A Short Introduction to Psychiatry


Linda Gask

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions

    Series Editor: Colin Feltham

    Books in this series examine the different professions which provide help for people experiencing emotional or psychological problems. Written by leading practitioners and trainers in each field, the books are a source of up-to-date information about

    • the nature of the work
    • training, continuing professional development and career pathways
    • the structure and development of the profession
    • client populations and consumer views
    • research and debates surrounding the profession.

    Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions are ideal for anyone thinking about a career in one of the therapy professions or in the early stages of training. The books will also be of interest to mental health professionals needing to understand allied professions and also to patients, clients and relatives of service users.

    Books in the series:

    A Short Introduction to Clinical Psychology

    Katherine Cheshire and David Pilgrim

    A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis

    Jane Milton, Caroline Polmear and Julia Fabricius

    A Short Introduction to Psychiatry

    Linda Gask


    View Copyright Page


    For my family, John and Suzy, with all my love


    Several friends and colleagues kindly agreed to be interviewed and/or read early drafts of particular chapters and they are (in alphabetical order): Elaine Arnold, Tom Brown, Bill Deakin, Dinesh Bhugra, Chris Dowrick, Roger Farmer, Hugh Freeman, Chris Manning, Frank Margison, Max Marshall, Carl May, David Pilgrim, David Richards and Jenny Shaw. Mike Shooter, President of the Royal College of Psychiatrists gave up his precious time to talk to me. I also extend my thanks to the Royal College of Psychiatrists for giving me permission to reproduce material from their website in Appendix 1.

    Colin Feltham suggested that I write the book and has been a very helpful editor, reading through drafts and posing some difficult questions. Finally I couldn't have completed this without my husband John, who always supports me even when I get carried away on yet another project.

  • Appendices

    Appendix 1: Information on Psychiatry as a Career (Reprinted with Permission from the Royal College of Psychiatrists Website: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk)

    You must first qualify as a medical doctor. To do this, you need to be accepted by a medical school, having passed three good ‘A’ levels in subjects such as Chemistry, Zoology, Physics, Biology or Maths. Some medical schools now accept other ‘A’ levels, too. Getting into medical school is very competitive – it seems to help if candidates not only have good academic qualifications but are also lively, enthusiastic all-rounders with outside interests such as sports or the Arts.

    Once you have been accepted by a hospital as a medical student, you will work in a variety of areas, including psychiatry, for the next five years.

    Following this, you will work as a House Officer in a hospital for a further year. This can be very tough with hard work and long hours. However, once you get through this, you will become a medical doctor and can specialize in any area you wish – we hope you will choose psychiatry!

    Before starting your psychiatric training, we advise young doctors to take an extra job or two in the general medicine or Accident and Emergency departments of a hospital – this always seems to help during your first psychiatric job.

    You will then spend a further three years working as a Senior House Officer – during which time you will probably wish to study for the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Membership Examination – the MRCPsych.

    Following this, you will be ready for Higher Training as a Specialist Registrar. During this period, you will choose which of the six psychiatric speciality areas you wish to concentrate upon during the next three/four years.

    What are the Various Specialties within Psychiatry?
    General Adult Psychiatry

    The majority of psychiatrists in the UK work within this broad category, which involves the care of people with mental health problems in many settings. Psychiatrists may be based in mental or university hospitals, psychiatric units in general hospitals, in the community, or a mixture of these. Because of the diversity of patients and psychiatric conditions requiring treatment and care, an adult general psychiatrist must be skilled in numerous treatment techniques. Psychiatrists in this area must also have the knowledge and skills required to organize and administer a psychiatric service for a specific population. General adult psychiatrists may have a special interest in, for example, neuropsychiatry, the rehabilitation and care of patients with chronic disabilities, drug and/or alcohol problems or eating disorders. They work closely with multi-disciplinary teams which can include community psychiatric nurses, social workers, psychologists and occupational therapists. This specialty also entails close liaison with hostels, crisis intervention centres, residential homes and sheltered workshops.

    Psychiatry of Old Age

    This is a rapidly expanding specialty: the number of old people in this country has increased dramatically, and is likely to continue to do so. In psychiatric units at present, about 45 per cent of residents and 25 per cent of people admitted are aged 65 years or more. A major challenge for this area of psychiatry is the treatment and care of people suffering from senile dementia, but most specialists in the field deal with the full range of psychiatric disorders affecting patients over the age of 65. Much ill health in old people is a mixture of physical and mental conditions, and so an active interest in general medicine is required. Psychiatrists working in this specialty are based in hospitals, geriatric units, day-care centres, or in the community. Experience in general medicine, geriatrics, general practice and psychology is particularly valuable.

    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Psychiatrists working in this area are primarily concerned with the intellectual, emotional and behavioural mental health problems of children from birth until school-leaving age. The development of a close working relationship with the child concerned – and their family – is essential. Skills in diagnostic assessment, including interviewing and examination, are particularly valuable. You would use a variety of treatments ranging from individual psychotherapy to behavioural and family therapy. You could be based in hospitals, child guidance clinics, day units, special schools (boarding and day) for children experiencing difficulties, or in community and remand homes. It may also be necessary to engage in Court activities.

    Forensic Psychiatry

    This is concerned with the interaction between and overlap with psychiatry and the law. The forensic psychiatrist cares for and treats offenders with mental health problems in a number of different settings: general and special hospitals, crisis intervention centres, and prisons.

    In addition, forensic psychiatrists work with the courts in the elucidation of medico-legal problems such as criminal responsibility, fitness to plead and the management of mentally abnormal offenders.

    Special skills are needed in assessing behavioural abnormalities, understanding and using security as a means of control and treatment, writing reports for Courts and lawyers and giving evidence in Courts of law.

    Forensic psychiatry is challenging, since it sometimes involves dealing with very disturbed patients, who may have violent tendencies.

    Psychiatry of Learning Disability (Formerly Mental Handicap)

    Psychiatrists working in this area are concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the mental health problems which often occur in people with learning disability. For example, a patient with Down's Syndrome may also suffer from depression or anxiety. Psychiatrists in this area work closely with the patient's family, taking into consideration their care and education. In addition to psychiatric and administrative skills, expertise in related subjects such as paediatrics, neurology, genetics, biochemistry and psychology are required. To an increasing extent, learning disability psychiatrists work in teams based in special schools and training centres, hospitals, residential hostels and sheltered workshops.


    All psychiatrists need some basic psychotherapeutic skills, but specialists in this area are also required to assess and treat people with, for example, psychoneuroses, personality and behavioural disorders, and sexual and interpersonal problems. In addition to specialized treatment procedures, psychotherapists need expertise in the application of psychotherapeutic principles, including the psychodynamic use of the doctor–patient relationship as part of the general management of all patients with mental health and psychosomatic disorders.

    Psychotherapists also need to be skilled in cognitive and behavioural therapies. During training, it may be necessary to experience personal psychotherapy. This gives psychiatrists a valuable insight into their patients' problems.

    An increasing number of psychotherapists work closely with various clinical teams in hospitals, child and adolescent units, child guidance clinics, student health centres, and in doctors' surgeries.

    Are There Opportunities for Psychiatrists Wishing to work in the Armed Forces?

