A Guide to Professional Doctorates in Business and Management

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Edited by: Lisa Anderson, Jeff Gold, Jim Stewart & Richard Thorpe

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    Notes on the editors and Contributors

    Lisa Anderson is a Senior Lecturer in Management Education at the University of Liverpool where she co-designed and established the online DBA programme based on the principles of action learning, action research and the development of senior managers as scholar–practitioners. Her research interests lie in the areas of action learning in management education and in small businesses, scholarly practice and the nature of learning in online management education.

    David Coghlan is Fellow and Professor Emeritus of Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. He specialises in organisation development and action research and is active in both communities internationally. He has published over 100 articles and book chapters. Recent co-authored books include Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization (4th edn., Sage, 2014). He is co-editor of the four-volume set, Fundamentals of Organization Development (Sage, 2010), the Sage Encyclopaedia of Action Research (2014) and the forthcoming four-volume set, Action Research in Business & Management (Sage, 2017). He is currently on the editorial boards of: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Action Research, Action Learning: Research and Practice among others.

    Ann L. Cunliffe is Professor of Organisation Studies at the University of Bradford, UK. She moved to Bradford from the University of Leeds, UK after spending 25 years working in the USA, latterly at the University of New Mexico and California State University. Ann’s current research lies at the intersection of organisational studies, philosophy and communications, exploring how leaders and managers shape responsive and ethical organisations. Other interests include: selfhood, embodied sensemaking, developing the rigour of non-traditional qualitative research, and exploring reflexive approaches to management research, practice and learning. Her recent publications include the books A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Management (Sage, 2014) and articles in Organizational Research Methods, Human Relations, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Management Studies and Organization Studies. She is co-editor-in-chief of Management Learning, and organises the biennial Qualitative Research in Management and Organisation Conference in New Mexico, USA.

    Paul Ellwood is a Senior Lecturer in Management on the DBA Programme at the University of Liverpool Management School. His research interests are broadly in the area of science-led innovation and are born of an early education in the natural sciences, and a professional life spent largely within the chemical manufacturing sector. Since moving from private industry to a university management school he has become increasingly interested in issues relating to the engagement between academic research and management practice.

    Jeff Gold is Professor of Organisation Learning at Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, and Visiting Professor at Portsmouth University and York St John University. He is a strong advocate of the need for actionable knowledge that is rigorously developed but relevant for practice. He has designed and delivered a wide range of seminars, programmes and workshops on talent management and development, change, strategic learning, management and leadership development with a particular emphasis on participation and distribution. He is the co-author of CIPD’s Leadership and Management Development (with Richard Thorpe and Alan Mumford, 5th edn., Gower, 2010), The Gower Handbook of Leadership and Management Development(with Richard Thorpe and Alan Mumford, Gower, 2010), Human Resource Development(with Julie Beardwell, Paul Iles, Rick Holden and Jim Stewart, 2nd edn., Palgrave, 2013) and Human Resource Management(with John Bratton, 5th edn., Palgrave, 2012).

    David Gray is Professor of Leadership and Organisational Behaviour at the University of Greenwich. His research interests and publication record include research methods, management learning (particularly coaching and mentoring), professional identity, action learning, reflective learning, management learning in SMEs and the factors that contribute to SME success. He has published books (Doing Research in the Real World, 3rd edn., Sage, 2014) and articles on research methods, work-based learning, and coaching and mentoring. David has led a number of EU-funded research programmes including one examining the impact of coaching on the resilience of unemployed managers in their job-searching behaviours and another on how action learning can sustain unemployed managers in starting their own business.

    Rosalie Holian is an Organisational Psychologist and an Associate Professor in the School of Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. She has considerable experience as a senior executive and director in national organisations. Rosalie has a background in quantitative as well as qualitative approaches and a particular interest in action research and ‘insider’ research. She has been Program Director of a Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and successfully supervised doctoral research projects and academic theses (DBA and PhD), many of which have been undertaken by experienced practitioners, managers and consultants.

    John Lawler qualified as a social worker and practised in local authority social work before moving into academia. He is an experienced researcher, supervisor, teacher and facilitator. His main research focus is management and leadership development in general and in public services more specifically. He has a particular interest in the application of knowledge and learning to professional and managerial practice. He has a significant record of publication in both social sciences and in business studies.

