A Short History of Cultural Studies


John Hartley

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  • Back Matter
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    View Copyright Page


    To Tina Horton and to Karri, Rhiannon and Sophie Hartley

    Iti sapis potanda tinone


    • Front Cover: Olga Tobreluts – Sacred Figures I: Kate Moss (1999)
    • 3.1 Kasimir Malevich – Suprematist Composition: White on White (1917–18)68
    • 3.2 El Lissitzky – Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (1919)69
    • 3.3 Advertisement for Esprit, Hero magazine Australia, 1986 70
    • 3.4Perestroika – The Dinner Party (cover)79
    • 3.5 Two designs for table decorations (Perestroika – The Dinner Party): a and b 80 & 81
    • 3.6 The Pravda Table (Perestroika – The Dinner Party)82
    • 4.1 ‘Relative autonomy’ among the economic, political and cultural spheres: co-existence and dialogue, not causal sequence 91


    Thanks to

    • Chris Rojek for putting me up to this;
    • Olga Tobreluts for the cover image;
    • Tina Horton, Charlotte Brunsdon, Terence Hawkes, Graeme Turner, Alan McKee, Joke Hermes, Stuart Cunningham and Lawrence Grossberg for reading it;
    • my family for giving me space and encouragement to get on with it during testing times for all of us;
    • my colleagues at Cardiff University, especially Ian Hargreaves and others in the Tom Hopkinson Centre for Media Research, for a stimulating four years;
    • my colleagues at QUT, especially Peter Coaldrake and Elaine Harding, for letting me think about this when there was work to be done;
    • all the folk in, round and against cultural studies who made me want to be part of it;
    • and you, ‘dear reader’.

    As the man on the radio used to say: ‘If you have been, thanks for listening.’

