A Short Introduction to Clinical Psychology
Publication Year: 2004
Subject: Clinical Psychology (general)
A Short Introduction to Clinical Psychology gives an accessible overview of the field for psychology students and anyone considering training as a clinical psychologist. Setting out the theoretical and practical dimensions of clinical psychology, the authors examine its origins, knowledge base and applications with different client groups, in different contexts and through different modalities (individuals, groups, couples, families and organizations). They also highlight issues affecting everyday practice - from professional relationships to government policy. Drawing on the first-hand experiences of people who have recently qualified, the book describes the process of training and the transition that takes place from trainee to practitioner. Throughout, the book captures a sense of clinical psychology as a dynamic and changing field which has grown up fast alongside other more ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Social and Historical Context of the Profession
- Chapter 2: The Knowledge Base of Clinical Psychology
- Chapter 3: Clinical Psychology Training
- Chapter 4: Careers in Clinical Psychology
- Chapter 5: Changing Practice and Changing Roles
- Chapter 6: Experts and Expertise
- Chapter 7: Internal and External Relationships
Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions Series Editor: Colin Feltham[Page ii]
Books in this series examine the different professions which provide help for people experiencing emotional or psychological problems. Written by leading practitioners and trainers in each field, the books are a source of up-to-date information about
- the nature of the work
- training, continuing professional development and career pathways
- the structure and development of the profession
- client populations and consumer views
- research and debates surrounding the profession.
Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions are ideal for anyone thinking about a career in one of the therapy professions or in the early stages of training. The books will also be of interest to mental health professionals needing to understand allied professions and also to patients, clients and relatives of service users.
Books in the series:
A Short Introduction to Clinical Psychology
Katherine Cheshire and David Pilgrim
A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis
Jane Milton, Caroline Polmear and Julia Fabricius
A Short Introduction to Psychiatry
© Katherine Cheshire and David Pilgrim 2004
First published 2004
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 100 017
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7619 4768 X
ISBN 0 7619 4769 8 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2003115330
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
This book aims to provide an account of British clinical psychology that is both descriptive and critical. We have sought to give the reader an understanding of the profession's history, nature and function, while avoiding the self-serving public relations view that characterises much professional rhetoric. In order to facilitate our examination of these issues, we adopt a sociological framework that allows us to locate clinical psychology within the network that post-structuralists refer to as the psy complex: psychiatry, psychiatric social work, mental health nursing, counselling, psychotherapy and psychology. We argue that the contested knowledge base of British clinical psychology and its history (particularly its evolution within the National Health Service) are responsible for many of the profession's distinguishing features. At the same time, clinical psychology shares a number of characteristics with other members of the psy complex.
In the first two chapters of the book we provide the background to our subsequent exploration of contemporary British clinical psychology. In chapter 1 we examine the social and historical context from which the profession emerged. chapter 2 focuses on the knowledge base of the profession: its relationship with the academic discipline of psychology and its reliance on the scientist-practitioner model.
chapters 3,4 and 5 describe how prospective members gain entry to the profession and give an account of the work that we do, followed by a discussion of likely developments in our role. chapter 3 begins with a view of clinical psychology training from the trainees' perspective, followed by an outline of current training arrangements and recent proposals to expand training provisions in order to meet the growing demand for our services. chapter 4 contains a collection of accounts written by us and some of our colleagues, describing the current role of clinical psychologists with a range of client groups. In chapter 5 we look more broadly at some of the emerging trends in clinical psychology and suggest some of the ways in which our role might evolve in the near future.
The last third of the book, Chapters 6 and 7, continues the critical appraisal of the profession that we began in chapter 1. chapter 6 extends the discussion of professional expertise, begun in chapter 2, and examines how clinical psychology's credibility and marketability [Page vii]have developed on the basis of its claim to specific expertise within the psy complex. Finally, in chapter 7, we assess both the internal and external relationships that define our profession. We start by discussing the divisions and co-dependencies within the profession, and then examine how clinical psychology continues to negotiate its boundaries with the NHS, central government, other professionals and service users. The book concludes with a brief consideration of some continuing debates in British clinical psychology that we expect to shape the attitudes and work of its members as we progress through its sixth decade. We suggest that the most radical shift in orientation may come from the growing influence of the Positive Psychology movement that champions the active promotion of psychological well-being in contrast with the exclusive focus on pathology, disorder and distress, which has traditionally characterised our work. If this shift occurs it may, at least in the short term, increase the gap between clinical psychology and other professions in the psy complex.
We hope that our readers find this book both informative and stimulating. Clinical psychology is still a very young profession but it is no longer in its infancy and we offer this contribution to debates about its nature and function in the belief that critical self-awareness is a sign of maturity within both individuals and organisations.
We would like to thank colleagues from the Fife Area Clinical Psychology Department, Stratheden Hospital, Cupar, Fife for their contributions to the following sections of chapter 4:
- Dr Steven Hughes: Children and young people
- Dr Frances Baty: Older adults
- Mr Bob Walley: People with intellectual disabilities
- Ms Kate McGarva: Clinical psychology in physical health care
- Mr Andy Peters: Adults with substance misuse problems
- Dr Alan Harper: Clinical neuropsychology
Glossary of Therapeutic Approaches[Page 136]
This glossary provides very brief accounts of therapeutic approaches used by British clinical psychologists. One key reference is provided with each entry, for optional further reading. Cross-references are shown in bold type. The glossary only alludes to the therapeutic aspect of the role of clinical psychologists. It does not contain entries related to their other professional activities discussed in the book, such as assessment, consultancy and research.