    Mike Pedler met Reg Revans in 1975 and has been working with action learning since that time. He is a partner in C-ALF (the Centre for Action Learning Facilitation), founding editor of the journal Action Learning: Research and Practice and Emeritus Professor at Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK. He holds Visiting Professorships at Sheffield Hallam and Leeds Beckett Universities, and is an honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Management Leadership & Learning at Lancaster University. As a practitioner he is interested in questions of learning and unlearning in systems and organisations, and also with how organising processes can become more effective through the engaging of all those concerned. He works on projects in management and leadership learning, and more generally on organisation development usually approaching these from an action learning perspective. Reflecting on and writing about what he does are important aspects of his practice.

    Joe Raelin is an international authority in work-based learning and collaborative leadership development. He holds the Asa S. Knowles Chair of Practice-Oriented Education at Northeastern University in Boston, USA, and is Professor of Management and Organisation Development in the D’Amore-McKim School of Business. His research has centred on human resource development, focusing in particular on executive education through the use of action learning. He is a prolific writer and a management consultant. Among his books are: The Clash of Cultures(Harvard Business School Press, 1991), Work-Based Learning(Jossey-Bass, 2008), Creating Leaderful Organizations(Berrett-Koehler, 2003) and The Leaderful Fieldbook(Nicholas-Brealey, 2010). Joe is the recipient of numerous academic awards, such as the David Bradford Outstanding Educator Award from the OBTS Teaching Society for Management Educators. He is currently contributing to the development of the new paradigm of shared leadership, known as ‘leaderful practice’, to the emerging ‘leadership-as-practice’ movement in leadership, as well as to the field of work-based learning.

    Simon Robinson was educated at Oxford and Edinburgh Universities and trained as a psychiatric social worker and as an Anglican priest. After chaplaincy, teaching and research posts at Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh University and the University of Leeds, he joined Leeds Beckett University in 2004 as Professor of Applied and Professional Ethics. He has written and researched extensively in business ethics, corporate social responsibility, leadership, the nature and dynamics of responsibility, equality, integrity, shame and guilt, spirituality and ethics, and ethics and care. He has written and researched extensively in business ethics, corporate social responsibility, leadership, the nature and dynamics of responsibility, equality, integrity, shame and guilt, spirituality and ethics, and ethics and care. His books include: Agape, Moral Meaning and Pastoral Counselling (Aureus, 2001); Spirituality and the Practice of Healthcare (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003); Values in Higher Education (Aureus/University of Leeds, 2005); Spirituality, Ethics and Care (Jessica Kingsley, 2007); Ethics and the Alcohol Industry (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); Leadership Responsibility (Peter Lang, 2011); Business Ethics in Practice (CIPD, 2012); Co-charismatic Leadership (Peter Lang, 2014). He is Director of the Centre for Governance, Leadership and Global Responsibility, and Editor of the new Palgrave book series on governance, leadership and responsibility.

    Eugene Sadler-Smith is Professor of Organisational Behaviour, Surrey Business School. His first degree was from the University of Leeds (School of Geography), and his PhD (part-time, 1988–92) from the University of Birmingham (School of Education). His previous employment experience includes working in the human resource development department of British Gas plc (1987–94). Eugene Sadler-Smith’s current research interests are hubris, intuition, insight and virtue ethics. His research has been published in journals such as Academy of Management Executive, Academy of Management Learning and Education, British Journal of Management, British Journal of Psychology, Business Ethics Quarterly, Human Resource Development International, Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Management Learning and Organization Studies. He has written several books including Inside Intuition(Routledge, 2008) and The Intuitive Mind(John Wiley and Sons, 2010). The latter has been translated into Japanese, Korean, Portuguese and Russian.

    Mark NK Saunders is Professor of Business Research Methods at the Surrey Business School, University of Surrey, and a Fellow of the British Academy of Management. His research interests include: research methods, including online research methods, methods for researching trust, the development of process consultation tools to learn about and improve organisational relationships; and the human resource aspects of management of change, particularly trust and justice. He has published in a range of journals including Field Methods, Human Performance, Human Relations, Journal of Small Business Management, Management Learningand Social Science and Medicine. Recent books include Research Methods for Business Students (with Phil Lewis and Adrian Thornhill, Pearson, 2015); the Handbook of Research Methods on HRD (co-edited with Paul Tosey, Edward Elgar, 2015). He is Series Editor (with Bill Lee and Vadake Narayanan) of the Sage series Understanding Research Methods for Business and Management Students.

