A Guide to Practitioner Research in Education


Ian Menter, Dely Elliot, Moira Hulme, Jon Lewin & Kevin Lowden

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Education at SAGE

    SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.

    Our education publishing includes:

    • accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
    • inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom
    • authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education


    View Copyright Page

    About the Authors

    The team of authors are all within the School of Education at the University of Glasgow and have significant experience of working with practitioner researchers in education. Two of the team (Hulme and Menter) are based within the Pedagogy, Policy and Practice group in the School and the others (Elliot, Lewin and Lowden) are or were located within the SCRE Centre. The SCRE Centre was formed in 2001 following a merger between the Scottish Council for Research in Education and the University of Glasgow Faculty of Education. The SCRE team have a long and distinguished track record in supporting teacher researchers in Scotland. The authors worked together on a major national action research project funded by The Scottish Government over 3–4 years, entitled Research to Support Schools of Ambition. Their other relevant experiences are indicated in the individual thumbnail sketches below.

    Dely Lazarte Elliot

    Dely is one of the researchers at the SCRE Centre, School of Education, University of Glasgow. She is part of the MSc Psychological Studies team, lecturing in Educational Psychology and supervising postgraduate students at both Master's and PhD levels. Dely's first degree was from the University of Santo Tomas (Manila). She started her career in Thailand as a kindergarten and primary teacher, subsequently lecturing and doing an MSc at Assumption University (Bangkok) before pursuing a PhD at the University of Nottingham. Dely has been involved in a number of research projects at both national and international levels and has had considerable experience delivering research methods workshops to school and college practitioners and mentoring them as they undertake small-scale and/or action research (e.g. Focus on Learning, Schools of Ambition).

    Moira Hulme

    Moira is a lecturer in Educational Research at the University of Glasgow. She was Project Coordinator of Research to Support Schools of Ambition (2006–10). This post builds on previous experience as a lecturer and teacher educator supporting pre- and in-service teachers-as-researchers at universities in England and Scotland. She has authored a number of publications in the area of teacher education and development and currently leads a range of Practitioner Enquiry and Decision Making courses at the University of Glasgow, where she is co-Director of the Chartered Teacher programme.

    Jon Lewin

    Jon is the Information Officer in the Research Office at the College of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow. He has worked in the area of information provision and dissemination for about 15 years, and has a particular interest in the use of new and traditional technologies to increase participation in, and disseminate, research to a range of audiences. His work at SCRE includes the development and maintenance of databases, and the design of and support for a number of web-based initiatives to promote participation in SCRE research. He is also involved in design and editorial support of all SCRE's published output, including the SCRE website, research reports and briefing papers for practitioners. He has a particular interest in information design and its impact on the communicability of research findings. In addition, he provides a wide range of information services for the research staff of SCRE, and handles information enquiries from the public and the media relating to all aspects of educational research.

    Kevin Lowden

    Kevin is currently a Research Fellow at the SCRE Centre at the School of Education, University of Glasgow. Since joining SCRE in 1987, he has been involved with and led a wide range of national and international research and evaluation projects. While the focus of the research has varied over time to include: lifelong learning and skills; health education; promoting opportunities for disadvantaged groups and school transformation, a common aim has been to produce findings that inform policy and practice in education. Most recently he has worked with other colleagues in the School of Education to research and support major school transformation initiatives (e.g. the Scottish Government's Schools of Ambition programme and the Hunter Foundation's 2020 programme). These projects included supporting practitioners to develop their professional skills in research and evaluation and enhancing the capacity of their schools to self-evaluate. His chapters in this book reflect this wealth of research and mentoring experience.

    Ian Menter

    Ian is Professor of Teacher Education and formerly Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow. He worked as a primary school teacher in Bristol for nine years before entering higher education, holding posts at the University of Gloucestershire, the University of the West of England, London Metropolitan University (Head of the School of Education) and the University of the West of Scotland (Dean of the Faculty of Education and Media). He has been President of the Scottish Educational Research Association and an elected member of the Executive Council of the British Educational Research Association, is a Special Professor at the University of Nottingham and an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences.