    Yes. Psychiatrists in the Armed Forces provide help with mental health problems to about 500,000 men, women and children in the UK and overseas. In addition to Service personnel, those entitled to benefit from the Defence Medical Services include civilians employed by the Ministry of Defence overseas (such as schoolteachers, welfare professionals, shopkeepers and administrative staff) and the families of Service personnel and other entitled civilians.

    Military psychiatrists are trained as general adult psychiatrists. They may have a special interest in the maintenance of fitness and morale, and in the study of combat stress, both physical and psychological. Service psychiatrists are based more and more in the community, and are supported by community psychiatric nurses or social workers.

    All doctors working within the Armed Forces enlist as military personnel, and undergo some general military training. Before starting specialist psychiatric training, it is usual for Service doctors to spend one or two years undertaking general medical duties to enable them to acquire an understanding of the conditions of life among the Armed Forces.

    How is Training Organized?
    General Training

    During your general training in a medical school – lasting approximately 5–6 years – you could choose an ‘elective’ period in psychiatry (about 3–4 months). You would then carry on working in pre-registration posts (i.e. House Officer posts) for a period of one year. After this, you become registered with the General Medical Council (GMC). In your post-registration period working as a Senior House Officer, you should try to gain experience recognized by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, such as working in general practice or general medicine.

    Basic Specialist Training

    Your basic specialist training in psychiatry takes place on College-approved and recognized Rotational Training Schemes, and lasts three years; you would spend about six months each in as many specialties as are offered by the training scheme – as well as fulfilling the basic requirement to train (initially for one year) in general adult and old age psychiatry. You should ensure that your particular area of interest, i.e. psychotherapy or forensic, is covered by your training scheme. Details of recognized training schemes are available from the College on request. After initial training, and at least one year's experience of general psychiatry, you would be ready to sit for Part I of the College Membership examination – the MRCPsych.

    The MRCPsych (Membership) Examination

    The emphasis of the Membership exam is on clinical work:

    Part I consists of a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) Paper and a clinical examination which will be a test of clinical skills in assessment.

    Part I must be passed within three years of full-time approved psychiatric training (or equivalent period of part-time training).

    Part II consists of a second clinical examination, much broader than the first, two MCQ papers, an Essay Paper and a paper containing questions on basic sciences and clinical topics.

    Once you have successfully obtained Part I, you should work as an SHO in rotating specialty posts for a further 2/3 years, after which time you would be eligible to take Part II of the examination. If you pass, you are awarded the MRCPsych, and become a Member of the College. To summarize, to obtain the MRCPsych, you would need:

    • a minimum of one year's psychiatric experience before taking the Part I
    • two to three years' further training before taking the Part II (although this period can be shorter if you have other training that is recognized by the College, such as general practice medicine, general medicine, etc). Full details are available on request from the Examinations Department of the College.
    Higher Specialist Training

    Higher specialist training entails working as a Specialist Registrar or Lecturer for a further three/four years. During higher specialist training, there is an opportunity to work in general adult psychiatry, or you can opt for one of the specialties as listed above, with a special interest in another sub-specialty such as forensic or liaison psychiatry. After completion of higher specialist training, you could apply for posts such as Senior Lecturer, Consultant or Professor of Psychiatry.

    Further information is available from:

    Gareth Holsgove

    Head of Postgraduate Educational Services

    The Royal College of Psychiatrists

    17 Belgrave Square

    London SW1X 8PG (email: gholsgrove@rcpsych.ac.uk)

    Flow Chart of Training as a Psychiatrist in the UK and Eire

    Appendix 2: Glossary of Some Terms Used in the Text

    Affective disorders: disorders characterized by a primary disturbance of mood such as depression or elation. Depression often co-exists with anxiety in the community although anxiety disorders are classified separately.

    Amnesia: loss of memory.

    Anorexia: loss of appetite. This occurs in many physical and mental disorders (e.g. depression) and should be distinguished from the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in which there is deliberate restriction of food intake, weight loss, disturbed body image and amenorrhoea. Anorexia nervosa is traditionally viewed as a ‘neurotic’ illness even though the behaviour of a person with the disorder may seem to defy the test of ‘understandability’ and therefore seem to have more in common with psychotic thinking (see Jaspers 1913).

    Assertive Community Treatment: provision of community-based, multidisciplinary care to individuals with long-standing psychiatric illnesses who have previously been, or are at risk of, hospitalization. ACT services are flexible and support people who may have a history of non-engagement with treatment.

    Aversion therapy: negative conditioning. The unwanted behaviour (for example alcohol abuse, sexual deviation) is paired with painful or unpleasant stimuli until it is extinguished.

    Barbiturates: a group of drugs that are central nervous system depressants. Widely prescribed in the past for insomnia, they are now rarely prescribed for this reason, because of serious problems with addiction and lethality in overdose.

    Bipolar disorder: affective disorder characterized by episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive psychosis but this term is now much less used.

    Catatonic schizophrenia: one of the sub-groups of schizophrenia characterized by the presence of one or more states of abnormal movement such as stupor (unresponsiveness with immobility and mutism but retention of consciousness), maintenance of rigid postures or facial expressions (grimacing) or idiosyncratic involuntary movements (known as mannerisms). For a fuller description see Sims (2003).

    Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT): an active, structured, directive and time-limited therapy which is based on the belief that the way a person perceives himself, the world and the future determines his mood and his behaviour. The therapy has both cognitive (focusing on identification and challenging of negative thoughts) and behavioural (focusing on goal-setting and behavioural activation) components.

    Comorbid (comorbidity): occurrence of more than one disease in the same time in the same person. More popular as a concept in American than in European traditions of psychiatric diagnosis and classification.

    Culture-bound syndromes: syndromes (characteristic patterns of symptoms and behaviour) that appear to be limited to certain societies or cultures.

    Degeneration: the notion that inherited mental illness worsened steadily over the generations – causing progressive deterioration within families and within the population as a whole. This idea was popular within nineteenth-century psychiatry. It is but one step, however, from applying eugenic principles to improve the genetic stock – the path pursued by the Nazis.

    Delusion: a false, unshakeable idea or belief which is out of keeping with the person's educational, cultural and social background.

    Dementia praecox: term coined by Morel in 1857 to describe psychoses with a poor prognosis (deterioration or ‘dementia’) which often begin in early life (praecox). Kraepelin differentiated psychosis with a better prognosis (manic-depressive psychosis) from dementia praecox which later became generally known as schizophrenia (see below).

    Desensitization: a form of behaviour therapy which is particularly effective in treatment of phobia.

    Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT): the treatment of mental disorders, most commonly severe depression, by passing an electric current through the brain with the use of general anaesthesia and a muscle relaxant.

    Electronarcosis: obsolete early variety of ECT.

    Flooding: effective behavioural treatment for phobia which involves prolonged exposure to the situation which is avoided.

    General systems theory: a movement in scientific theory which sought to discover general patterns, trends and structural characteristics in all types of system – natural, social and technological. It was a reaction against the fragmented acquisition of knowledge resulting from excessive specialization.

    Hallucination: an apparent perception of an external object when no such object is present. Hallucinations may be experienced in all the sensory domains – visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory.

    Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs): organized health care delivery system to be found in the USA which provides enrollees with comprehensive health care (which may be limited for certain illnesses – particularly mental illnesses) for a fixed term in return for regular payment of premiums.

    Huntington's disease: inherited neuropsychiatric disorder which results in progressive disability from disorders of movement (chorea), depression and dementia.

    Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis: part of the endocrine system (hormones) which plays an important part in coping with stress. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are located in the brain and the adrenal glands just above the kidneys. When a person is under stress the hypothalamus triggers the pituitary to release a hormone which finally triggers the adrenals to release cortisol. Many people with mood disorders appear to have a cortisol regulation system which is not working effectively.

    Hysteria: old-fashioned term for dissociative (conversion) disorder which implies the behaviour of illness (for example paralysis of a limb) without evidence of physical pathology. There is continued debate about the usefulness of the term – see Sims (2003) for a comprehensive discussion.

    Insulin coma treatment: obsolete treatment which involved the induction of coma through the administration of insulin.

    Leucotomy, lobotomy: psychosurgical procedure which involved destruction of an area of brain tissue. Still performed for intractable illnesses in a small number of specialist centres.

    Loosening of associations: a type of disorder of the expression of thought in speech, in which there is incompleteness of the development of ideas. The person's conversation sounds muddled and their thoughts seem to veer off until they may appear unrelated to whatever apparently initiated them.

    Managed behavioural healthcare organization (MBHO): an organized system of behavioural health care delivery – usually to a defined population of members of HMOs and other managed care structures. Also known as a ‘carve-out’. See Talbott and Hales (2001) for more detailed description.

    Managed care: the general term used to describe a variety of arrangements in health care financing, organization and delivery in which an entity other than the directly treating physician is managing or over-seeing payments for medical services. The commonest type of managed care programme separates mental health provision from general health provision, with mental health care being provided by a large behavioural health organization. This split of the physical from the mental once again perpetuates Cartesian dualism through the justification of twentieth-century economics.

    Manic-depressive psychosis: see bipolar disorder.

    Mental state examination: the psychiatric equivalent of the physical examination which seeks to create a record of behavioural and psychological data elicited by examination at the time of the interview as well as by contemporaneous observation. Data are traditionally recorded under the headings: appearance and general behaviour, talk or speech, mood, thought content (including abnormal beliefs and perceptions), cognitive state and insight (see Goldberg and Murray, The Maudsley Handbook of Practical Psychiatry (2002), which is a widely used text for psychiatric trainees).

    Mono-Amine Oxidase Inhibitors (or MAOIs): early type of antidepressant. Rarely used now because of potentially dangerous interactions with certain foods and numerous other drugs.

    Neuroimaging: brain imaging is a computer-assisted graphic representation of brain structure. Methods used include X-ray computerized axial tomography (CT or CAT scanning), NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, which uses magnetic field instead of radiation to produce images), PET (positron emission tomography, which employs chemicals tagged with radio-isotopes) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography, which uses radiopharmaceutical agents or radioactive gas).

    Neuroleptic: a drug which has a specific anti-psychotic effect and is not simply achieving its effect by tranquillization.

    Neuroradiological/neuroradiologists: the study of the brain originally using X-rays but now involving a wide variety of imaging techniques (see neuroimaging).

    Obsessional neurosis/obsessive-compulsive disorder: a disorder characterized by persistent, disturbing, unwanted, anxiety-provoking, intruding thoughts, ideas, images and/or impulses to perform repetitive acts (rituals). Typically the person regards these as alien or absurd.

    Pathoplastic: pathoplastic factors change the way in which an illness presents; for example, cultural factors commonly do this even if they do not actually cause the illness in the first place.

    Phenomenology: the study of events in their own right, rather than from the point of view of inferred causes. In psychiatry it is specifically:

    The observation and categorization of abnormal psychological events, the internal experiences of the patient and his consequent behaviour. An attempt is made to observe and understand the psychological event or phenomenon, so that the observer can, as far as possible, know for himself what the patient's experience must feel like. (Sims 2003: 3)

    Phobias: unreasonable and inappropriate fears.

    Psychiatric genetics: study of the inheritance of biological variation as it pertains to the aetiology of psychiatric illnesses.

    Psychodynamic (or psychoanalytically orientated) psychotherapy: psychotherapy theoretically rooted in the ideas of Freud and those who followed him. Based on theories which represent symptomatic behaviour as determined by the interplay between intra– and extra-psychic forces (for example family conflict, early experiences, current life stresses).

    Psychoneuroendocrinologists/psychoneuroendocrinology: study of the endocrine system as a likely site for biochemical abnormalities that are significant in the aetiology of psychiatric illnesses. Recent research has focused on the central regulatory actions of the HPA axis.

    Psychopharmacology: the study of the behavioural effects of drugs.

    Psychosurgery: the use of (neuro)surgical means to treat mental illness.

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs): an experimental design in which subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental group (which receives the treatment or intervention under investigation) or to the control group (which receives no treatment, or a placebo).

    Schizophrenia: a term coined by Bleuler for what is probably a group of disorders rather than a single disorder which is characterized by disturbance of multiple psychological processes (language and communication, thought content, mood, affect, sense of self, relationship to the external world, volition and motor behaviour). There has been considerable debate about the diagnostic criteria over the last few decades. However, within psychiatry, the criteria used in the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) are now generally applied in both clinical care and research.

    Schizophrenogenic family: now considered to be an obsolete and discredited term but once used to describe a family (or specifically, mother) which was thought to have produced or fostered the development of schizophrenia in the child.

    Service user: modern term for a person who uses psychiatric services. Alternative terms (patient, consumer) are still debated.

    SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors): modern anti-depressants which act specifically on the serotonin neurotransmission system in the brain which is thought to be of key importance in the genesis of depression.