    Jim Stewart is Professor of Human Resource Development at Coventry Business School. He has previously held similar positions at Leeds Business School and Nottingham Business School where he established and led highly successful DBA programmes in both schools. Jim is former Chair of the University Forum for HRD and currently serves as the Forum’s Executive Secretary. He has conducted research funded by UK research councils, UK government departments, the European Union and employers in all sectors of the economy. This work has led to Jim writing and co-editing over 20 books and numerous chapter contributions and journal articles. The latter include a number based on research into doctoral supervision which he co-authored with Professor Sally Sambrook and Dr Clair Doloriert from Bangor Business School. Jim also holds a number of positions with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, including being their Chief Examiner for Learning and Development.

    John Taylor is Professor of Higher Education Management in the University of Liverpool, UK. A historian by origin, he worked for over 20 years in university management before moving into an academic career, teaching and researching in the area of higher education management and policy. His main research interests lie in strategy and organisation, leadership, internationalisation, the management of research, the role of higher education in developing countries and the history of higher education. He has written a number of papers on the changing nature of postgraduate research and especially the development of the professional doctorate.

    Richard Thorpe is Professor of Management Development and Pro Dean for Research and Innovation at Leeds University Business School. His research interests have included: performance, entrepreneurship, knowledge and leadership as well as research methods in management research. His early career as a management trainee on a Clarks programme informed the way his ethos has developed. Following a period in industry his first academic appointment was as a Researcher at the Pay and Reward Research Centre at the University of Strathclyde. There, as a consequence of the research conducted, he developed close links with practitioners, intermediaries and policy makers, something he has strived to maintain as his career progressed. Common themes in his work are: a strong commitment to conducting research in collaboration with practitioners; a focus on action and change; an interest in and commitment to the development of doctoral students and the development of capacity within the sector. Richard has been past president and chair of the British Academy of Management (BAM) and member of the ESRC Training and Development Board. He is currently chair of the Society for the Advancement of Management Studies (SAMS). In this latter role he initiated the ESRC/SAMS/UKCES Management and Business Fellowship Scheme.

    Dr Paul Tosey is Senior Lecturer at the University of Surrey Business School, where he is head of PhD programmes. His research interests include organisational learning, enquiry-based learning and Clean Language, an innovative coaching practice that is based on metaphor. He has published widely on these topics and is co-editor, with Professor Mark Saunders, of the Handbook of Research Methods on HRD (Edward Elgar, 2015). His experience includes supervising and examining DBA theses and he also supervises PhD research in areas such as leadership development. He was awarded a National Teaching Fellowship by the Higher Education Academy in 2007 and is also a Certified Facilitator of Clean Language and a Master Practitioner of NLP. He is an active member of the University Forum for HRD, and currently chairs its Programme and Qualification Activities Committee. His career experience also includes consultancy, coaching and line management.

    Preface

    Who is this book for?

    This book is written for anyone with an interest in the practitioner as a researcher and in the creation of professional and actionable knowledge through the use of action modes of research. More specifically, it will have a direct appeal to those enrolled for a Professional Doctorate in Business and Management or, what is more commonly referred to as the Doctorate in Business Administration or DBA. It is also written for supervisors of professional doctorate work and current and future programme directors and examiners of DBAs. We use DBAas a generic term throughout the book although we realise that a range of other professional doctorate programmes exist. This is partly because it provides an easy shorthand for ‘professional doctorates in Business and Management’ and also because the DBA seems to be the preferred label for the majority of such offerings.

    The DBA

    The DBA field is still relatively new both as a degree and as a set of practices. It lacks a clear definition and in many ways, this is beneficial in that it allows for experimentation and innovation in the field; this is borne out by the variety of formats, structures, outcomes and philosophical underpinnings that we have encountered so far in learning about DBA programmes. However, it also leads to uncertainty about what the DBA is, what it is trying to achieve and how it might be delivered. Without wanting to stifle or implicitly critique any particular version of the DBA, we have approached the production of this book with a view (more realistically, a vision) of how a DBA programme could and should work and what its objectives and outcomes should be. We see the DBA as an award for practising managers who are interested in researching practice within their own context in order to develop new understandings and insights about the phenomena under scrutiny. It involves the integration of scholarship and practice and makes a contribution to professional knowledge whilst developing learners as insightful and reflexive professionals with a heightened sense of ethics and an orientation towards questioning the taken-for-granted aspects of organisational life.