    Teachers, lecturers and a range of other education practitioners are increasingly being encouraged to develop their professionalism through adopting an enquiring approach to their work. For example, newly qualified teachers in England are now getting the opportunity to study for a Master's in Teaching and Learning (MTL). Experienced teachers in Scotland can now follow a programme to become a Chartered Teacher and a similar scheme has been piloted in Wales. Students who are studying to become schoolteachers or lecturers are increasingly being given the opportunity to undertake small-scale research as part of their programmes of study.

    This book has been written in order to provide a straightforward introduction to practitioner research that may be of value both to experienced teachers and to students in training as they begin to engage with enquiry into their own practice. The approach taken in this book was based on a series of short texts that were produced by the former Scottish Council for Research in Education (SCRE). These texts each focused on one particular aspect of small-scale research, such as questionnaires, literature review or interviews. The purpose of the present book is to bring together in a single and accessible volume a wider range of up-to-date advice for practitioner researchers.

    The emphasis throughout has been on keeping the approach simple and manageable for practitioners who are new to research and are working or studying full-time. We have sought to be rigorous however and to ensure that we are encouraging high-quality research work. Where you may wish to go further with more ambitious techniques or concepts we have sought to provide guidance on where you may look.

    The book has been written by a large team and while we each took the lead in different sections or on different aspects of the book, we have all shared the fundamental commitment to providing clear and focused advice for our readers. We have been greatly assisted in this by our two colleagues, John Hall and Stuart Hall, who played a significant part in laying down the original plans for the book and whose ideas have fed into our writing.

    The writing team is based in the School of Education at the University of Glasgow and includes colleagues who have worked in the former SCRE – now the SCRE Centre – which had a long tradition of supporting teacher research across Scotland. In the recent past the team members have all collaborated on supporting teacher research, especially in a project entitled ‘Research to Support Schools of Ambition’. At the time of completing this book, this project has recently come to a close. We have drawn heavily on the experience of that work and would like to thank all of the headteachers, teachers, students and others who have contributed to it as well as those with whom we have worked on a range of other similar projects over many years.

    We also wish to thank Helen Fairlie, formerly of SAGE, our publishers, whose initial encouragement led to the development of this book. Finally, thanks to Marianne Lagrange and Monira Begum at SAGE for their patient and enthusiastic support as we have struggled (not always successfully!) to meet deadlines.

    IanMenter, DelyElliot, MoiraHulme, JonLewin and KevinLowden, University of Glasgow


    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (2000) Best Practice Research Scholarships: Guidance Notes for Teacher Applications. Nottingham: DfES Publications.

    Baumfield, V. (2009) ‘Practitioner inquiry: evaluating learning and teaching?’ Paper presented at the Professional Practice Lecture Series, 6th August, Glasgow.

    Figure 6.4: EndNote ® © 2010, Thomson Reuters.