    Adams, G. and Cook, M. (1984) ‘Beginning psychiatry’, Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 8: 53–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.8.3.53
    Adshead, G. (1999) ‘Duties of psychiatrists: treat the patient or protect the public?’Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 5: 321–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.5.5.321
    Aitken, P., Perahia, D. and Wright, P. (2003) ‘Psychiatrists entering the pharmaceutical industry in the UK’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 27: 248–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.27.7.248
    Andreasen, N. (2001) Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Andrews, G. (2000) ‘Meeting the unmet need with disease management’, in G.Andrews and S.Henderson (eds), Unmet Need in Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543562
    Arranz, M.J., Collier, D. and Kerwin, R.W. (2001) ‘Pharmacogenetics for the individualization of psychiatric treatment’, American Journal of Pharmacogenomics, 1: 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00129785-200101010-00001
    Arscott, K.J. (1999) ‘ECT: the facts psychiatry declines to mention’, in C.Newnes, G.Holmes and C.Dunn (eds), This is Madness. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Artaud, A. (1947) ‘Van Gogh, the man suicided by society’, in S.Sontag (ed.), Selected Works (1988). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Baker, M.G., Kale, R., and Menken, M. (2002) ‘The wall between neurology and psychiatry’, British Medical Journal, 324: 1468–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7352.1468
    Balint, M. (1964) The Doctor, his Patient and the Illness. London: Pitman.
    Barker, P. (1992) Regeneration. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Barnes, M. and Berke, J. (1991) Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness. London: Free Association Books.
    Battie, W.A. (1758) Treatise on Madness. London: Whiston.
    Bayer, R. (1981) Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. New York: Basic Books.
    Beck, A.T. (1976) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
    Bennet, G. (1979) Patients and Their Doctors: The Journey through Medical Care. London: Ballière Tindall.
    Bennett, C. (2000) ‘No shrinking violet: Raj Persaud, a psychiatrist for every occasion’, Guardian, 31 August: 5.
    Bennett, D.H. and Freeman, H.L. (1991) ‘Principles and prospect’, in D.L.Bennett and H.L.Freeman (eds), Community Psychiatry: the Principles. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
    Bentall, R. (2003) Madness Explained. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Beveridge, A. (1995) ‘Madness in Victorian England: a study of patients admitted to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum under Thomas Clouston 1973–1908’, History of Psychiatry, 16: 21–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957154X9500602102
    Beveridge, A. (1998) ‘R.D. Laing revisited’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 452–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.7.452
    Beveridge, A. (1999) ‘The detective, the psychiatrists and post-modernism’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 573–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.9.573
    Bewley, T. (1998) ‘Psychiatric Fellows of the Royal Society’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 377–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.6.377
    Bhugra, D. (1996) ‘Religion and mental health’, in D.Bhugra (ed.), Psychiatry and Religion: Context, Consensus and Controversies. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203271575
    Bhugra, D. and Cochrane, R. (eds) (2001) Psychiatry in Multicultural Britain. London: Gaskell.
    Birchwood, M. (1991) ‘Prescribing by psychologists?’Psychiatric Bulletin, 15: 34–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.15.1.34
    Blacker, C.P. (1946) Neurosis in the Mental Health Services. London: Oxford University Press.
    Boyle, M. (1999) ‘Diagnosis’, in C.Newnes, G.Holmes and C.Dunn (eds), This is Madness. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Bracken, P. (2002) ‘Depression, psychiatry and the use of ECT’, Asylum, 12: 26–8.
    Bracken, P. and Thomas, P. (2001) ‘Postpsychiatry: a new direction for mental health’, British Medical Journal, 322: 724–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7288.724
    Breggin, P. (1993) Toxic Psychiatry: Drugs and Electroconvulsive Therapy – the Truth and the Better Alternatives. London: HarperCollins.
    Brown, B. and Crawford, P. (2003) ‘The clinical governance of the soul: “deep management” and the self-regulating subject in integrated community mental health teams’, Social Science and Medicine, 56: 67–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2802%2900008-4
    Brown, P. (1999) ‘Pierre Janet (1959–1947)’, in H.Freeman (ed.), A Century of Psychiatry. London: Mosby.
    Bruggen, P. (1997) Who Cares: True Stories of the NHS Reforms. Charlbury: Jon Carpenter.
    Campbell, P. (1996) ‘The history of the user movement in the United Kingdom’, in T.Heller, J.Reynolds, R.Gomm et al. (eds), Mental Health Matters: A Reader. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Campbell, R.J. (1989) Psychiatric Dictionary (
    6th Edition
    ). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Caplan, G. (1964) Principles of Preventive Psychiatry. London: Tavistock.
    Carlsson, A. (1996) ‘The rise of neuropsychopharmacology: impact on basic and clinical neuroscience’, in D.Healy (ed.), The Psychopharmacologists, vol. 1. London: Arnold.
    Castel, R. (1991) ‘From dangerousness to risk’, in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 281–98.
    Castel, R., Castel, F. and Lovell, A. (1982) The Psychiatric Society (trans. from the French by A.Goldhammer), New York: Columbia University Press.
    Cawthra, R. and Gibb, R. (1998) ‘Severe personality disorder – whose responsibility?’British Journal of Psychiatry, 173: 8–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.173.1.8
    Chiswick, D. (1999) ‘Prevention and detection – exhumed and enhanced’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 703–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.12.703
    Chiswick, D. (2001) Dangerous severe personality disorder – from notion to law’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 25: 282–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.25.8.282
    Clare, A. (1980) Psychiatry in Dissent: Controversial Issues in Thought and Practice (
    2nd edition
    ). London: Tavistock.
    Clare, A. (1999) Democratic definitely, parochial possibly, challenged certainly: the College at the century's end’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.1.1
    Clark, D. (1985) Interviewed by Brian Baraclough. In G.Wilkinson (ed.) (1993) Talking About Psychiatry. London: Gaskell.
    Clay, J. (1996) R.D. Laing: A Divided Self. London: Sceptre.
    Connolly, K. (2002) Nazi Ghost Remains over Child Graves’, Guardian, 29 April.
    Cottrell, D. (1999) ‘Recruitment, undergraduate education and the impact ofTomorrow's Doctors’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 582–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.10.582
    Cox, J., Marks, M., Marteau, L. and Steiner, J. (1982) ‘Personal psychotherapy in the training of a psychiatrist’, Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 6: 38–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.6.3.38
    Crane, H. (2003) ‘Depression’ (interview with Mike Shooter), British Medical Journal, 326: 1324–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7402.1324
    Craven, M.A. and Bland, R. (eds) (2002) ‘Shared mental health care: a bibliography and overview’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, Suppl. 1: 1–103S.
    Creed, F. and Goldberg, D. (1987) ‘Doctors' interest in psychiatry as a career’, Medical Education, 21: 235–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.1987.tb00696.x
    Cullivan, R., Rooney, S., Kelly, G. and Walsh, N. (1999) ‘Performance in psychiatry undergraduate finals: the influence of gender and nationality’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 280–2.
    Deahl, M. (2002) ‘Commentary: the alleged abuses of human rights in Chinese psychiatry’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 26: 445–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.26.12.445
    Deahl, M. and Turner, T. (1997) ‘General psychiatry in no-man's land’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 171: 6–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.171.1.6
    Dean, A. (2001) The Consultant Psychiatrist in the New Millennium. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Department of Health (1990) The Care Programme Approach for People with a Mental Illness Referred to Specialist Psychiatric Services, HC(90)23. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health (2000) The NHS Plan. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health and Department of Education (1991) Working Together: Under the Children Act 1989. London: HMSO.
    Detre, T. and McDonald, M.C. (1997) ‘Managed care and the future of psychiatry’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 54: 201–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830150019002