    JohnHartley Brisbane
  • References: Cites to Behold

    Cultural studies and publishing

    Cultural studies was a publishing enterprise…

    Abercrombie, Nicholas and BrianLonghurst (1998) Audiences: A Sociological theory of Performance and Imagination. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222331
    Althusser, Louis (1969) For Marx. London: Allen Lane.
    Althusser, Louis (1971) Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. London: New Left Books.
    Arnold, Matthew ([1869] 1993) Culture and Anarchy and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Baker, Houston A. Jr., ManthiaDiawara and RuthH. Lindeborg (eds) (1996) Black British Cultural Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Barker, Chris (2000) Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
    Barrell, John (1986) The Political Theory of Painting from Reynolds to Hazlitt: ‘The Body of the Public’New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Barthes, Roland ([1953] 1967) Writing Degree Zero. Trans. Annette Lavers and Colin Smith. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Beeton, Mrs [Isabella] (1909) Mrs Beeton's Every-day Cookery.
    New edition
    . London: Ward, Lock.
    Beeton, Isabella ([1861] 2000) Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management.
    Abridged edition
    , edited by NicolaHumble. Oxford: Oxford World Classics.
    Bennett, David (ed.) (1998) Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity. London: Routledge.
    Bennett, Tony (1979) Marxism and Formalism. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203354490
    Bennett, Tony (1992) ‘Useful Culture.’Cultural Studies, 6(3): 395–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389200490251
    Bennett, Tony (1995) The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, Politics. London: Routledge.
    Bennett, Tony (1998) Culture: A Reformer's Science. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
    Bennett, Tony and DavidCarter (eds) (2001) Culture in Australia: Policies, Publics and Programs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Berger, John (1972) Ways of Seeing. London: BBC/Penguin.
    Berry, Sarah (2001) ‘Fashion.’ in Miller (ed.), 454–70.
    Bethell, S.L. (1944) Shakespeare and the Popular Dramatic Tradition. London: Staples.
    Bethell, S.L. (1951) The Cultural Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. London: Dobson.
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    Brunsdon, Charlotte (1996) ‘A Thief in the Night: Stories of Feminism in the 1970s at CCCS.’ in Hall, Morley and Chen (eds).
    Brunsdon, Charlotte,JulieD'Acci and LynnSpigel (eds) (1997) Feminist Television Criticism: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Buck-Morss, Susan (1986) The Flâneur, the Sandwichman and the Whore: The Politics of Loitering.’New German Critique, 39 (Fall): 99–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/488122
    Burchell, Graham,ColinGordon and PeterMiller (eds) (1991) The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    CCCS (1982) The Empire Strikes Back. London: Hutchinson.
    Carey, John (1992) The Intellectuals and the Masses. London: Faber & Faber.
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    Caves, Richard (2000) Creative Industries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Chasin, Alexandra (1992) Discussant. in Grossberg, Nelson and Treichler (eds), 293.
    Chen, Kuan-Hsing (ed.) (1998) Trajectories: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.
    Cheskin (January 2002) Media Content: The Place Where We Live. Cheskin Market Insight Series: http://www.cheskin.com.
    Cohen, Phil (1972) ‘Subcultural Conflict and Working Class Community’Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 2, Spring: 5–51.
    Cooper, Scott (1992) Discussant. in Grossberg, Nelson and Treichler (eds), 294.
    Cotton, Charlotte (2000) Imperfect Beauty: The Making of Contemporary Fashion Photographs. London: V&A Publications.
    CouldryNick (2000) Inside Culture: Re-imagining the Method of Cultural Studies. London: Sage.
    Creekmur, Corey and AlexanderDoty (eds) (1995) Out in Culture: Gay, Lesbian and Queer Essays on Popular Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; London: Cassell.
    Culler, Jonathan (1981) ‘Semiotics of Tourism.’American Journal of Semiotics, 1: 127–40.
    Culture, Media and Sport, Department of (2001) Creative Industries: Mapping Document 2001. London: HMSO (http://www.culture.gov.uk/creative/mapping.html).
    Cunningham, Stuart (1992) Framing Culture: Criticism and Policy in Australia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
    Curran, James and JeanSeaton (1987) Power without Responsibility. London: Routledge.
    Curran, James,DavidMorley and ValerieWalkerdine (eds) (1996) Cultural Studies and Communications. London: Arnold.
    Darnton, Robert (1997) The Forbidden Best-sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France. New York and London: HarperCollins.
    De Certeau, Michel (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Donald, James (1999) Imagining the Modern City. London: Pippin Publishing.