  • References

    American Psychological Association (APA) (2006) The Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: APA.
    Anderson, G.L., Herr, K. and Nihlen, A.S. (1994) Studying Your Own School: An Educator's Guide to Qualitative Practitioner Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
    Arksey, H. and Knight, P. (1999) Interviewing for Social Scientists: An Introductory Resource with Examples. London: Sage.
    Armstrong, M. (1980) Closely Observed Children. London: Readers and Writers.
    Badley, G. (2009) ‘Academic writing as shaping and re-shaping’, Teaching in Higher Education, 14(2): 209–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13562510902757294
    Bailey, R., Campbell, T., Elliot, D., Pearce, G. and Quarmby, T. (2009) ‘Pupils’ perspectives of new playground designs: a pilot study', report to funder.
    Banks, M. (2001) Visual Methods in Social Research. London: Sage.
    Banks, M. (2007) Using Visual Data in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
    Basch, C.E. (1987) ‘Focus group interview: an underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education’, Health Education Quarterly, 14: 411–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818701400404
    Baumfield, V. (2009) ‘Practitioner inquiry – evaluating learning and teaching’, paper presented at the Professional Practice Lecture Series, University of Glasgow, 6 August.
    Baumfield, V.M. and Butterworth, A.M. (2005) Systematic Review of the Evidence for the Impact of Teaching Thinking Skills on Teachers. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.
    Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. and Tight, M. (2001) How to Research.
    2nd edn.
    Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Bryman, A. (2004) Social Research Methods.
    2nd edn.
    New York: Oxford University Press.
    Burkett, E. (2008) ‘“A new way of looking?” Reflections upon one teacher's experience of supporting learners using handheld computers’, Educational Action Research, 16(4): 481–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09650790802445668
    Campbell, A., McNamara, O. and Gilroy, P. (2004) Practitioner Research and Professional Development. London: Sage.
    Campbell, E. (2003) The Ethical Teacher. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Carnegie Corporation (1986) A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century. The Report of the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. Hyattsville, MD: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy.
    Carr, D. (1999) Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching. London: Routledge.
    Centre for Teaching Quality (2008) Measuring What Matters: The Effects of National Board Certification on Advancing 21st Century Teaching and Learning. Hillsborough, NC: Centre for Teaching Quality. Available online at: http://www.nbpts.org/resources/publications.
    Chiseri-Strater, E. and Sunstein, B.S. (2006) What Works? A Practical Guide for Teacher Research. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Cicourel, A.V. (1964) Method and Measurement in Sociology. New York: Free Press.
    Clancey, W.J. (2001) ‘Field science ethnography: methods for systematic observation on an expedition’, Field Methods, 13(3): 223–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1525822X0101300301
    Clark, A. and Moss, P. (2005) Spaces to Play: More Listening to Young Children Using the Mosaic Approach. London: National Children's Bureau.
    Cochran-Smith, M. and Lytle, S.L. (1993) Inside Out: Teacher Research and Knowledge. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Cochran-Smith, M. and Lytle, S.L. (2001) ‘Beyond certainty: taking an inquiry stance on practice’, in A.Lieberman and L.Miller (eds), Teachers Caught in the Action: Professional Development that Matters. New York: Teachers College Press. pp. 45–60.
    Cochran-Smith, M. and Lytle, S.L. (2009) Inquiry as Stance – Practitioner Research for the Next Generation. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000) Research Methods in Education.
    5th edn.
    London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203224342
    Connell, P., McKevitt, C. and Low, N. (2004) ‘Investigating ethnic differences in sexual health: focus groups with young people’, Sexually Transmitted Infections80: 300–5. Available online, doi: 10.1136/sti.2003.005181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.2003.005181
    Corti, L. (1993) ‘Using diaries in social research’, Social Research Update, no. 2. Available online at: http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU2.html.
    Craig, D.V. (2009) Action Research Essentials. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Croll, P. (1986) Systematic Classroom Observation. London: Falmer Press
    Cross, B., Hall, J., Hall, S., Hulme, M., Lewin, J. and McKinney, S. (2009) ‘Pupil participation in Scottish schools: final report’, report to funder.
    Darling Hammond, L. (2000) ‘Teacher quality and student achievement: a review of state policy evidence’, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1): 13.
