stimulus control to writing task. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 25–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1996.29-25
    Sugai, G., Simonsen, B., & Horner, R. H. (2008). Schoolwide positive behavior supports: A continuum of positive behavior supports for all students. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(6), 5.
    Szczepanski, M. (2004). Physical management in the classroom: Handling and positioning. In F. P.Orelove, D.Sobsey, & R. K.Silberman (Eds.), Educating children with multiple disabilities: A collaborative approach (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 249–310). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Taylor, P., Collins, B. C., Schuster, J. W., & Kleinert, H. (2002). Teaching laundry skills to high school students with disabilities: Generalization of targeted skills and nontargeted information. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37, 172–183.
    Taylor, S. J. (1982). From segregation to integration: Strategies for integrating severely handicapped students in normal school and community settings. The Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 8(3), 42–49.
    Taylor, S. J. (1988). Caught in the continuum: A critical analysis of the principle of the least restrictive environment. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 13, 41–53.
    Thompson, J. R., Bradley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H. E., Schalock, R. L., Shogren, K. A., Snell, M. E., et al. (2009). Conceptualizing supports and the support needs of people with intellectual disability. Individuals With Developmental Disabilities, 47, 135–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-47.2.135
    Thompson, J. R., Meadan, H., Fansier, K. W., Alber, S. B., & Balogh, P. A. (2007). Family assessment portfolios: A new way to jumpstart family/school collaboration. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(6), 19–25.
    Thousand, J. S., Villa, R. A., & Nevin, A. I. (2002). Creativity and collaborative learning: The practical guide to empowering students, teachers, and families (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
    Thousand, J. S., Villa, R. A., & Nevin, A. I. (2007). Differentiating instruction: Collaborative planning and teaching for universally designed learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Tindal, G., McDonald, M., Tedesco, M., Glasgow, A., Almond, P., Crawford, L., & Hollenbeck, K. (2003). Alternate assessments in reading and math: Development and validation for students with significant disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69, 481–494.
    Towles-Reeves, E., & Kleinert, H. (2006). The impact of one state's alternate assessment upon instruction and IEP development. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 25(3), 31–39.
    Towles-Reeves, E., Kleinert, H., & Muhomba, M. (2009). Alternate assessment: Have we learned anything new?Exceptional Children, 75, 233–252.
    Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (2001). Self-determination for individuals with significant cognitive disabilities and their families. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 26, 56–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.26.1.56
    Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H. R., Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L. C. (2006). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust (
    5th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Alternate achievement standards for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities: Nonregulatory guidance. Washington, DC: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education.
    Vacca, J. J. (2007). Incorporating interests and structure to improve participation of a child with autism in a standardized assessment: A case study analysis. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 51–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10883576070220010601
    Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S., & Nevin, A. I. (2008). A guide to co-teaching: Practical tips for facilitating student learning (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Levine, P., & Marder, C. (2003). Going to school: Instructional contexts, programs, and participation of secondary school students with disabilities. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
    Wallace, T., Anderson, A. R., Bartholomay, T., & Hupp, S. (2002). An ecobehavioral examination of high school classrooms that include students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 68, 345–359.
    Wehmeyer, M. L. (2005). Self-determination and individuals with severe disabilities: Re-examining meanings and misinterpretations. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30, 113–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.2511/rpsd.30.3.113
    Wehmeyer, M. L. (2006). Beyond access: Ensuring progress in the general education curriculum for students with severe disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31, 322–326.
    Wehmeyer, M. L., Field, S., Doren, B., Jones, B., & Mason, C. (2004). Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform. Exceptional Children, 70, 413–425.
    Wehmeyer, M. L., Garner, N., Yeager, D., Lawrence, M., & Davis, A. K. (2006). Infusing self-determination into 18–21 services for students with intellectual or developmental disabilities: A multi-stage component. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 3–13
    Wehmeyer, M. L., Lattin, D. L., Lapp-Rincker, G., & Agran, M. (2003). Access to the general curriculum of middle school students with mental retardation: An observational study. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 262–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325030240050201
    Wehmeyer, M. L., & Palmer, S. B. (2003). Adult outcomes for students with cognitive disabilities three years after high school: The impact of self-determination. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 131–144.
    West, E. A. (2008). Effects of verbal cues of pictorial cues on the transfer of stimulus control for children with autism. Focus on Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 23, 229–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088357608324715
    West, E. A., & Billingsley, F. (2005). Improving the system of least prompts: A comparison of procedural variations. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 131–144.
    Westling, D. L., & Fox, L. (2009). Teaching students with severe disabilities (
    4th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Wilson, L. L., Mott, D. W., & Batman, D. (2004). The asset-based context matrix: A tool for assessing children’ learning opportunities and participation in natural environments. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24, 110–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02711214040240020601
    Winn, J., & Blanton, L. (2005). The call for collaboration in teacher education. Focus on Exceptional Children, 38(2), 1–12.
    Wolery, M., Anthony, L., Snyder, E. D., Werts, M. B., & Katzenmeyer, J. (1997). Training elementary teachers to embed instruction during classroom activities. Education and Treatment of Children, 20, 40–58.
    Yell, M. L. (2006). The law and special education (
    2nd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill.
    Yell, M. L., Ryan, J. B., Rozalski, M. E., & Katsiyannis, A. (2009). The US Supreme Court and special education: 2005–2007. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 68–75.
    Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2005). Best practice: Today's standards for teaching and learning in America's schools (
    3rd ed.
    ). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Zhang, J., Gast, D., Horvat, M., & Dattilo, J. (1995). The effectiveness of a constant time delay procedure on teaching lifetime sport skills to adolescents with severe to profound intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 30, 51–64.

    Corwin: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo-a raven striding across an open book-represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do TheirWork Better.”


    • Loading...
Back to Top