    Donzelot, Jacques (1980) The Policing of Families. Trans. RobertHurley. London: Hutchinson.
    During, Simon (ed.) ([1993] 1999) The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203190784
    Eagleton, Terry (2000) The Idea of Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Enzensberger, Hans Magnus (1976) Raids and Reconstructions: Essays in Politics, Crime and Culture. London: Pluto.
    Evans, Harold (1998) The American Century: People, Power and Politics. London: Jonathan Cape; New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Felski, Rita (1995) The Gender of Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Ferguson, Marjorie and PeterGolding (eds) (1997) Cultural Studies in Question. London: Sage.
    Fielding, Helen (1995) Cause Celeb, London: Picador.
    Fiske, John (1983) ‘Surfalism and Sandiotics: The Beach in Oz Popular Culture.’Australian Journal of Cultural Studies, 1(i): 120–49.
    Fiske, John (1992) ‘Cultural Studies and the Culture of Everyday Life.’ in Grossberg, Nelson and Treichler (eds), 154–73.
    Fiske, John and JohnHartley (1978) Reading Television. London: Methuen [Routledge]. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203356623
    Foucault, Michel (1980) Two Lectures.’ in ColinGordon (ed.), Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–77. New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, Michel (1984) The Foucault Reader. ed. PaulRabinow. New York: Pantheon; London: Penguin.
    Foucault, Michel (1991) ‘Governmentality’ in Burchell, Gordon and Miller (eds), 87–104.
    Frow, John (1997) Time and Commodity Culture: Essays on Cultural Theory and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Frow, John (2000) ‘Public Domain and the New World Order in Knowledge.’Social Semiotics10(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10350330050009416
    Frow, John and MeaghanMorris (eds) (1993) Australian Cultural Studies: A Reader. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
    Gallacher, William (1949) The Case for Communism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Special.
    Garnham, Nicholas (1987) ‘Concepts of Culture: Public Policy and the Culture Industries.’Cultural Studies, 1(1): 23–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502388700490021
    Garnham, Nicholas (1990) Capitalism and Communication: Global Culture and the Economics of Information. London: Sage.
    Gibson, Lisanne (2001) The Uses of Art: Constructing Australian Identities. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.
    Gibson, Mark (2001) ‘Monday Morning and the Millennium: Cultural Studies, Scepticism and the Concept of Power’. PhD thesis. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.
    GilroyPaul (1987) There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation. London: Routledge.
    Gilroy, Paul (1992) ‘Cultural Studies and Ethnic Absolutism.’ in Grossberg, Nelson and Treichler (eds), 187–98.
    Gilroy, Paul (1996) ‘British Cultural Studies and the Pitfalls of Identity’ in Baker, Diawara and Lindeborg (eds).
    Golding, Peter and GrahamMurdock (eds) (1997) The Political Economy of the MediaCheltenham, UK and Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar.
    Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996) Memoirs. London: Doubleday
    Goulden, Holly and JohnHartley (1982) ‘“Nor should such topics as homosexuality, masturbation, frigidity, premature ejaculation or the menopause be regarded as unmentionable”: English Literature, School Examinations and Official Discourses.’LTP Journal: Journal of Literature Teaching Politics, 1 (April): 4–20.
    Gramsci, Antonio (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Gray, Ann and JimMcGuigan (eds) ([1993] 1997) Studying Culture: An Introductory Reader. London: Arnold.
    Grossberg, Lawrence (1995) ‘Cultural Studies vs Political Economy: Is Anybody Else Bored with This Debate?’Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 12(1): March: 72–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039509366920
    Grossberg, Lawrence,CaryNelson and PaulaTreichler (eds) (1992) Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge.
    Hall, Stuart (1959) The Big Swipe: Some Comments on the “Classlessness Controversy”.’Universities and Left Review, 7: 50–2.
    Hall, Stuart,CharlesCritcher,TonyJefferson,JohnClarke and BrianRobert (1978) Policing the Crisis. London: Hutchinson.
    Hall, Stuart (1981) ‘Notes on Deconstructing the Popular.’ in Samuel (ed.).
    Hall, Stuart (1992) ‘Cultural Studies and its Theoretical Legacies.’ in Grossberg, Nelson and Treichler (eds), 277–94.
    Hall, Stuart and PaddyWhannel (1964) The Popular Arts. London: Hutchinson.
    Hall, Stuart, DavidMorley and Kuan-HsingChen (eds) (1996) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. London: Comedia [Routledge].
    Halloran, J.D.,GrahamMurdock and PhilipSchlesinger (1970) Demonstrations and Communications: A Case Study. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Harbage, Alfred (1941) Shakespeare's Audience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hartley, Dorothy ([1954] 1999) Food in England. London: Little, Brown.