    Darling-Hammond, L. and Bransford, J. (2005) Preparing Teachers for a Changing World. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley.
    Day, C. (1999) Developing Teachers – the Challenges of Lifelong Learning. London: Routledge/Falmer.
    Delamont, S. (2002) Fieldwork in Educational Settings. London: Routledge.
    Denscombe, M. (1998) The Good Research Guide for Small-scale Social Research Projects. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (2000) Best Practice Research Scholarships. Guidance Notes for Teacher Applications. 5 May. Nottingham: DfES Publications.
    Department of Education and Skills (DfES) (2004) Every Child Matters: Change for Children. London: Department for Education and Skills.
    Department of Health (DoH) (2007) Trust, Assurance and Safety. The Regulation of Health Professionals in the 21st Century. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Drever, E. (1995) Using Semi-Structured Interviews in Small-scale Research: A Teacher's Guide. Practitioner MiniPaper 15. Edinburgh: SCRE.
    Drever, E. (2003) Using Semi-Structured Interviews in Small-Scale Research: A Teacher's Guide.
    2nd edn.
    Glasgow: SCRE Centre.
    Egan, D. (2009) ‘Evaluation of the chartered teacher pilot in Wales. Full report’, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, Centre for Applied Education. Available online at: http://www.gtcw.org.uk/gtcw/images/stories/downloads/Chartered_Teacher_Eval_09/CT_Final_Report.pdf.
    Elbow, P. (1998) Writing Without Teachers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Elliot, D.L., Gillen, A., Giannasi, S., Meeke, M. and Rothwell, N. (2008) My Photos, My Story: An Account of College Learners' Voices. Fife: Adam Smith College.
    Elliot, J. (1991) Action Research for Educational Change. London: Open University Press.
    Elliott, H. (1997) ‘The use of diaries in sociological research on health experience’, Sociological Research Online, 2(2). Available online at: http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/2/7.html. http://dx.doi.org/10.5153/sro.38
    Festervand, T.A. (1984–85) ‘An introduction and application of focus group research to the health care industry’, Health Marketing Quarterly, 2(2–3): 199–209.
    Fink, A. (2009) Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper.
    3rd edn.
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Folch-Lyon, E. and Trost, J.F. (1981) ‘Conducting focus group sessions’, Studies in Family Planning, 12(12): 443–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1965656
    Franke, M.L., Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Ansell, E. and Behrend, J. (1998) ‘Understanding teachers’ self-sustaining generative change in the context of professional development', Teaching and Teaching Education, 14(1): 67–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X%2897%2900061-9
    Fullan, M. (2001) The New Meaning of Educational Change.
    3rd edn.
    London: Routledge/Falmer.
    Fulwiler, T. (2002) College Writing: A Personal Approach to Academic Writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Furlong, J. and Oancea, A. (2006) ‘Assessing quality in applied and practice-based research in education: a framework for discussion. Review of Australian research in education: counterpoints on the quality and impact of educational research’, Australian Educational Researcher, 6(special issue): 89–104. See also the ESRC short report online at: http://www.esrc.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/lmages/assessing_quality_shortreport_tcm6-8232.pdf.
    Furlong, J. and Salisbury, J. (2005) ‘Best practice research scholarships: an evaluation’, Research Papers in Education, 20(1): 45–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152052000341336
    General Teaching Council for England (GTCE) (2009) Code of Conduct and Practice for Registered Teachers. Available online at: http://www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/thecode/.
    General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland (GTCNI) (2007) Teaching: The Reflective Profession. Available online at: http://www.gtcni.org.uk/uploads/docs/GTCNI_Comp_Bmrk%20%20Aug%2007.pdf.
    General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) (2002) Standard for Chartered Teacher. Edinburgh: GTC Scotland. Available online at: http://www.gtcs.org.uk/Publications/StandardsandRegulations/The_Standard_for_Chartered_Teacher.aspx.
    General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) (2006a) Standard for Initial Teacher Education. Edinburgh: GTCS. Available online at: http://www.gtcs.org.uk/Publications/StandardsandRegulations/StandardsandRegulations.aspx.
    General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) (2006b) Standard for Full Registration. Edinburgh: GTCS. Available online at: http://www.gtcs.org.uk/Publications/StandardsandRegulations/StandardsandRegulations.aspx.
    Gillborn, D. (1995) Racism and Antiracism in Real Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Glaser, B.G. and Strauss, A.L. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    Graziano, K. (2007) ‘Photovoice’, paper presented at the National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (NISOD) Conference, Austin Convention Center, Texas, 21 May.