    Dewar, I.G., Eagles, J.M., Klein, S., Gray, N. and Alexander, D.A. (2000) ‘Psychiatric trainees' experiences of and reaction to patient suicide’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 20–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.1.20
    Double, D.B. (2001) ‘Integrating critical psychiatry into psychiatric training’, in C.Newnes, G.Holmes and C.Dunn (eds), This is Madness Too. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Double, D. (2002) ‘The limits of psychiatry’, British Medical Journal, 324: 900–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7342.900
    Eisenberg, L. (1986) ‘Mindlessness and brainlessness in psychiatry’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 148: 497–508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.148.5.497
    Eisenberg, L. (2000) ‘Is psychiatry more mindful or brainier that it was a decade ago?’British Journal of Psychiatry, 176: 1–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.176.1.1
    Ellis, J. (1963) ‘The teaching of psychiatry’, British Medical Journal, 2: 585–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5357.585
    Engel, G. (1980) ‘The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 137: 535–44.
    Engstrom, E.J. and Weber, M.M. (1999) ‘Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926)’, in H.Freeman (ed.), A Century of Psychiatry. London: Mosby.
    Eysenck, H.J. (1952) ‘The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation’, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16: 319–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0063633
    Fernando, S. (1988) Race and Culture in Psychiatry. London: Croom Helm.
    Finlayson, J. (1987) ‘Political abuse of psychiatry with a special focus on the USSR: Report of a meeting held at the Royal College of Psychiatrists on 18 November 1986’, Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 11: 144–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.11.4.144
    Firth-Cozens, J., Lema, V.C. and Firth, R.A. (1999) ‘Specialty choice, stress and personality: their relationship over time’, Hospital Medicine, 60: 751–5.
    Fisher, S. (1996) ‘Hanky-panky in the pharmaceutical industry’, International Journal of Psychopathology, Psychopharmacology and Psychotherapy, 1 (URL http://www.psychcom.net/fisher.html).
    Foucault, M. (1965) Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. London: Routledge.
    Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge (translated from the French by A.M. SheridanSmith). New York: Pantheon.
    Foxton, M. (2002a) ‘Bedside Stories’, Guardian, 11 April.
    Foxton, M. (2002b) ‘Bedside Stories’, Guardian, 9 May.
    Frank, A.W. (1996) The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness and Ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Freud, S. (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams (translated from the German by A.A.Brill in 1913). New York: Macmillan.
    Freud, S. (1901) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (translated from the German by A.A.Brill in 1914). London: T. Fisher Unwin.
    Fulford, K.W.M. (1996) ‘Religion and psychiatry: extending the limits of tolerance in Religion and mental health’, in D.Bhugra (ed.), Psychiatry and Religion: Context, Consensus and Controversies. London: Routledge.
    Fulford, K.W.M., Morris, K.J., Sadler, J.Z. and Stanghellini, G. (2003) ‘Past improbable, future, possible: the renaissance in philosophy and psychiatry’, in K.W.M.Fulford, K.J.Morris, J.Z.Sadler, and G.Stanghellini (eds), Nature and Narrative: An Introduction to the New Philosophy of Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gask, L. (1997) Listening to patients’ (Editorial), British Journal of Psychiatry, 17: 301–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.171.4.301
    Gask, L. and McGrath, G. (1989) ‘Psychotherapy and general practice: a review’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 154: 445–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.154.4.445
    Gask, L., Sibbald, B. and Creed, F. (1997) ‘Evaluating models of working at the interface between mental health services and primary care’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 170: 6–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.170.1.6
    Gask, L., Rogers, A., Oliver, D., May, C. and Roland, M. (2003) ‘Qualitative study of patients' views of the quality of care for depression in general practice’, British Journal of General Practice, 53: 278–83.
    Gater, R., de Almeida e Sousa, B., Barrientos, G., Caraveo, J., Chandrashekar, C.R., Dhadphale, M., Goldberg, D., Al Kathiri, A.H., Mubbashar, M., Silhan, K., Thong, D., Torees-Gonzales, F. and Sartorius, N. (1991) ‘The pathways to psychiatric care: a cross-cultural study’, Psychological Medicine, 21: 761–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329170002239X
    Geddes, J. (1998) ‘Evidence-based psychiatry: a practical approach’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 337–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.6.337
    Gelder, M.G. (1991) ‘Aldolf Meyer’, in G.E.Berrios and H.Freeman (eds), 150 Years of British Psychiatry, vol 1. London: Gaskell.
    General Medical Council (1995) Guidance to Doctors. London: GMC.
    Goffman, E. (1961) Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients. New York: Doubleday.
    Goldberg, D. and Gournay, K. (1997) ‘The general practitioner, the psychiatrist and the burden of mental health care’, Maudsley Discussion Paper no: 1. London: Institute of Psychiatry.
    Goldberg, D. and Murray, R. (eds) (2002) The Maudsley Handbook of Practical Psychiatry (
    4th edition
    ). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Goldman, W. (2001) ‘Is there a shortage of psychiatrists?’Psychiatric Services, 52: 1587–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.12.1587
    Greenberg, M., Szmukler, G. and Tantam, D. (1986) Making Sense of Psychiatric Cases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Greenhalgh, T. and Hurwitz, B. (1998) ‘Why study narrative?’ in T.Greenhalgh and B.Hurwitz (eds), Narrative Based Medicine. London: BMJ Books.
    Guthrie, E. and Black, D. (1997) ‘Psychiatric disorder, stress and burnout’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 3: 275–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.3.5.275
    Hacking, I. (1995) Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Science of Memory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Haigh, R. (2000) ‘Support systems. 2. Staff sensitivity groups’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6: 312–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.6.4.312
    Hart, D. (2001) ‘Memoirs of a press officer’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 5: 189–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.25.5.189
    Hawton, K., Clements, A., Sakarovitch, C., Simkin, S. and Deeks, J.S. (2001) ‘Suicide in doctors: a study of risk according to gender, seniority and speciality in medical practitioners in England and Wales, 1979–1995’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55: 296–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.55.5.296
    Healy, D. (1997) The Antidepressant Era. Boston: Harvard.
    Healy, D. (2000) ‘A dance to the music of the century’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 1–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.1.1
    Healy, D. (2001) ‘Evidence biased psychiatry’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 25: 290–1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.25.8.290
    Hervey, N. (1985) ‘A slavish bowing down: the Lunacy Commission and the psychiatric Profession 1945–60’, in Bynum, W.F., Porter, R. and Shepherd, M. (eds), The Anatomy of Madness, vol. II: Institutions and Society. London: Tavistock.
    Hiroch, U., Appleby, L., Mortensen, P.B. and Dunn, G. (2001) Death by homicide, suicide and other unnatural causes in people with mental illness: a population-based study’, Lancet, 358: 2110–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2801%2907216-6
    Hobson, J.A. and Leonard, J. (2001) Out of its Mind: Psychiatry in Crisis – a Call for Reform. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publishing.
    Holloway, F. (1999) ‘The College: a leadership role in mental health services?’Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 324–5. Invited commentary on R.E. Kendell, ‘Influencing The Department of Health’, in ibid.: 321–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.6.321
    Holmes, G. and Dunn, C. (1999) Introduction to This is Madness: A Critical Look at Psychiatry and the Future of Mental Health Services, (ed.) by C.Newnes, G.Holmes and C.Dunn. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Holmes, J. (2000) ‘Fitting together the biopsychosocial jigsaw’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 177: 93–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.2.93
    Horowitz, A.V. (2002) Creating Mental Illness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hunter, R. and MacAlpine, I. (1963) Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry, 1535–1860. London: Oxford University Press.
    James, W. (1977) The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Glasgow: Collins.
    Jaspers, K. (1913) General Psychopathology (
    7th edition
    ), 1959 (translated by J.Hoenig and M.W.Hamilton. Manchester: Manchester University Press).