    Hartley, John (1992) The Politics of Pictures: The Creation of the Public in the Age of Popular Media. London: Routledge.
    Hartley, John (1996) Popular Reality: Journalism, Modernity, Popular Culture. London: Arnold.
    Hartley, John (2000a) ‘Communicative Democracy in a Redactional Society: The Future of Journalism Studies.’Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism, l(l): 39–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146488490000100107
    Hartley, John (2000b) ‘“Cultural Exceptionalism”: Freedom, Imperialism, Power, America.’ in Hartley and Pearson (eds), 1–20.
    Hartley, John and Roberta E.Pearson (eds) (2000) American Cultural Studies: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hartley, John and CatharineLumby (2002) ‘Working Girls or Drop-Dead Gorgeous? Young Girls in Fashion and News.’ in K.Mallan and S.Pearce (eds), Chapter 4.
    Harvard Business Review (2001) ‘A Reading List for Bill Gates – and You: An Interview with Literary Critic Harold Bloom.’HBR79 (5) May: 63–8.
    Hauser, Arnold ([1951] 1999) The Social History of Art, 4 vols. New York and London: Routledge.
    Hawkes, Terence (1969) ‘Postscript: Theatre against Shakespeare.’ in DavidGalloway (ed.) The Elizabethan Theatre. Canada: Macmillan, 117–26.
    Hawkes, Terence (1973) Shakespeare's Talking Animals: Language and Drama in Society. London: Edward Arnold.
    Hawkes, Terence (1977) Structuralism and Semiotics. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203443934
    Hawkes, Terence (1986) That Shakespeherian Rag. London: Routledge.
    Hay, James,LawrenceGrossberg and EllenWartella (eds) (1994) The Audience and its Landscape. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Hebdige, Dick (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203139943
    Hebdige, Dick (1988) Hiding in the Light: On Images and Things. London: Comedia/Routledge.
    Hermes, Joke (1995) Reading Women's Magazines: An Analysis of Everyday Media Use. Cambridge: Polity.
    Hobbes, Thomas ([1651] 1968) Leviathan. ed. C.B.Macpherson. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Hoggart, Richard (1957) The Uses of Literacy. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Hoggart, Richard (1992) An Imagined Life (Life and Times, Volume III: 1959–91). London: Chatto and Windus [Oxford University Press, 1993].
    hooks, bell (1992) Discussant. in Grossberg, Nelson and Treichler (eds), 171; 293–4.
    hooks, bell (1997) ‘Eros, Eroticism, and the Pedagogical Process.’ in McRobbie (ed.), 74–80.
    Hughes, Robert ([1981] 1991) The Shock of the New. New York: Knopf.
    Hunter, Ian (1988) Culture and Government: The Emergence of Literary Education. London: Macmillan.
    Jordan, Barry and RikkiMorgan-Tamosunas (eds) (2000) Contemporary Spanish Cultural Studies. London: Arnold.
    Klein, Naomi (2000) No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. Toronto: Vintage Canada.
    Leach, Edmund ([1964] 1972) ‘Anthropological Aspects of Language: Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse.’ in Maranda (ed.), 39–67.
    Leach, Edmund (1976) Culture and Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Leadbeater, Charles (1997) Living on Thin Air: The New Economy. London: Viking.
    Leadbeater, Charles and KateOakley (1999) The Independents: Britain's New Cultural Entrepreneurs. London: Demos.
    Leavis, F.R. (1952) The Common Pursuit. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
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    Lewis, Justin (2001) ‘Let's Get Serious: Notes on Teaching Youth Culture.’ in Miller (ed.), 317–30.
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    Richards, Thomas (1993) The Imperial Archive: Knowledge and the Fantasy of Empire. London: Verso.
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    Shaw, George Bernard (1937) The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism, Capitalism, Sovietism and Fascism, 2 Vols. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books.
    Shuttleworth, Alan (1966) Two Working Papers in Cultural Studies – A Humane Centre and Max Weber and the ‘Cultural Sciences.’ (Occasional Paper No. 2). Birmingham University: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies.
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    Veblen, Thorstein (1899 [this edn 1953]) The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. New York: Mentor.
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    Williams, Raymond (1974) Television: Technology and Cultural Form. London: Fontana. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647
    Williams, Raymond (1977) Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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    Wilson, Elizabeth (2001) The Contradictions of Culture: Cities, Culture, Women. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220481
    Wolfe, Tom ([1969] 2000) ‘What If He Is Right?’ in Hartley and Pearson (eds), 22–31.
    Wolfe, Tom (1999) The Painted Word. New York: Bantam Books.
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    Woroszylski, Wiktor (1972) The Life of Mayakovsky. London: Victor Gollancz.

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