    Greenbaum, T.L. (1990) ‘Focus group spurt predicted for the '90s’, Marketing News, 24(1): 21–2.
    Griffiths, M. (1998) Educational Research for Social Justice. London: Open University Press.
    Hannan, A. (2006) ‘Observation techniques’, Faculty of Education, University of Plymouth. Available online at: http://www.edu.plymouth.ac.uk/resined/observation/obshome.htm.
    Hargreaves, A. and Fink, D. (2005) Sustainable Leadership. New York: Jossey-Bass.
    Harris, A., Day, C., Hopkins, D., Hadfield, M., Hargreaves, A. and Chapman, C. (2003) Effective Leadership for School Improvement. London: Routledge/Falmer.
    Hart, C. (1998) Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. London: Sage.
    Hatch, T., Ahmed, D., Lieberman, A., Faigenbaum, D., Eiler White, M. and Pointer Mace, D.H. (2005) Going Public with Our Teaching. An Anthology of Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Hattie, J. (2009) Visible Learning. A Synthesis of Over 80 Meta-analyses Relating to Achievement. London: Routledge.
    Heaton, J. (2004) Reworking Qualitative Data. London: Sage.
    Heron, G. and Murray, R. (2004) ‘The place of writing in social work’, Journal of Social Work, 4(2): 199–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468017304045410
    Hinds, M. (2002) ‘2002 Carnegie Challenge. Teaching as a clinical profession: A new challenge for education’. Available online at: http://www.carnegie.org/pdf/teachered.pdf.
    Holly, M.L. (2009) ‘Writing to learn: a process for the curious’, in S.Noffke and B.Somekh (eds), The Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research. London: Sage. pp. 267–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9780857021021
    Hopkins, D. (1985) A Teacher's Guide to Classroom Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Hopkins, D. (2007) Every School a Great School: Realising the Potential of System Leadership. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Hoppe, M.J., Wells, E.A., Morrison, D.M., Gilmore, M.R. and Wilsdon, A. (1995) ‘Using focus groups to discuss sensitive topics with children’, Evaluation Review, 19(1): 102–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9501900105
    Hurworth, R. (2003) ‘Photo-interviewing for research’, Social Research Update, no. 40, University of Surrey.
    Ingvarson, L. (2008) ‘Identifying and rewarding accomplished teachers: the Australian experience’, paper presented at the International Symposium, European Conference for Educational Research, University of Gothenburg, 10–12 September.
    Ivanic, R. (1998) Writing and Identity: The Discoursal Construction of Identity in Academic Writing. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/swll.5
    James, M., Black, P., Carmichael, P., Conner, C., Dudley, P., Fox, A., Frost, D., Honour, L., MacBeath, J., McCormick, R., Marshall, B., Pedder, D., Proctor, R., Swaffield, S. and Wiliam, D. (eds) (2006) Learning How to Learn (Tools for Schools). London: Routledge.
    Kiecolt, K.J. and Nathan, L.E. (1986) Secondary Analysis of Survey Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Kleinhenz, E. and Ingvarson, L. (2004) ‘Teacher accountability in Australia: current policies and practices and their relation to the improvement of teaching and learning’, Research Papers in Education, 19(1): 31–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152032000176963
    Kruger, R. and Casey, M. (2000) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research.
    3rd edn.
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Krueger, R.A. (1994) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research.
    2nd edn.
    Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Kvale, S. (1996) Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage.
    Lassonde, C.A. and Israel, S.E. (eds) (2008) Teachers Taking Action. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Lewis, I. and Munn, P. (1987) So You Want to Do Research!Glenrothes: Barr Printers.
    Lewis, V., Kellett, M., Robinson, C. and Fraser, S. (2004) The Reality of Research with Children and Young People. London: Sage.
    Lingard, B., Hayes, D., Mills, M. and Christie, P. (2003) Leading Learning: Making Hope Practical in Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Lowden, K. and Powney, J. (1994) Drugs, Alcohol and Sex Education: A Report on Two Innovative School-Based Programmes. Research Report No. 59. Edinburgh: SCRE.
    Lowden, K. and Powney, J. (1996) An Evolving Sexual Health Education Programme: From Health Workers to Teachers. Research Report No. 80. Edinburgh: SCRE.
    Lowden, K. and Powney, J. (2000) Drug Education in Scottish Schools. Research Report 95. Edinburgh: SCRE.
    MacBeath, J. (1999) Schools Must Speak for Themselves. London: Routledge.
    MacBeath, J., Gronn, P., Opfer, V.D., Lowden, K., Forde, C., Cowie, M. and O'Brien, J. (2009) The Recruitment and Retention of Headteachers in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