    In defining our vision of the DBA, we are setting out our view of the profile of a manager at the height of the profession – not necessarily in terms of seniority within an organisation although we would like to think that holding a DBA helps with career progression – a consummate professional who understands the nature of the disordered and messy business of being a manager and helps others make sense of organisational life. Although many elements of a DBA, especially the thesis, will be aimed at bringing about change or solving an organisational problem and making a contribution to knowledge, the enduring outcome of the period of study should be the manager’s ability to deal with complexity and uncertainty and integrating scholarship with everyday practice in order to make organisations better places in all senses of the word. The aims of management education in professional doctorates is therefore to both develop ‘researching professionals’ (Bourner et al., 2001) and, in so doing, to develop the relatively new profession of management itself. This entails more than a simple credentialing (Spender, 2005) exercise but entails a commitment to interrogate, create and widen the understanding of the knowledge upon which management practice is based.

    The idea that a doctoral degree can develop both knowledge and practice is fairly contentious, especially when it is conceived, as it is here, as an integrated process rather than following a set of steps whereby knowledge is created and then subsequently applied. In this sequential model, knowledge creation is at least partly detached from practice rather than constituting engaged scholarship (Van de Ven 2007). Having already acknowledged that DBAs can take a whole range of approaches, we concentrate in this text on action modes of inquiry; our experience shows that these can lead to the production of professional knowledge that is both rigorous and relevant and that they are ideally suited to the development of scholar– practitioners on DBA programmes. Having nailed our methodological colours to the mast, it is important to note that we are not saying that DBAs should not adopt traditional and more recognisable methods of inquiry, merely that, if this is the choice you have made, there are already rich resources to guide you in that area and that our book provides a different view (this discussion is extended in Chapter 1).

    All four of us on the editorial team have experience of working with DBA students and we have all sought to direct our students to a range of writing that might help them craft their research and make a difference in their organisations and beyond. Up until now, there has been no formal consensus about the kind of work that DBA students should be reading but we quickly recognised that we had all been pointing our students to papers and books written by contributors to this book and we are delighted that we have been able to bring together all of this work, now written specifically for DBAs, into this text. This book is different from others because it is written for those working in the field of professional doctorates in Business and Management and by authors who all work in the field and value research that brings about change and makes a contribution to professional knowledge.

    Overview of the book

    We start with some general considerations about management research and education and set out the rigour/relevance debate that provides a motif for the rest of the book. The necessary rigour of research leading to a doctoral degree is emphasised by two chapters dealing with research philosophy and the nature of theorising in practice-based studies. We then embrace relevance through a strong emphasis on working with action modes both from a theoretical and practical point of view. This is followed by a focus on the personal development of the DBA student, an examination of what it means to be a scholar–practitioner and to work in and with organisations and the ethical considerations of doctoral and action-based research. The writing of the thesis and subsequently publishing doctoral research are also covered. Finally, there are two chapters aimed at academic colleagues that deal with understanding the differences between DBAs and PhDs and supervising DBAs.

    Chapter 1The DBA and the Move to Professional Doctorates in Business and Management (Richard Thorpe, Lisa Anderson, Jeff Gold and Jim Stewart) – sets the context for the DBA by examining the question of what constitutes knowledge especially in terms of the rigour versus relevance debate. Many of the themes, such as Mode 1 and Mode 2 knowledge creation that are picked up in subsequent chapters are explained here and a historical perspective shows how and why professional doctorates can offer a form of practice-based research that addresses a number of concerns both within the academy and more widely.

    Section A – Designing and Constructing DBA Research (Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5) – offers a set of ideas that fit with the non-traditional approaches set out in Chapter 1 and specifically addresses work carried out in organisational settings that has an action orientation.

    Chapter 2Crafting DBA Research (Ann L. Cunliffe, Richard Thorpe, Lisa Anderson, Jim Stewart and Jeff Gold) – discusses ontological and epistemological issues and particularly how research philosophy informs design. This chapter will help in the writing of research questions, linking them to an appropriate literature and informing methodological decisions. There are a number of examples of students’ work to illustrate how a clear research rationale is essential in the design process.