Because therapeutic approaches are not practised only by clinical psychologists, it is important to note that the entries describe activities carried out at times by other professions. For some of these professionals (e.g. psychiatrists, mental health nurses, social workers and occupational therapists) psychological therapies exist on the margins of their practice, and thus they generally deploy them less than clinical psychologists. However, for other professionals (e.g. medical psychotherapists, nurse therapists, counselling psychologists and counsellors) psychological therapy has a more dominant role than it does for some clinical psychologists.
The glossary does not provide an exhaustive list of therapeutic approaches (there are hundreds of them). It is limited to the ones which, in the view of the authors, are most likely to be practised currently by British clinical psychologists. All entries apart from the first one are in alphabetical order.
- PSYCHOTHERAPY is a generic term to describe any systematic approach to helping using a form of conversation (also called ‘psychological therapy’). Each of the various models described in this glossary then characterises a particular type. Psychotherapy can be used in groups and with families – it is not only about individual casework. The term ‘counselling’ is more often used in non-health settings but, in practice, the two terms are effectively interchangeable as descriptions of a form of psychological practice or enabling conversation. However, some psychotherapists depict ‘counselling’ as a less sophisticated or complex process and some counsellors reject the term ‘psychotherapy’ because of its medical connotations. Another term, which is sometimes used generically, is ‘talking treatment’. Broadly speaking, the psychotherapies exist on a continuum. [Page 137]This ranges from a fluid exploration of the client's biography (such as person-centred therapy and existential therapy), in which the therapist responds to what the client brings, moment to moment, to more structured and technique-driven approaches (such as behaviour therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy). Hence, some psychotherapies are largely exploratory, non-directive and emphasise insight and meaning, whereas others are more structured, prescriptive and emphasise behaviour change. Several therapeutic approaches can be situated in between (such as personal construct therapy). Moreover, even action-orientated therapies like cognitive behaviour therapy entail the client revising the meaning of their actions. All models share some other common features, such as an emphasis on a positive working relationship between client and therapist, the importance of good listening and empathy skills on the part of the therapist and, most obviously, the role of talk in engendering personal change. [Feltham, C. (ed.) (1997) Which Psychotherapy? Leading Exponents Explain their Differences. London: Sage]
- BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. Behaviour therapy emerged in the 1950s with an emphasis on the role of Pavlovian conditioning in generating and maintaining neurotic symptoms. Behaviour modification was based more on operant or Skinnerian conditioning. However, in the clinical literature the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Strictly speaking, behaviour modification is used to describe a variety of interventions that aim to decrease the frequency of dysfunctional or maladaptive behaviour, using negative reinforcement or (less commonly) punishment, and shape up more adaptive behaviour using positive reinforcement. Definitions of behaviour therapy vary and include any behavioural techniques that reduce psychological distress. Joseph Wolpe and Hans Eysenck at first emphasised techniques that would reduce anxiety-based symptoms, using knowledge from Pavlovian psychology and learning theory. During the 1970s, behaviour therapists began to work more with inner events (thoughts and feelings) as well as action. Once this occurred, the term was increasingly superseded, first by that of ‘cognitive-behaviour therapy’ and latterly by that of cognitive-behavioural therapy. With this change of technical emphasis came a shift towards the treatment of depression and personality problems, not just anxiety states. [Margraf, J. (1998) Behavioral approaches. In A.S. Bellack and M.Hersen (eds) Comprehensive Clinical Psychology Volume 6. Oxford: Pergamon] [Page 138]
- COGNITIVE-ANALYTIC THERAPY (CAT), a form of eclectic psychotherapy, was developed by Anthony Ryle in the 1980s and integrated ideas from personal construct therapy and psychoanalysis. The therapist and client build up a shared formulation of the latter's life and jointly examine the dysfunctional patterns which repeat over time. CAT emphasises both intrapsychic and interpersonal processes. [A. Ryle (ed.) (1995) Cognitive-Analytic Therapy: Developments in Theory and Practice. Chichester: Wiley]
- COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY (CBT) is the most commonly used term to describe the extension of behaviour therapy to include interventions targeting thoughts and feelings, as well as behaviours. Sometimes the term ‘cognitive behaviour therapy’ is used instead. CBT places the emphasis on clients resolving their presenting problems by developing better coping strategies in their lives and modifying the ways in which their beliefs generate and maintain dysfunctional behaviour. The approach is collaborative and clients are encouraged to engage in behavioural experiments between sessions to test out fears and predictions. This emphasis on ‘homework’ can be found in other models such as solution-focused brief therapy but it is absent from interpretive therapies (psychodynamic psychotherapy) and exploratory therapies (e.g. person-centred therapy). CBT is probably the commonest form of intervention used by clinical psychologists in mental health settings. [Hawton, K., Salkovskis, P.M., Kirk, J. and Clarke, D.M. (1989) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications]
- COGNITIVE THERAPY is a generic term covering a range of therapies that focus on the client's thoughts, feelings and beliefs. Sometimes (somewhat confusingly) it is used as a synonym for cognitive-behavioural therapy in the everyday discourse of clinicians. However, more accurately, other prominent cognitive therapies are subsumed by the term, including cognitive-analytic therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy and personal construct therapy. [Blackburn, I-M. (1998) Cognitive therapy. In A.S. Bellack and M. Hersen (eds) Comprehensive Clinical Psychology Volume 6. Oxford: Pergamon]
- DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (DBT) is a particular application of cognitive behavioural therapy that was developed by Marsha Linehan in the 1980s to assist people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder – individuals who often have a history of childhood abuse/neglect. This adaptation of CBT [Page 139]places an additional emphasis on the interpersonal processes involved in helping patients change. The attention to the therapeutic relationship and interpersonal processes in DBT is similar to the emphasis within interpersonal psychotherapy. [Linehan, M.M.(1993) Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford Press]
- EXISTENTIAL THERAPY shares similar assumptions with personal construct therapy and person-centred-therapy about human responsibility and agency. In this model, psychological disturbance is not understood in terms of past conditioning or historical causes. Instead, the emphasis is on the client facing life's challenges in a truthful or authentic way. Existential therapy makes no suppositions about symptoms, other than that they have particular relevance and meaning within a person's biography. The role of the existential therapist is to enable the client to face life authentically using a combination of empathic clarifications and honest challenges. [van Deurzen, E. (2000) Existential counselling and therapy. In C. Feltham and I. Horton (eds) Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage]
- INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY (IPT) has evolved over the past thirty years from an approach originally developed by Gerald Klerman and Myrna Weissman in the context of a North American clinical trial evaluating treatment of depression. IPT also derives from the work of Harry Stack Sullivan and Adolf Meyer and assumes that the onset, response to treatment and outcome in depression are influenced by the interpersonal relations of the depressed individual with significant others. Clients are assisted in making links between their current low mood and specific interpersonal events that are maintaining their difficulties. Therapy thus takes an interpersonal rather than an intrapsychic focus and concentrates on assisting the depressed person to utilise available social support more effectively and, where appropriate, to develop their existing social network. IPT is a time-limited intervention with a collaborative and descriptive emphasis similar to that of cognitive-analytic therapy. It has now been developed for application to a wide range of psychological disorders. [Klerman, G.L., Weissman, M.M., Rounsaville, B.J. and Chevron, E.S. (1984) Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression. New York: Basic Books]
- PERSON-CENTRED THERAPY derives from the work of Carl Rogers in the 1950s and is also called ‘client-centred counselling’. [Page 140]Rogers was committed to the idea that the resources for personal change were inherent in clients and that it was the role of the therapist, via the therapeutic relationship, to offer support and facilitation for this potential in human growth. For this reason, Rogers did not emphasise technique but the therapist's personal qualities – they should be genuine, warm and empathic. He considered these to be the necessary and sufficient conditions for psychological change. [Merry, T. (2000) Person centred counselling and therapy. In C. Feltham and I. Horton (eds) Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage]
- PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THERAPY (PCT) is derived from the work of George Kelly in the 1950s, who emphasised the unique ways in which individuals construe their world. When a person's personal construct system becomes dysfunctional or distressing they are encouraged to work collaboratively with the PCT therapist, who flexibly combines empathy with challenge and experimentation to help the client re-construe their world to their advantage. Constructivist approaches have been developed further in psychotherapy especially by family therapists under the influence of postmodern social science. PCT was one important source of cognitive-analytic therapy, although its role in this has lessened. PCT remains a form of therapy in its own right. [Fransella, F. and Dalton, P. (1996) Personal construct therapy. In W. Dryden (ed.) Individual Therapy in Britain. London: Sage]
- PSYCHOANALYSIS is a broad term which refers to the work of Sigmund Freud, and to that of his followers who adhered to his views or modified them whilst retaining the term. The emphasis in psychoanalysis is on the therapist making interpretations of the client's life and their flow of verbalisations within the therapeutic relationship. The model (whatever its variations) emphasises unconscious mental life and its role in generating neurotic or dysfunctional activity. The analyst interprets this unconscious material, making very sparse interventions during sessions, and does not advise or direct the client, although the client is encouraged to simply say whatever is on their mind (‘free association’). In its pure form psychoanalysis is very intensive (five times per week for many years). However, it is shortened and diluted within psycho-dynamic psychotherapy. [See the comparative section on ‘Psychodynamic approaches’ therapy in C. Feltham and I. Horton (eds) Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage] [Page 141]
- PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY is a term used to describe any form of psychotherapy derived from psychoanalysis or from the works of those who split away from Freud (such as Carl Jung and Alfred Adler) or later modified his views (such as Melanie Klein, Ronald Fairbairn, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby). It is sometimes called ‘psychoanalytical psychotherapy’ or simply ‘dynamic psychotherapy’. Whatever the name used, the approach always emphasises unconscious mental life and the role of interpretation by the therapist in encouraging insight in the client. Whereas psychoanalysis is primarily concerned with understanding the unconscious, forms of dynamic psychotherapy, as well as being less intensive in frequency, focus more on personal change. [See the comparative section on ‘Psychodynamic approaches’ therapy in C. Feltham and I. Horton (eds) Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage]
- RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (REBT) was developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s (and at that time was called ‘rational therapy’). Ellis changed the name to ‘rational emotive therapy (RET)’ in 1962 and altered it again in 1993 to ‘rational emotive behaviour therapy’, although in Britain the term RET is still often used. The focus of this approach is on challenging the client's irrational beliefs about themselves and the world. The goal of therapy is to enable the client to shift towards a clearer and less rigid way of thinking, which will bring with it reduced distress and greater fulfilment in life. This ‘thinking’ emphasis places RET firmly within the domain of cognitive therapy. [Dryden, W. (1996) Rational emotive behaviour therapy. In W. Dryden (ed.) Handbook of Individual Therapy. London: Sage]
- SOLUTION-FOCUSED BRIEF THERAPY (SFBT) Whereas most models of therapy focus on uncovering, understanding and working with the client's problems, SFBT for the great part avoids ‘problem talk’. Instead it focuses on the client's preferred future and how far they have already moved towards achieving it. This entails drawing attention to what has already been achieved, what next steps could be taken and what exceptions there are to the problem in their life (i.e. when the problem is not there). The ‘brief’ aspect to the approach does not necessarily signify duration of time, but refers to the minimum number of sessions needed for the client to become autonomous of therapy. As in cognitive-behavioural therapy, there is an emphasis on inter-sessional experimentation by clients to [Page 142]try out new solutions. However, this is framed less as prescribed ‘homework’ and more as optional work for the client to consider. [Hawkes, D., Marsh, T. and Wigosh, R. (1998) Solution Focused Therapy: A Handbook for Healthcare Professionals. Oxford: Butterworth/Heinemann]
Further Reading[Page 143]2001) Psychology in Britain. Leicester: BPS Books., and (1999) The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology: A Contextual Approach. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203360828(Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Bromley, J. and Caine, A. (eds) (1998) Clinical Psychology and People with Intellectual Disabilities. Chichester: Wiley.2001) History and Theories of Psychology. London: Arnold.and (2001) A History of Modern Psychology.(Third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Marzillier, J. and Hall, J. (eds) (1999) What is Clinical Psychology?Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The British Psychological Society can be contacted at:
St Andrews House
48 Princess Road East
Leicester LEI 7DR
Tel 0116 254 9568
Fax 0116 247 0787
http://www.bps.org.uk Information requests: email@example.com
Further information on clinical psychology training and how to apply is available from:
The Clearing House for Postgraduate Courses in Clinical Psychology
15 Hyde Terrace
Leeds LS2 9LT
The Affiliates Group of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the British Psychological Society represents the interests of assistant and trainee clinical psychologists. Officers of the Committee of the Affiliates Group can be contacted through the BPS for information about assistant psychology posts or clinical psychology training. The Affiliates Group also produces a Handbook containing information on the training courses provided by current trainees. The Alternative Handbook can be obtained from the BPS.