    MacLure, M. (1996) ‘Telling transitions: boundary work in narratives of becoming an action researcher’, British Educational Research Journal, 22(3): 273–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192960220302
    Mahony, P. (2009) ‘Should “ought” be taught?’, Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(7): 983–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.04.006
    Maimon, G. (2009) ‘Practitioner inquiry as mediated emotion’, in M.Cochran-Smith and S.L.Lytle (eds), Inquiry as Stance. Practitioner Research for the Next Generation. New York: Teachers College Press. pp. 213–28.
    Mariampolski, H. (1989) ‘Focus groups on sensitive topics: how to get subjects to open up and feel good about telling the truth’, Applied Marketing Research, 29(1): 6–11.
    Mason, J. (2002) Researching Your Own Practice. The Discipline of Noticing. London: Routledge.
    McDonald, W.J. and Topper, G.E. (1989) ‘Focus-group research with children: a structural approach’, Applied Marketing Research, 28(2): 3–11.
    McKinsey & Co. (2007) ‘How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top’. Available online at: http://www.mckinsey.com/App_Media/Reports/SSO/Worlds_School_Systems_Final.pdf.
    McLaughlin, C., Black-Hawkins, K. and McIntyre, D. (2004) Researching Teachers Researching Schools, Researching Networks: A Review of the Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge/NCSL.
    McLaughlin, C., Black-Hawkins, K., Brindley, S., McIntyre, D. and Taber, K.S. (2006) Researching Schools: Stories from a Schools–University Partnership for Educational Research. London: Routledge.
    McNally, J. (2006) ‘From informal learning to identity formation: a conceptual journey in early teacher development’, Scottish Educational Review, 37: 79–89.
    Menter, I., McMahon, M., Forde, C., Hall, J., McPhee, A., Patrick, F. and Devlin, A.M. (2006) Teacher Working Time Research. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Meyers, E. and Rust, F. (eds) (2003) Taking Action with Teacher Research. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Mitchell, C., O'Reilly-Scanlon, K. and Weber, S. (2005) Just Who Do We Think We Are? Methodologies for Autobiography and Self-Study in Teaching. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203464977
    Moloney, J. (2009) ‘Engaging in action research: a personal and professional journey towards an inquiry into teacher morale in a senior secondary college’, Educational Action Research, 17(2): 181–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09650790902914167
    Moore, G., Croxford, B., Adams, M., Refaee, M., Cox, T. and Sharples, S. (2008) ‘The photo-survey research method: capturing life in the city’, Visual Studies, 23(1): 50–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14725860801908536
    Munn, P. and Drever, E. (2004) Using Questionnaires in Small-Scale Research. Glasgow: SCRE Centre, University of Glasgow.
    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) (2002) What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do. Arlington, VA: NBPTS. Available online at: http://www.nbpts.org/UserFiles/File/what_teachers.pdf.
    Newkirk, T. (1992) ‘Silences in our teaching stories: what do we leave out and why?’, in T.Newkirk (ed.), Workshop Four: By and For teachers. The Teacher as Researcher. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. pp. 21–30.
    Oliver, P. (2008) The Student's Guide to Research Ethics.
    2nd edn.
    Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Palomba, C.A. and Banta, T.W. (1999) Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing and Improving Assessment in Higher Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Patrick, J. (1973) A Glasgow Gang Observed. London: Methuen.
    Patton, M.Q. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation Methods.
    2nd edn.
    Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide. Durham: Pear Tree Books.
    Pearson Casanave, C. and Vandrick, S. (eds) (2003) Writing for Scholarly Publication. Behind the Scenes in Language Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Pointer Mace, D.H. (2009) Teachers' Practice Online. Sharing Wisdom, Opening Doors. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Pollard, A. (1984) The Social World of the Primary School. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    Pollard, A. and Tann, S. (1993) Reflective Teaching in the Primary School. London: Cassell.
    Prosser, J. (ed.) (1998) Image-based Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Prosser, J. and Loxley, A. (2007) ‘Enhancing the contribution of visual methods to inclusive education’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 7(1): 55–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2007.00081.x
    Pryce, K. (1979) Endless Pressure. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Punch, (1998) Implementing and Improving Assessment in Higher Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Rabiee, F. (2004) Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 63: 655–60. Available online, doi:10.1079/PNS2004399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS2004399