    Chapter 3Concepts and Theory Building (Mark Saunders, David Gray, Paul Tosey and Eugene Sadler-Smith) –extends the rigour/relevance theme and sets out the importance of theory development in DBA. Demonstrating the relevance of theory to practice is an essential component of all DBA and such research must address the needs of practitioners, ensuring that the theory they develop is both practical and useful. The chapter examines inductive, deductive and abductive approaches to theory-building and offers examples of DBA work in these traditions.

    Chapter 4Action Modes of Research (Joe Raelin) – shows how DBA studies address complex management problems in their original contexts and are often considered to be ‘work-based’. Studies will often involve taking action and bringing about organisational change and DBA students may choose to work in one of the eight action modes set out in this chapter, using what has been termed an epistemology of practice. These action modes may provide some of the unique characteristics of professional doctorates, distinguishing them from the more traditional doctorate.

    Chapter 5Enacting the Action Modes of Research (Mike Pedler and Jeff Gold) – shows how some of the approaches to research discussed in Chapter 4 can be enacted in DBA projects. Whilst more traditional approaches to research can be employed in a DBA, we suggest that action modes of research are more suited to professional doctorate work in business and management. This chapter aims to help students work with the action modes and to provide some examples of their use. The chapter examines six action modes of research and provides short case studies of their use: action research, action science, action learning, soft systems methodology, appreciative inquiry and cultural historical activity theory.

    Section B – Developing as a DBA Scholar and Researcher (Chapters 6, 7 and 8) – forms a section of the book that is designed to help students think about their development. The three chapters are based on different literatures and will ideally be read together.

    Chapter 6Becoming a Scholar–Practitioner (Lisa Anderson and Jeff Gold) –is designed to help student and supervisors to think about researcher development and to encourage students to be aware of their own impact on the research. This is especially important in the practice and action-based studies discussed so far. The chapter is premised on the notion of ‘I am part of the problem and the problem is part of me’ and helps students to understand how research practice and philosophy that underpins it can be shaped to ensure that researchers are engaged and an integral part of the research story.

    Chapter 7Researching and Working in and with Organisations(Paul Ellwood) – extends the focus on the DBA student as a developing scholar and researcher in discussing how progression in the research project is subject to negotiation with a view to developing an interdependence of purpose, responsibilities and methods. This idea holds out the hope that scientific knowledge and practical knowledge can be reconciled rather than having to be kept apart and treated differently and separately. The notion of design science, first set out in Chapter 2, is picked up here and the attitudes and skills that are required of the individual researcher, discussed in Chapter 6, are examined in the context of seeking to contribute to practice as well as to scientific knowledge. Six ‘stories from the field’ illustrate the experiences of recent DBA researchers.

    Chapter 8Ethics and Scholarly Practice (Simon Robinson) – examines the relationship between ethics and scholarly practice in DBAs. It considers the broad context of scholarship and ethics, and then the principles that apply to all research and the relationship of ethics to professional practice. It also examines three modes of the ethical concept of responsibility and the related virtues, and how this provides a bridge between theory, values and practice, and thus between the domains of intellectual scholarship and professional practice, drawing on examples of work by DBA students.

    Section C – Writing Up (Chapters 9 and 10) – offers practical advice to students and supervisors in suggesting how a dissertation (thesis) carried out in the action mode might be written and then subsequently form the basis for a publication.

    Chapter 9The Dissertation: Contributing to Practical Knowing (David Coghlan and Rosalie Holian) – explores the kinds of dissertation that might be written and how it might be structured. It also explores the contribution to the field of practice/professional knowledge in terms of four factors: context, quality of relationships, quality of the action research, and outcomes. These factors emerge from first-person learning in action, combined with the second-person collaborative processes of building and implementing change in a spirit of co-enquiry. Together, these processes of learning and change address the twin imperatives for third-person practice: action for the organisation, and knowledge generation for both the practitioner and the academic community.

    Chapter 10Publishing from your DBA(John Lawler) – looks at the practicalities of getting into print once the DBA thesis is completed. It focuses on the motivations, challenges and process of writing from a practical perspective and the reasons to publish. It considers the options for publishing, in terms of what aspects of the thesis or project you wish to share with a wider readership. Options for where to target ensuing papers and aspects of the processof writing are also examined. The chapter emphasises the importance of planning, revision, perseverance and motivation in working through the publication process.