References[Page 145]1988) The System of the Professions. London: University of Chicago Press.(1995) The research productivity of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists: a comparative study. Clinical Psychology Forum, 86: 2–5., and (1980) Madness and coping. Sociology of Health and Illness, 2 (3): 393–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340701(1997) User views of two psychiatric day centres. Clinical Psychology Forum, 102: 34–39., , and (1981) The Clinical Experience: The Construction and Reconstruction of Medical Reality. Farnborough: Gower.(1970) Inquiring Man. Harmondsworth: Penguin.and (1998) A clinical psychology service for older adults – the integrated primary care model. PSIGE (Psychologists Special Interest Group Working with Older People) Newsletter, 67: 3–6.(2001) What has GP fund holding taught us?Clinical Psychology, 5: 16–18., , and (Bergin, A.E. and Garfield, S.L. (eds) (1994) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change.Fourth edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.1994) Therapist variables. In A.E.Bergin and S.L.Garfield (eds) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change., and (Fourth edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.2001) The new Mental Health Act. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 7: 3–4.(1995) Finding out from older people. Clinical Psychology Forum, 83: 6–8.and (2001) National Service Framework for Older People: summary and thoughts from a clinical psychologist's perspective. PSIGE (Psychologists Special Interest Group Working with Older People) Newsletter, 77: 5–11.(2001) Science and fiction (letter). Clinical Psychology, 5: 5–6.(1998) From clinic to community: generating social validity in clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum, 121: 2–5.(2001) Psychology at war. In G.C.Bunn, A.D.Lovie and G.D.Richards (eds) Psychology in Britain. Leicester: BPS Books.(1997) A primary care-based clinical psychology service. Clinical Psychology Forum, 106: 22–24., and (1927) The Logic of Modern Physics. New York: Macmillan.(British Psychological Society (1998) Code of Conduct. Leicester: BPS, July.British Psychological Society (2001a) The Royal Charter, the Statutes, the Rules. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2001b) Division of Clinical Psychology'sGuidelines for Continuing Professional Development. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2001c) Division of Clinical Psychology's Special Interest Group in Children and Young People: Position Paper. Guidelines for Commissioning and Purchasing Child Clinical Psychology Services. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2002a) Clinical Psychology Services for Older People in Primary Care. Division of Clinical Psychology Occasional Paper No. 4. Leicester: BPS.[Page 146]British Psychological Society (2002b) Society. The Psychologist, 15 (5): 258.1977) Becoming Professional. London: Sage.and (1969) Differential prior socialization: a comparison of four professional training programmes. Social Forces, 48: 213–223., and (1998) The associate psychologist: developing the graduate psychologist workforce. Clinical Psychology Forum, 121: 7–12.and (1999) Overcoming Social Anxiety and Shyness. London: Constable & Robinson.(1977) On the Economic Identification of the New Middle Class. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1999) The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology: A Contextual Approach. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203360828(1979) The Psychiatric Society. New York: Columbia Free Press., and (2001) Clinical psychologists and the new Mental Health Act. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 5: 7–8., , , , , , , , , , , , and (2000) Professional socialisation in clinical psychology trainees. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Liverpool.(1979) Review of Psychiatry Observed by G.Baruch and A.Treacher, Psychological Medicine, 9: 387–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700030919(1973) A survey of applicants for the Glasgow MSc course in clinical psychology: some applications for selection and training. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 26: 123–127.and (Clearing House for Postgraduate Courses in Clinical Psychology: Handbook for 2002 Entry (2002) University of Leeds.Clinical Psychology Forum (1999) Special Issue: Evidence-Based Practice. 133 (November).1991) What Can She Know? Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1995) A pilot project employing counselling psychologists within an adult mental health clinical psychology service. Clinical Psychology Forum, 78: 8–12.and (2002) Well-being: its importance in clinical practice and research. Clinical Psychology, 16: 26–29.and (2001) DCP update. Reform of the Mental Health Act: implications for clinical psychologists. Clinical Psychology, 1: 48–52., and (2002) ‘DCP update. Do clinical psychologists care about the Mental Health Act reforms?’Clinical Psychology, 15: 40–16., and (2002) DCP update: Criticisms and concerns. Clinical Psychology, 13: 43–47., and (1992) Alzheimer's disease, other dementias, depression and pseudo-dementia: prevalence, incidence and three-year outcome in Liverpool. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161: 230–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.161.2.230, , , , , , , , and (2000) A review of the scientist-practitioner model. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73: 413–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000711200160507and (1995) Clinical practice is not applied scientific method. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 65: 553–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-2197.1995.tb01693.x([Page 147]1989) The future of clinical psychology: whither or wither?Clinical Psychology Forum, 20: 29–31.(2000) Homicide is impossible to predict. Psychiatric Bulletin, 24: 152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.24.4.152(1987) Gender, status and professionalism. Sociology, 21: 413–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038587021003007(2001) Developing psychology posts in assertive outreach. Clinical Psychology, 5: 48–50.(1992) Stress in clinical psychology trainees. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31: 169–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1992.tb00981.x(1995) Families, Children, and the Development of Dysfunction. London: Sage.(1997) Naming the Mind: How Psychology Found its Language. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221815(1996) The sociology of professions and the profession of gender. Sociology, 30 (4): 661–678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038596030004003(1994) Journey to the centre of primary care: primary care psychology in perspective. Clinical Psychology Forum, 65: 3–6.and (1990) The Management of Normality. London: Routledge.