    Jenkins, R., McCulloch, A., Friedli, L. and Parker, C. (2002) Developing a National Mental Health Policy. Hove: Psychology Press.
    Johnstone, L. (2000) Users and Abusers of Psychiatry (
    2nd edition
    ). London: Brunner-Routledge.
    Jones, E. (1959) Free Associations. New York: Basic Books.
    Jones, H. (1994) ‘All theory, no understanding’, Openmind, 69: 6.
    Jones, K. (1993) Asylums and After. London: Athlone.
    Jones, K.S. (1998) ‘The other end of the couch’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 515–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.8.515
    Jones, M. (1983) Interview by Brian Baraclough, in E.Wilkinson (ed.) (1993), Talking About Psychiatry. London: Gaskell.
    Katon, W., Robinson, P., Von Korff, M., Lin, E., Bush, T., Ludman, E., Simon, G. and Walker, E. (1996) ‘A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 53: 924–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830100072009
    Kelly, B.D. and McLoughlin, D.M. (2002) ‘Euthanasia, assisted suicide and psychiatry: a Pandora's box’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 181: 278–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.181.4.278
    Kendell, R.E. (1975) The Role of Diagnosis in Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Kendell, R.E. (1998) ‘What are Royal Colleges for?’Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 721–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.12.721
    Kendell, R.E. (1999) ‘Influencing the Department of Health’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 321–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.6.321
    Kendell, R.E. (2000) ‘The next 25 years’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 176: 6–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.176.1.6
    Kendell, R. and Pearce, A. (1997) ‘Consultant psychiatrists who retired prematurely in 1995 and 1996’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 21: 741–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.21.12.741
    Kendell, R.E., Cooper, J.E. and Gourley, A.J. (1971) ‘Diagnostic criteria of American and British Psychiatrists’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 25: 123–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750140027006
    Kennedy, P. (2000) ‘Is psychiatry losing touch with the rest of medicine?’Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6: 16–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.6.1.16
    Kennedy, P. and Griffiths, H. (2001) ‘General psychiatrists discovering new roles for a new era … and removing work stress’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 179: 283–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.179.4.283
    Kennedy, P. and Griffiths, H. (2002) ‘What does “responsible medical officer” mean in a modern mental health service?’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 26: 205–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.26.6.205
    Kessel, N. (1963) Who ought to see a psychiatrist?’Lancet, 1: 1092–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2863%2992128-7
    Kessel, N. (1996) ‘Should we buy liaison psychiatry?’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 89: 481–2.
    Kleinman, A. (1991) Rethinking Psychiatry: from Cultural Category to Personal Experience. New York: Free Press.
    Kohen, D. and Arnold, E. (2002) ‘The female psychiatrist: professional, personal and social issues’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8: 81–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.8.2.81
    Kraus, A. (2003) ‘How can the phenomenological–anthropological approach contribute to diagnosis and classification in psychiatry?’, in K.W.M.Fulford, K.J.Morris, J.Z.Sadler and G.Stanghellini (eds), Nature and Narrative: An Introduction to the New Philosophy of Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Laing, R.D. (1960) The Divided Self. London: Tavistock.
    Laugharne, R. (1999) ‘Evidence-based medicine, user involvement and the postmodern paradigm’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 641–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.11.641
    Laurance, J. (2003) Pure Madness: How Fear Drives the Mental Health System. London: Routledge.
    Lewis, A. (1950) ‘Henry Maudsley: his work and influence’, in A.Lewis, The State of Psychiatry: Essays and Addresses (1967). London: Routledge.
    Lewis, A.J. (1955) ‘Health as a social concept’, British Journal of Sociology, 4: 109–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/587206
    Lipsedge, M. (1996) ‘Religion and madness in history’, in D.Bhugra (ed.), Psychiatry and Religion: Context, Consensus and Controversies. London: Routledge.
    Littlejohns, C.S., Wilkinson, G. and Murphy, E. (1992) ‘Training psychiatrists for work in the community’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 16: 23–4.
    Littlewood, R. (1996) ‘Psychiatry's culture’, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 42: 245–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002076409604200402
    Littlewood, R. and Lipsedge, R. (1997) Aliens and Alienists: Ethnic Minorities and Psychiatry (
    3rd edition
    ). London: Routledge.
    Lott, T. (1996) The Scent of Dried Roses. London: Viking.
    Luhrmann, T.M. (2000) Of Two Minds: The Growing Disorder in American Psychiatry. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Lyons, D. and O'Malley, A. (2002) ‘The labelling of dissent: politics and psychiatry behind the Great Wall’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 26: 434–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.26.12.443
    Madden, J.S. (2000) ‘Euthanasia in Nazi Germany’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.9.347
    Maden, T. (1999) ‘Treating offenders with personality disorder’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 707–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.12.707
    Main, T. (1946) ‘The hospital as a therapeutic institution’, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 10: 66–71.
    Makinson, J. (1973) The story of Whittington Hospital 1873–1973. Preston: Whittington Hospital Management Committee.
    Masson, J.M. (1992) The Assault on Truth: Freud and Child Sexual Abuse. New York: HarperPerennial.
    Mathers, N. and Hodgkin, P. (1989) ‘The gatekeeper and the wizard: a fairytale’, British Medical Journal, 298: 172–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6667.172
    May, C., Gask, L., Atkinson, T., Ellis, N., Mair, F. and Esmail, A. (2001) ‘Resisting and promoting new technologies in clinical practice: the case of telepsychiatry’, Social Science and Medicine, 52: 1889–901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900305-1
    Mayou, R. (1997) ‘Psychiatry, medicine and consultation–liaison’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 171: 203–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.171.3.203
    McCready, J.R. and Waring, E.M. (1986) ‘Interviewing skills in relation to psychiatric residency’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31: 317–32.
    McGrath, P. (1997) Asylum. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    McHugh, P. and Slavney, P.R. (1998) The Perspectives of Psychiatry (
    2nd edition
    ). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    McIvor, R. (2001) ‘Care and compulsion in community psychiatric treatment’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 25: 369–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.25.10.369
    McKenzie, K. (1998) ‘Autonomy and automatons: managed care in the USA’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 765–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.12.765
    Mechanic, D. (1999a) Mental Health and Social Policy: The Emergence of Managed Care. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Mechanic, D. (1999b) ‘Definitions and perspectives’, in A.V.Horowitz and T.L.Scheid (eds), A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mental Health Foundation (2000) Strategies for Living: The Research Report. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    Meyer, A. (1952) The Collected Papers of Adolf Meyer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Meyer, A. (1956) Psychobiology: A Science of Man. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.
    Moniz, E. (1927) ‘Pre-frontal leucotomy in the treatment of mental disorder’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 93: 1379–85.
    Montague, L. (1990) ‘The psychiatrist in the community mental health team’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 14: 19–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.14.1.19
    Morel, B.-A. (1857) Traité des dégenérescences. Paris: Baillière.
    Morris, D.B. (2000) Illness and Culture in the Postmodern Age. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Mosher, L.R. (1999) ‘I want no part of it anymore’, Psychology Today, 32: 2–4.
    Mubbashar, M.H. and Humayun, A. (1999) ‘Training psychiatrists in Britain to work in developing countries’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 5: 443–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.5.6.443
    Munro, R. (2002) Dangerous Minds: Political Psychiatry in China today and its Origins in the Mao Era. New York/Hilversum: Human Rights Watch and Geneva Initiative on Psychiatry.