    Section D – Supervision (Chapters 11 and 12) – is mainly aimed at Programme Directors and supervisors in DBA programmes. However, it should also provide a useful resource for students seeking to understand the nature of the DBA within the context of the wider field of doctoral degrees and particularly the PhD and the differences academics are likely to encounter. The chapter on supervision, whilst providing advice for faculty, is also useful in informing students what they might expect from their supervisor and how to make the relationship a fruitful one.

    Chapter 11The DBA and PhD Compared(Jim Stewart) – compares and contrasts PhDs and professional doctorates, acknowledging that there can be differences and so confusion in the use of terms. It identifies and discusses some of these but focuses primarily on the comparison of PhD and DBA and especially in terms of both as qualifications awarded by universities and as programmes of education and development. Many of the significant differences arise from the learning process individuals experience in gaining the qualification and these lead to advantages and disadvantages that might be argued to exist between one when compared with the other; these are discussed from a variety of perspectives, mainly those of awarding universities and recipients of the qualifications. The chapter closes with some conclusions on the pros and cons of each qualification and with some speculations on the future of professional doctorates.

    Chapter 12Supervising (John Taylor) –looks at some of the existing ideas on supervision and considers their relevance for supervision of students within DBA programmes. In order to shed further light on these issues, it draws upon the experiences of students and supervisors on DBA programmes in two UK universities and one US university. Finally, the chapter aims to offer some key guidelines for the supervision of DBA students.

    Conclusion

    In summary, we have sought to provide a resource of value to students, teachers, directors and researchers of the highest level qualification available in management. The value lies in chapters addressing the key debates on that qualification brought together in a single collection, and in the individual and collective fruits of the research, experience and thoughts of our contributors. We intend that the book will shape future debates on the purpose and nature of DBA and similar programmes, and debates on management practice as well as on management education. The test of that now lies in the hands of readers and so we conclude with a wish and hope that the chapters summarised above will provoke reactions, positive or negative, which inform future debate.

    References

    Bourner, T., Bowden, R. and Laing, S. (2001) ‘Professional doctorates in England’, Studies in Higher Education, (26)1: 65–83.

    Spender, J.-C. (2005) ‘Speaking about management education’, Management Decision, (43)10: 1282–92.

    Van de Ven, A. (2007) Engaged Scholarship: A Guide for Organizational and Social Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Acknowledgements

    This book came about as a result of our shared aspiration to add to the growing body of knowledge on DBAs. In particular, we wanted to continue to differentiate the DBA from other forms of doctoral degree and to represent it as a unique and robust qualification. We believe that DBA students, working alongside academics, have the potential to both transform the organisations in which they work and to strengthen the profession of management as a whole.

    We would like to thank all the DBA students we have worked with so far in our careers and especially for inspiring us with the questions they have posed about the nature of their research; we hope that we have addressed the thorniest issues here. Of course, we also hope that the book raises new questions and areas for debate. We particularly acknowledge the commitment required by DBAs to engage in part-time study, especially when carrying out a senior role in the workplace and whilst trying to fit in a family life too.

    Our chapter contributors have made the job of editing an exciting and easy one and we thank them for the way they have shaped the book by virtue of their insight and experience.

    We have enjoyed working with Kirsty Smy, Molly Farrell and their colleagues at SAGE in seeing this book through from the initial idea of producing a complete textbook for DBA students. The feedback from reviewers has been invaluable in ensuring that we have been aware of the needs and views of academic colleagues engaged in DBA work in various places across the world.

    As individuals, we would like to make a few personal mentions.

    Lisa Anderson would like to thank her co-editors for the benefit of their experience and expertise and the amiable and professional way that this book has come together. She would also like to thank her family for all the support they give her – John, Joe, Alice and Leah, and Josie too.

    Jeff Gold would like to thank his wife Susan for her love, patience and support, Graham, Angie, Daisy and Bess for the cakes, and Katy, Allan and especially grandson Matt for his ongoing critique.

    Richard Thorpe would like to thank Jane for her indulgence and forbearance over many years and hopes that the content of the book(s) have been of benefit to staff, students and practitioners, that makes the commitment to writing worthwhile.

    Jim Stewart Thanks as always to Pat for continued forbearance of writing projects.


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