(Department of Health (1997) The New NHS: Modern, Dependable. London: HMSO.Department of Health (1998) A First Class Service: Quality in the NHS. London: DoH.Department of Health (1999a) The National Service Framework for Mental Health. London: HMSO.Department of Health (1999b) Drug Misuse and Dependence – Guidelines on Clinical Management. London: HMSO.Department of Health (2001a) Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counselling: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. London: DoH.Department of Health (2001b) Mental Health National Service Framework (and the NHS Plan): Workforce Planning, Education and Training. Final Report by the Workforce Action Team, August. London: DoH.Department of Health (2001c) National Service Framework for Older People. London: DoH.Department of Health (2002) Delivering the NHS Plan: Executive Summary. Norwich: HMSO.Department of Health and Home Office (2000) Reforming the Mental Health Act. London: HMSO.Department of Health and Social Security (1977) The Role of Psychologists in the Health Service. London: HMSO.2001) Science in the clinic: clinical psychology at the Maudsley. In G.C.Bunn, A.D.Lovie and G.D.Richards (eds) Psychology in Britain. Leicester: BPS Books, pp. 267–289.(1886) Psychology. New York: Holt.(2001) Reform of the Mental Health Act: social cohesion or coercion?Clinical Psychology, 4: 8–9.(Division of Clinical Psychology (1998) Guidelines for the Employment of Assistant Psychologists. Leicester: BPS.Division of Clinical Psychology (2001a) Guidelines for CPD. Leicester: BPS.Division of Clinical Psychology (2001b) The Core Purpose and Philosophy of the Profession. Leicester: BPS.Division of Clinical Psychology (DCP) (2002) Guidance on clinical workforce planning. SDSC, leaflet 6:1.Division of Counselling Psychology (2001) Statement of Professional Aims. Leicester: British Psychological Society.[Page 148]Dobson, K.S. and Craig, K.D. (eds) (1998) Empirically Supported Therapies: Best Practice in Professional Psychology. London: Sage.1986) Mind Over Machine. New York: Free Press.and (1945) On problem solving. Psychological Monographs, 58: 1–113 (Trans. L.S.Lees). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0093599(2001) Decline in applications for clinical psychology training. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 4: 5–7.(1961) The British Psychological Society 1901–41. Special supplement of the Bulletin of the British Psychological Society.(1996) How do adult users of psychology services feel about filling in questionnaires?Clinical Psychology Forum, 96: 11–15.and (1949) Training in clinical psychology: an English point of view. American Psychologist, 4: 173–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0056472(1950) Function and training of the clinical psychologist. Journal of Mental Science, 96, 710–725.(1952) The Scientific Study of Personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1953) Uses and Abuses of Psychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1958) The psychiatric treatment of neurosis. Paper presented to the Royal Medico-Psychological Association, London.(1999) Overcoming Low Self-Esteem. London: Constable & Robinson.(1998) Expertise: knowledge, power and tradeability. In R.Williams, W.Faulkner and J.Fleck (eds) Exploring Expertise: Issues and Perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1989) Managing Stress. London: British Psychological Society and Routledge.(1971) Enquiry into the Practice and Effects of Scientology. London: HMSO.(2000) Primary healthcare nurses and mental health problems affecting older adults: development and evaluation of a training package. PSIGE (Psychologists Special Interest Group Working with Older People) Newsletter, 72: 21–24.(1965) Madness and Civilisation. New York: Random House.(1973) The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage Books.(1999) The role and future of community psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum, 124: 28–30.(1970) The Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. New York: Harper & Row.(1998) Community psychology: practising what we (don't) teach?Clinical Psychology Forum, 122: 45–47.(2001) Evaluating the supervision experiences of assistant psychologists. Clinical Psychology, 8: 39–42.and (1990) Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1999) Sexual contact between clinical psychologists and service users: a response to Pilgrim. Clinical Psychology Forum, 132: 13–14.(1988) Plough, Sword and Book. London: Collins Harvill.(1999) Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2002a) Understanding the biopsychosocial approach: I. Conceptualization. Clinical Psychology, 14: 13–17.(2002b) Understanding the biopsychosocial approach: II. Individual and social interventions. Clinical Psychology, 15: 28–32.([Page 149]2000) Involving significant others in pain management programmes: a survey of current practice in the UK. Clinical Psychology Forum, 138: 26–30.(1992) Common Mental Disorders: A Biosocial Model. London: Routledge.and (2001) Uses and misuses of clinical psychology in the mental health rehabilitation system. Clinical Psychology, 1: 37–41.(1999) A qualitative analysis of the views of inpatient mental health service users. Journal of Mental Health, 8 (1): 43–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638239917634, , and (2001) Training numbers in England 2001–4. Clinical Psychology, 2: 47.(1994) Developing a primary care and community psychology service. Clinical Psychology Forum, 65: 32–35.(1997) Counsellors and psychologists: a subjective experience of working together. Clinical Psychology Forum, 101: 18–21.(2000) Clinical Governance in the NHS: a Briefing. Division of Clinical Psychology Information Leaflet No.4. Leicester: BPS.and (1925) The threshold of practical psychology. Practical Psychologist, 1: 1.(1989) Letter toThe Psychologist, 2 (9): 375., and (1983) Professions, class and capitalism. Archives Européens de Sociologie, 24: 321–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003975600004094(1987) Beyond Monopoly. London: University of Chicago Press.(1991) Stress and contradiction in psychiatric nursing. Human Relations, 44 (1): 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679104400103(1990) Assistant psychologists and supervision. Clinical Psychology Forum, 26: 33–36.(1988) Psychology technicians: their use and abuse. Clinical Psychology Forum, 17: 5–10.and (1998) Scientific practice guidelines in a political, economic, and professional context. In K.S.Dobson and K.D.Craig (eds) Empirically Supported Therapies: Best Practice in Professional Psychology. London: Sage.