    Murray, C.J.L. and Lopez, A.D. (eds) (1995) The Global Burden of Disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Neelerman, J. and van Os, J. (1994) ‘The feasibility of a psychiatric common-market’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 18: 193–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.18.4.193
    Nelson, S.H. and Torrey, E.F. (1973) ‘The religious functions of psychiatry’, American Jounal of Orthopsychiatry, 43: 362–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1973.tb00806.x
    Newnes, C. (1999) ‘Histories of psychiatry’, in C.Newnes, G.Holmes and C.Dunn (eds), This is Madness. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    NHS Executive (1996) NHS Psychotherapy Services in England: Review of Strategic Policy. London: Department of Health.
    NHSE (1999) National Service Framework for Mental Health. London: HMSO.
    Owen, J. (1992) ‘Death threats to psychiatrists’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 16: 142–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.16.3.142
    Peck, E., Gulliver, P. and Towel, D. (2002) ‘Information, consultation or control: user involvement in mental health services in England at the turn of the century’, Journal of Mental Health, 11: 441–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638230020023877
    Perinpanayagam, M.S. (1973) ‘Overseas psychiatric doctors’, News and Notes Supplement. British Journal of Psychiatry, cited in A.Clare. (1980) Psychiatry in Dissent Controversial Issues in Thought and Practice (
    2nd edition
    ). London: Tavistock.
    Persaud, R. (2000a) ‘Psychiatry in the new millennium’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 16–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.1.16
    Persaud, R. (2000b) ‘Psychiatrists suffer from stigma too’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 284–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.8.284
    Persaud, R. and Meux, C.J. (1990) ‘Clinical examination for professional qualification in psychiatry: the patients' views’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 14: 65–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.14.2.65
    Peters, U.W. (1999) ‘German Psychiatry’, in H.Freeman (ed.), A Century of Psychiatry. London: Mosby.
    Pilgrim, D. (2002) ‘The biopsychosocial model in Anglo-American psychiatry: past, present and future?’Journal of Mental Health, 11: 585–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638230020023930
    Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. (1993) A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Pincus, H.A., Zarin, DA., Tanieilan, T.L., Johnson, J.L., West, J.C., Petit, A.R., Marcus, S.C., Kessler, R.C. and McIntyre, J.S. (1999) ‘Psychiatric patients and treatments in 1997’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 56: 441–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.5.441
    Pippard, J. and Ellam, L. (1981) ‘Electroconvulsive treatment in Britain’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 139: 563–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.139.6.563
    Plath, S. (1963) The Bell Jar. London: Heinemann.
    Porter, R. (2002) Madness: A Brief History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Pullen, I.M. and Yellowlees, A.J. (1988) ‘Scottish psychiatrists in primary healthcare settings: a silent majority’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 153: 663–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.153.5.663
    Rees, H., Sipos, A., Spence, M. and Harrison, G. (2002) ‘Attitudes of psychiatrists to evidence-based guidelines: a questionnaire survey’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 26: 421–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.26.11.421
    Rees, W.L. (1952) ‘A comparative study of the value of insulin coma, electronarcosis, electroshock and leucotomy’, in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Premier Congrès Mondial de Psychiatrie, Paris, 1950, vol 4: Thérapeutique Biologique. Paris: Hermann, pp. 303–8.
    Ring, H., Mumford, D. and Katona, C. (1999) ‘Psychiatry in the new undergraduate curriculum’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 5: 415–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.5.6.415
    Rippere, V. and Williams, R. (1985) Wounded Healers: Mental Health Workers’ Experiences of Depression. Chichester: Wiley.
    Ritchie, J.H., Dick, D. and Lingham, R. (1994) The Report of the Inquiry into the Care and Treatment of Christopher Clunis. London: HMSO.
    Roach, J. and Dorling, D. (2000) ‘Recruiting the wrong students’, Student British Medical Journal, 8: 178–9.
    Roberts, G.A. (2000) ‘Narratives and severe mental illness: what place do stories have in an evidence-based world?’Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6: 432–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.6.6.432
    Robertson, J.A. (1994) ‘Community psychiatry. Weasel words? A personal view’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 18: 760–1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.18.12.760
    Rogers, A., Pilgrim, D. and Lacey, R. (1993) Experiencing Psychiatry: Users’ Views of Services. Basingstoke: Macmillan/MIND.
    Rogler, L.H. (1997) ‘Making sense of historical changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Five propositions’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 38: 9–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2955358
    Rogow, A.A. (1970) The Psychiatrists. New York: Delta.
    Romano, J. (1994) ‘Reminiscences: 1938 and since’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 151 (Sesquicentennial Suppl.): 83–9.
    Rose, D., Fleischmann, P., Wykes, T., Leese, M. and Bindman, J. (2003) ‘Patients' perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: systematic review’, British Medical Journal, 326: 1363–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7403.1363
    Rose, N. (1996) ‘Psychiatry as a political science: advanced liberalism and the administration of risk’, History of the Human Sciences, 9: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519600900201
    Rosenhan, D.L. (1973) ‘On being sane in insane places’, Science, 179: 250–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4070.250
    Rowe, D. (1993) ‘Foreword’, in P.Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry: Drugs and Electroconvulsive Therapy: The Truth and the Better Alternatives. London: HarperCollins.
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (1995) The ECT Handbook (Second Report of the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Special Committee on ECT), Council Report CR39. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (1996) The Responsibilities of Consultant Psychiatrists. Revised statement. Council Report CRSI. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (1999) Guidelines for Healthcare Commissioners for an ECT Service, Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Special Committee on ECT, Council Report CR73. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (2001) Role and Contribution of the Consultant Psychiatrist in Psychotherapy in the NHS. Council Report CR98. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (2002) Annual Census of Psychiatric Staffing 2001. Occasional paper OP54. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Rutter, D. and Cox, A. (1981) ‘Psychiatric interviewing techniques: I. Methods and Measures’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 138: 273–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.138.4.273
    Sabin, J.E. (1995) ‘Organised psychiatry and managed care: quality improvement or holy war?’Health Affairs (Fall): 32–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.14.3.32
    Sartorius, N. (2002) Fighting for Mental Health: A Personal View. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sartorius, N., Jablensky, A., Korten, A., Ernberg, G., Anker, M., Cooper, J.E. and Day, R. (1986) ‘Early manifestations and first contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures’, Psychological Medicine, 7: 529–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700004517
    Scally, G. and Donaldson, L.J. (1998) ‘Clinical governance and the drive for quality improvement in the new NHS in England’, British Medical Journal, 317: 61–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.317.7150.61
    Schlesinger, M., Dorwat, R.A. and Epstein, S.S. (1996) ‘Managed care constraints on psychiatrists' hospital practices: bargaining power and professional autonomy’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 153: 256–60.
    Schneider, I. (1987) ‘The theory and practice of movie psychiatry’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 144: 996–1002.
    Scott, J. (1986) ‘What puts medical students off psychiatry?’Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 10: 98–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.10.5.98
    Scull, A. (1979) Museums of Madness. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Scull, A. (1984) ‘Was insanity increasing? A response to Edward Hare’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 144: 432–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.144.4.432
    Sedgwick, P. (1982) Psychopolitics. London: Pluto.
    Shaw, F. (1997) Out of Me: The Story of a Postnatal Breakdown. London: Viking.