(1991) The scientist-practitioner in practice: a short reply. Clinical Psychology Forum, 33: 33.and (Health Psychology AGM (2000) Minutes of Health Psychology AGM. Leicester: British Psychological Society.1964) A Short History of British Psychology. London: Methuen.(1997) Clinical psychologists and counsellors: working together in an agency setting. Clinical Psychology Forum, 101: 13–17.(1981) The changing role of the clinical psychologist. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 34: 12–14.(1998) How can expertise be defined? Implications of research from cognitive psychology. In R.Williams, W.Faulkner and J.Fleck (eds) Exploring Expertise: Issues and Perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1996) Bringing about change in a psychiatric hospital: the Patients' Council at Shelton two years on. Clinical Psychology Forum, 95: 25–28.(2002) Some thoughts on why clinical psychologists should not have formal powers under the new Mental Health Act. DCP Update. Clinical Psychology, 12: 40–43.(1991) Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 38: 139–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.11and ([Page 150]1992) Redefining the science-practice relationship and professional training. American Psychologist, 47 (1): 55–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.1.55and (1973) Professional socialization of nurses. Journal of New York State Nurse Association, 4 (4): 6–15.(1890) Principles of Psychology. 2 vols. New York: Dover Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11059-000(1970) Changes in the French university hospital system. In J.A.Jackson (ed.) Professions and Professionalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (1997) A survey of research activities, skills and training needs in a clinical psychology department. Clinical Psychology Forum, 108: 13–14., and (1997) Do we really want to know? Barriers to service users' expression of their views and some ways of overcoming them. Clinical Psychology Forum, 102: 9–14., and (1994) Multidisciplinary audit by a service for people with learning disabilities: quality assessment and sampling consumer views. Clinical Psychology Forum, 69: 22–29.and (1979) The professions in the class structure. In R.Case (ed.) Industrial Society: Class, Cleavage and Control. London: George Allen & Unwin.(2001) History and Theories of Psychology. London: Arnold.and (1984) Behaviour therapy – an autobiographic view. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 12: 7–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0141347300009423(2000) Public knowledge of and attitudes to mental disorders: a limiting factor in the optimal use of treatment services. In G.Andrews and A.Henderson (eds) Unmet Need in Psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., and (1964) Organizational Stress Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: John Wiley., , , and (1994) The contribution of psychological knowledge to primary health care: taking a step back to go forward. Clinical Psychology Forum, 65: 23–26.(1955) The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: Norton.(1998) A comparison of adult mental health patients allocated to counselling and clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum, 121: 13–16.and (2000) The next 25 years. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176: 6–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.176.1.6(2001) Does the future belong to the scientist practitioner?The Psychologist, 14 (2): 74–78.and (2000) Overcoming Childhood Trauma. London: Constable & Robinson.(2001) The future of clinical psychology training. Clinical Psychology, 8: 6–10.(2002) Reforms to the Mental Health Act: a call for action by members. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 10: 2–3.(1996) Physical and psychiatric co-morbidity in general practice. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169: 236–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.169.2.236and (1996) The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy outcome: findings in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Programme. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64: 532–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.532, , , , , and (1983) Therapist characteristics and their contribution to psychotherapy outcome. In C.E.Walker (ed.) The Handbook of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 1. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, pp. 205–241.and ([Page 151]1977) The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. London: University of California Press.(1999) Procedures and the professional: the case of the British NHS. Social Science and Medicine, 48: 353–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2898%2900345-1and (2001) A History of Modern Psychology.(Third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.2002) Implementing the National Service Framework for Older People: what can clinical psychologists do?PSIGE (Psychologists Special Interest Group Working with Older People) Newsletter, 79: 17–24., , , and (2000) The paradox of older women's health. In J.M.Ussher (ed.) Women's Health. Contemporary International Perspectives. Leicester: BPS.and (2001) The role of clinical supervisor. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 3: 3.(1992) Effects of self-help post-myocardial infarction rehabilitation on psychological adjustment and use of health services. Lancet, 339: 1036–1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736%2892%2990547-Get al. (2001) The evolution of psychological approaches in working with people with learning disabilities. Clinical Psychology Forum, 148: 12–17.(1997) The scientist-practitioner model in clinical psychology: a critique. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 4 (2): 75–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0879%28199706%294:2%3C75::AID-CPP116%3E3.0.CO;2-Eand (2000) Involving service users in employing clinical psychologists. Clinical Psychology Forum, 138: 39–42., and (2002) Withdrawal from statement of equivalence. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 8: 3–5.(1975) The clinical psychologist in a health centre: one year's work. British Medical Journal, 4: 513–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.4.5995.513and (1995) The Sociology of the Professions. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222188(1997) A survey of mental health needs in older adult recipients of Primary Care Services. PSIGE (Psychologists Special Interest Group Working with Older People) Newsletter, 59: 19–22., and (2001) The Statement of Equivalence in clinical psychology: problems and prospects. Clinical Psychology, 6: 34–35., , and (2000) Positive thinking revisited: positive cognitions, well-being and mental health. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7: 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0879%28200002%297:1%3C1::AID-CPP228%3E3.0.CO;2-Sand (1983) Organization of psychological services. In A.Liddell (ed.) The Practice of Clinical Psychology in Great Britain. London: John Wiley & Sons.(2000) The reorganization of primary care in Scotland and the implications for clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum, 143: 14–17.and (Management Advisory Service (1996) Psychological therapies. MAS Partnership Bulletin. Winchcombe: MAS.1992) The Gospel Oaks Study: the prevalence and incidence of dementia in an inner city area of London. Neuroepidemiology, 11 (Supplement 1): 76–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110994et al. (1991) Editorial. Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 1: 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.2450010102, , and (2002) Further thoughts on the Mental Health Act. Letter in Clinical Psychology, 9: 4–5.(Marzillier, J. and Hall, J. (eds) (1999) What is Clinical Psychology?Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1999) Developing assertive outreach services. Clinical Psychology Forum, 127: 43–45.([Page 152]2000) Clinical psychologists and assertive outreach: a briefing paper for the Division of Clinical Psychology of the British Psychological Society. Clinical Psychology Forum, 137: 47–51.and (1999) Primary care groups and clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum, 131: 9–12.(2000) The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in Great Britain. London: Office of National Statistics., , and (1977) The Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence against Anxiety. Tavistock Pamphlet No.3. London: The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.(Miller, P. and Rose, N. (eds) (1986) The Power of Psychiatry. Cambridge: Polity Press.1994) Clinical psychology and counselling in primary care: opening the stable door. Clinical Psychology Forum, 65: 11–14.(1997) Thesis or synthesis: to boldly go where no psychologist and counsellor have gone before. Clinical Psychology Forum, 101: 41–43.(1998) ‘I could do that!’: competence, roles and training in the delivery of psychological healthcare. Clinical Psychology Forum, 116: 15–18.and (1991) Motivational Interviewing – Preparing People to Change Addictive Behavior. New York: Guilford Press.and (1987) Projects: a way of combining research and practice. Clinical Psychology Forum, 9: 9–14.(1999) Editorial: important differences between the ‘scientist-practitioner’ and the ‘evidence-based practitioner’. Clinical Psychology Forum, 133: 5–9.(1989) Narcissus, Oedipus and the psychologist's fraudulent identity. Clinical Psychology Forum, 23: 7–11.(1928) An Historical Introduction to Modern Psychology. London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trübner.(1998) Sex differences and promotion prospects in clinical psychology in Scotland. Clinical Psychology Forum, 115: 25–29.and (1986) Class Struggle, the State and Medicine. London: Martin Robertson.(1998) Fear and loathing in Patients' Council visitors. Clinical Psychology Forum, 111: 27–30.and (2000) A great servant but a poor master: a critical look at the rhetoric of evidence-based practice. Clinical Psychology Forum, 136: 17–19., and (1968) The Silent Dialogue. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.and (1975) The Proletarianisation of the Professional. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20.(1998) Have we a theory of community psychology?Clinical Psychology Forum, 122: 6–10.(1986) Process and outcome in psychotherapy. In S.L.Garfield and A.E.Bergin (eds) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behaviour Change.and (Third edition. New York: Wiley, pp. 311–384.2000) EBP deconstructed and reconstructed. Letter to Clinical Psychology Forum, 136: 2–4., and (1990) A survey of clinical psychologists in the south-east Thames health region: activities, role and theoretical orientation. Clinical Psychology Forum, 29: 21–26.and (1998) Use of self-help books in the practice of clinical psychology. In A.S.Bellack and M.Hersen (eds) Comprehensive Clinical Psychology (Vol. 6). New York: Pergamon.([Page 153]2000) Primary care psychology: towards a model of service delivery. Clinical Psychology Forum, 142: 22–26.(Parker, I. (ed.) (1999) Deconstructing Psychotherapy. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462179621989) Care for the future. The Psychologist, 2 (6): 436–438.(1985) Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary risk: a four year follow up. British Medical Journal, 290: 1103–1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.290.6475.1103et al. (1987) Why are we here? Some quick and dirty reasons. Clinical Psychology Forum, 9: 6–9.(2000) Managing psychological therapies departments: what's different?Clinical Psychology Forum, 135: 15–18.(1992) Recognition and management of depression in General Practice: consensus statement. British Medical Journal, 305: 1198–1202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.305.6863.1198and (1953) The role of the clinical psychologist at the Institute of Psychiatry. Revue de Psychologie Appliquée, 3: 150–160.(1987) Stress in Health Professionals. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.and (1990) The Road Less Travelled. London: Arrow Books.(1998) Staying Sane: How to Make Your Mind Work for You. London: Metro Publishing Ltd.(1990) Clinical psychology in the 1980s: a sociological analysis. Unpublished MSc thesis, Polytechnic of the South Bank.(2000) The real problem for postmodernism. Journal of Family Therapy, 22 (1): 6–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00135(2002) The emergence of clinical psychology as a profession. In J.Allsop and M.Saks (eds) Regulating the Health Professions. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220047(1999) From mitigation to culpability: rethinking the evidence about therapist sexual abuse. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Health, 2 (2): 153–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642539908402323and (1999) A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness.and (Second edition. Buckingham: Open University Press.2001) Users and their advocates. In G.Thornicroft and G.Szmukler (eds) Textbook of Community Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1992) Clinical Psychology Observed. London: Tavistock/Routledge.and (1998) User involvement in mental health services: how far can it go?Journal of Mental Health, 7 (1): 95–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638239818373and (1996) Gender and class revisited; or, the poverty of ‘patriarchy’. Sociology, 30 (4): 639–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038596030004002(1957) The Great Transformation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(1996) Lay people's attitudes to treatment of depression: results of opinion poll for Defeat Depression Campaign just before its launch. British Medical Journal, 313: 858–859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.313.7061.858, , , and (1992) In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47 (9): 1102–1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102, and (1995) Does psychology need more boy appeal?The Psychologist, 8 (1): 21–24.and (Raimy, V.C. (ed.) (1953) Training in Clinical Psychology. New York: Prentice Hall.1977) Community Psychology: Values, Research and Action. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Wilson.([Page 154]1966) The Development of Clinical Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.(1998) The uses and abuses of assistant psychologists: a national survey of caseload and supervision. Clinical Psychology Forum, 115: 37–42.and (1983) Clinical psychology, the individual and the state. Unpublished PhD thesis, Polytechnic of North East London.(1957) The necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21: 95–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045357(1991) ‘Pulling down churches’: accounting for the British mental health users' movement. Sociology of Health and Illness, 15 (5): 612–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11433593and (2001) Mental Health Policy in Britain. London: Palgrave.and (1985) Governing the Soul. London: Routledge.(1996) Inventing Our Selves. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752179(1999) Evidence-based practice: is there a link between research and practice?Clinical Psychology Forum, 133: 37–40.(1988) Role of manual-guided training in the conduct and efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56: 681–688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.5.681, , and (1983) Depression: The Way out of Your Prison. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203391464(1990) Cognitive-Analytical Therapy. London: Wiley.(Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (1997) Pulling Together: The Future Roles and Training of Mental Health Staff. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (1997-8) Missed Opportunities. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.1983) Removing the blinkers? A critique of recent contributions to the sociology of the professions. Sociological Review, 1: 1–20.(1917) The care and treatment of mental diseases and war neuroses: ‘shell shock’ in the British army. Mental Hygiene, 1: 509–574.(1998) The Added Value of Psychology to Physical Healthcare. Division of Clinical Psychology Occasional Paper No.2. Leicester: BPS.and (2001) Overcoming Mood Swings. London: Constable & Robinson.(Scottish Office Department of Health (1997) Designed to Care: Renewing the National Health Service in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Office.1978) An Investigation into the Practice of Scientology. London: HMSO.(1995) The effectiveness of psychotherapy: the Consumer Reports study. American Psychologist, 50: 965–974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.12.965(2000) Positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55 (1): 5–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5and (2002) Renewing the scientist-practitioner model. The Psychologist, 15 (5): 232–234.(1951) An experimental approach to diagnostic psychological testing. Journal of Mental Science, 97: 747–764.(1997) Clinical psychologists and counsellors: working together. Clinical Psychology Forum, 101: 5–8.and (1984) Rhetoric in the Human Sciences. London: Sage.(1996) Research and clinical psychologists. Clinical Psychology Forum, 96: 44–45.(2002) Biopsychosocial psychiatry and clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology, 9: 8–12.([Page 155]1995) What's Behind the Research: Discovering Hidden Assumptions in the Behavioural Sciences. London: Sage.and (1982) Clinical psychology – homogenized and sterilized. Bulletin of the BPS, 35: 345–346.(2001) The impossibility of specifying ‘good’ psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology, 7: 14–18.(1990) On the disorder of things: sociology and the end of the social. Sociology, 24 (3): 397–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038590024003003(1987) A bridge for the scientist-practitioner gap?Clinical Psychology Forum, 11: 19–20.and (1998) Community psychology and the ‘mainstream’. Clinical Psychology Forum, 122: 14–15.(1939) Psychology and the science of science. Psychology/Psychological Bulletin, 36: 221–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0056886(1985) Shellshock and the psychologists. In W.F.Bynum, R.Porter and M.Shepherd (eds) The Anatomy of Madness. London: Tavistock.(1999) If statistical significance tests are broken/misused, what practices should supplement or replace them?Theory and Psychology, 9 (2): 165–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095935439992006(2001) The popular, the practical and the professional: psychological identities in Britain, 1901–1950. In G.C.Bunn, A.D.Lovie and G.D.Richards (eds) Psychology in Britain. Leicester: BPS Books, pp.115–132.(1997) Consumer evaluation of a challenging behaviour support worker service for people with learning disabilities. Clinical Psychology Forum, 102: 3–6.(1999) User views of a community drop-in centre for people with mental health problems. Clinical Psychology Forum, 132: 22–25., and (1991) Clinical psychology and sexual equality: a contradiction in terms?Feminism and Psychology, 1 (1): 63–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959353591011008(1993) ‘Psychotherapist know thyself!’: dissonance between metatheoretical and personal values in psychotherapists of different theoretical orientations. Psychotherapy Research, 3 (3): 181–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503309312331333779, and (2000) Psychological services for people with learning disabilities living in the community. Clinical Psychology Forum, 141: 34–38.and (1994) ‘Do as we say but not as we do’: organizational, professional and personal barriers to the receipt of support at work. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 1 (2): 101–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.5640010207and (2003) What is the DCP Doing? A Report from the Chair. Leicester: British Psychological Society.(2002) Mental health in older adult recipients of primary care services: is depression the key issue? Identification, treatment and the general practitioner. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17 (5): 427–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.632, , , , , and (2001) Statement of equivalence developments. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 8: 3–4.and (2001) The statement of equivalence: further problems and a modest proposal. Letter to Clinical Psychology, 8: 2–3.and (1999) EBP: not very NICE. Letter to Clinical Psychology Forum, 133: 3.([Page 156]