    Shea, S.C. (1998) Psychiatric Interviewing: The Art of Understanding (
    2nd edition
    ). Philadelphia: Saunders.
    Shepherd, B. (1999) ‘Shell-Shock’, in H.Freeman (ed.), A Century of Psychiatry. London: Mosby.
    Shepherd, B. (2002) A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists 1914–1994. London: Pimlico.
    Shepherd, M. (1976) ‘Definition, classification and nomenclature: a clinical overview’, in D.Kemali, G.Bartholini and D.Richer (eds), Schizophrenia Today. Oxford: Pergamon.
    Shepherd, M. (1991) Interview by Greg Wilkinson, in G.Wilkinson (ed.) (1993), Talking About Psychiatry. London: Gaskell.
    Shorter, E. (1997) A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. New York: John Wiley.
    Sierles, F.S. and Taylor, M.A. (1995) ‘Decline of US medical student career choice of psychiatry and what to do about it’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 152: 1416–26.
    Sigal, C. (1976) Zone of the Interior. New York: Thomas Cromwell.
    Simon, G. (1999) ‘The contribution of psychiatrists to management in primary care’, in M.Tansella and G.Thornicroft (eds), Common Disorders in Primary Care – Essays in Honour of Professor Sir David Goldberg. London: Routledge.
    Sims, A. (2003) Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Pathology. (
    3rd edition
    ). Edinburgh: Saunders.
    Stanton, M. (1999) ‘The emergence of psychoanalysis’, in H.Freeman (ed.), A Century of Psychiatry. London: Mosby.
    Stevens, A. and Price, J. (2000) Evolutionary Psychiatry: A New Beginning. London: Routledge.
    Storer, D. (1998) ‘Too many patients; too few psychiatrists’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 724–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.12.724
    Storer, D. (2002) ‘Recruiting and retaining psychiatrists’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 180: 296–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.180.4.296
    Strathdee, G. and Williams, P. (1984) ‘A survey of psychiatrists in primary care: the silent growth of a new service’, Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 34: 615–18.
    Strickland, P.L., Deakin, J.F., Percival, C., Gater, R.A. and Goldberg, D. (2002) ‘Biosocial origins of depression in the community: interaction between social adversity, cortisol and serotonin neurotransmission’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 180: 168–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.180.2.168
    Styron, W. (1992) Darkness Visible. London: Picador.
    Sutherland, S. (1995) Breakdown: A Personal Crisis and a Medical Dilemma. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Szasz, T.S. (1974) The Myth of Mental Illness. New York: Harper and Row.
    Szatmari, P. (1999) ‘Evidence based child psychiatry and the two solitudes’, Evidence Based Mental Health, 2: 6–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.2.1.6
    Szmukler, G. (2000) ‘Homicide inquiries: what sense do they make?’Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 6–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.1.6
    Talbott, J.A. and Hales, R.E. (2001) Administrative Psychiatry: New Concepts for a Changing Behavioral Health System (
    2nd edition
    ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
    Tansella, M. (2001) ‘The psychiatrist as archaeologist and architect’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7: 81–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.7.2.81
    Tantam, D. (1991) ‘The Anti-Psychiatry Movement’, in G.E.Berrios and H.L.Freeman (eds), 150 Years of British Psychiatry, vol 1. London: Gaskell.
    Tantam, D., Appleby, L. and Duncan, A. (1996) Psychiatry for the Developing World. London: Gaskell.
    Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California et al. 131 Cal Rpt 14, 551, P2d34 (Cal 1976).
    Temple, N. (1999) ‘Should consultant psychiatrists be trained in psychotherapy?’Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 5: 288–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.5.4.288
    Thomas, K. (1971) Religion and the Decline of Magic. London: Penguin.
    Thomas, P.F. and Bracken, P. (1999) ‘The value of advocacy: putting ethics into practice’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 327–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.6.327
    Thompson, C. (1998) ‘The mental state we are in: morale and psychiatry’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 22: 405–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.22.7.405
    Thornicroft, G. and Goldberg, D. (1998) Has Community Care Failed? Maudsley Discussion Paper No. 5. London: Maudsley Hospital.
    Timms, P. (2003) ‘The consultant psychiatrists – a remembrance of things past?’Psychiatric Bulletin, 27: 47–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.27.2.47
    Toone, B.K., Murray, R., Clare, A., Creed, F. and Smith, A. (1979) ‘Psychiatrists' models of mental illness and their personal backgrounds’, Psychological Medicine, 9: 165–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329170002167X
    Tooth, G.C. and Brooke, E.M. (1961) ‘Trends in the mental hospital population and their effect on future planning’, Lancet, i: 710–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2861%2991737-8
    Tredgold, R.F. and Wolff, H.H. (1975) University College Hospital Notes on Psychiatry. London: Duckworth.
    Turner, T.H. (1989) ‘Schizophrenia and mental handicap: an historical review with implications for further research’, Psychological Medicine, 19: 301–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700012344
    Turner, T.H. (1999) ‘The Early 1900s and before …’, in H.Freeman (ed.), A Century of Psychiatry. London: Mosby.
    Turner, T., Salter, M. and Deahl, M. (1999) ‘Mental Health Act reform: should psychiatrists go on being responsible?’Psychiatric Bulletin, 23: 578–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.23.10.578
    Tyrer, P. (1998) ‘Whither community care?’British Journal of Psychiatry, 173: 359–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.173.5.359
    UK ECT Review Group (2003) ‘Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Lancet, 361: 799–808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2803%2912705-5
    Valenstein, E.S. (1986) Great Hopes and Desperate Cures. New York: Basic Books.
    Valenstein, E.S. (1998) Blaming the Brain. New York: Free Press.
    van Voren, R. (2002) ‘The WPA World Congress in Yokohama and the issue of political abuse of psychiatry in China’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 26: 441–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.26.12.441
    Wall, T.D., Bolden, R.I., Borrill, C.S., Carter, A.J., Golya, DA., Hardy, G.E., Haynes, C.E., Rick, J.E., Shapiro, DA. and West, MA. (1997) ‘Minor psychiatric disorder in NHS trust staff: occupational and gender differences’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 171: 519–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.171.6.519
    WeirMitchell, S. (1894) Address before the Fiftieth Annual Meeting of the American Medico-Psychological Association, Philadelphia, published in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases (1894)21: 413–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-189407000-00001
    Weissman, S., Sabshin, M. and Eist, H. (1999) Psychiatry in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Wessely, S. (1996) ‘The rise of counselling and the return of alienism’, British Medical Journal, 313: 158–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.313.7050.158
    Wessely, S. and Lutz, T. (1995) ‘Neurasthenia’, in G.Berrios and R.Porter (eds), A History of Clinical Psychiatry. London: Athlone.
    WHO (1973) Report of the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    WHO (2000) World Health Organization Guide to Common Mental Disorders and Emotional Problems. London: Royal Society of Medicine.
    Wilkinson, D.G., Greer, S. and Toone, B. (1983) ‘Medical students' attitudes to psychiatry’, Psychological Medicine, 13: 185–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700050194
    Williams, K. (1998) ‘Self-assessment of clinical competence by general practitioner trainees before and after a six-month psychiatric placement’, British Journal of General Practice, 48: 1387–90.
    Wilson, M. (1993) ‘DSM–III and the transformation of American Psychiatry’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 150: 399–410.
    Wolff, H. (1988) Interview by Sidney Bloch, in G.Wilkinson (ed.) (1993), Talking About Psychiatry. London: Gaskell.
    Wootton, R., Yellowlees, P. and McLaren, P. (eds) (2003) Telepsychiatry and E-Mental Health. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press.
    WPA (2002) Institutional Program on the Core Training Curriculum for Psychiatry. Yokohama: World Psychiatric Association.
    WPA and WFME (1998) Core Curriculum in Psychiatry for Medical Students. New York: World Psychiatric Association and World Federation for Medical Education.
    Wright, A.F. (1997) ‘What a general practitioner can expect from a consultant psychiatrist’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 3: 25–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.3.1.25
    Wurtzel, E. (1995) Prozac Nation: Young and Depressed in America. London: Quartet.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website