    Reeves, J. and Fox, A. (eds) (2008) Practice-Based Learning. Developing Excellence in Teaching. Edinburgh: Dunedin.
    Reeves, J., McMahon, M., Hulme, M., McKie, F., McQueen, I., McSeveney, A. and Redford, M. (2010) ‘Investigating the impact of accomplished teaching on pupils' learning’, report submitted to the General Teaching Council for Scotland and Scottish Government.
    Research to Support Schools of Ambition Annual Report (2008) Report submitted to the Scottish Government, 17 October. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/10/17105044/19.
    Richards, J.C. and Miller, S.K. (2005) Doing Academic Writing in Education. Connecting the Personal and the Professional. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Rickinson, M., Clark, A., McLeod, S., Poulton, P. and Sargent, J. (2004) ‘What on earth has research got to do with me?’, Teacher Development, 8(2): 201–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/136645304002000020232
    Ritchie, J. and Spencer, L. (1994) ‘Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research’, in A.Bryman and R.G.Burgess (eds), Analysing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge. pp. 173–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203413081_chapter_9
    Ritter, R. (2003) The Oxford Style Manual. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ritter, R. (2005) New Hart's Rules. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Robbins, S., Seaman, G., Blake Yancey, K. and Yow, D. (eds) (2006) Teachers' Writing Groups: Collaborative Inquiry and Reflection for Professional Growth. Kennesaw, GA: Kennesaw State University Press.
    Robert-Holmes, G. (2005) Doing Your Early Years Research Project: A Step-By-Step Guide. London: Sage.
    Sachs, J. (2003) The Activist Teaching Profession. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Salkind, N. (2008) Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    Saunders, L. (2007) Supporting Teachers' Engagement in and with Research. London: TLRP. Available online at: http://www.bera.ac.uk/supporting-teachers-engagement-in-and-with-research/.
    Scottish Education Research Association (SERA) (2005) ‘Ethical guidelines for educational research’. Available online at: http://www.sera.ac.uk/docs/00current/sera%20ethical%20guidelinesweb.pdf.
    Scottish Government (2009) Schools of Ambition Leading Change. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/04/30095118/0.
    Scottish Government (2010) Leading Change Two. Learning from Schools of Ambition. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/311542/0098307.pdf.
    Seidel, J. (1998) Qualitative Data Analysis. The Ethnograph v5 Manual. Appendix E. Available online at: http://www.qualisresearch.com/.
    Shulman, L. (1993) ‘Teaching as community property’, Change (November/December): 6–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091383.1993.9938465
    Shulman, L. (2005) ‘Foreword’, in T.Hatch, Into the Classroom: Developing the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Sikes, P. and Potts, A. (eds) (2008) Researching Education from the Inside: Investigations from Within. London: Routledge.
    Simpson, M. and Tuson, J. (1995) ‘Using observations in small-scale research’, Scottish Council for Research in Education, University of Glasgow.
    Smiles, T.L. and Short, K.G. (2006) ‘Transforming teacher voice through writing for publication’, Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(3): 133–47.
    Smith, C.W., Blake, A., Curwen, K., Dodds, D., Easton, L., McNally, J., Swierczek, P. and Walker, L. (2009) ‘Teachers as researchers in a major research project: experience of input and output’, Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(7): 959–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.06.004
    Smith, E. (2008) Using Secondary Data in Educational and Social Research. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Sproston, C. (2008) ‘When students negotiate: an action research case study of a Year 8 English class in a secondary college in Victoria, Australia’, Educational Action Research, 16(2): 187–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09650790802011718
    Stenhouse, L. (1975) An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development. Oxford: Heinemann.
    Stenhouse, L. (1985) Research as a Basis for Teaching: Readings from the Work of Lawrence Stenhouse. J.Rudduck and D.Hopkins (eds). London: Heinemann.
    Stewart, D.W. and Shamdasani, P.N. (1990) Focus Groups: Theory and Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Stronach, I., Corbin, B., McNamara, O., Stark, S. and Warne, T. (2002) ‘Towards an uncertain politics of professionalism: teacher and nurse identities in flux’, Journal of Education Policy, 17(1): 109–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930110100081
    Teacher Solutions National Board Certification Team (2008) Measuring What Matters: The Effects of National Board Certification on Advancing 21st Century Teaching and Learning. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Teaching Quality.
    Thomson, P. (ed.) (2008) Doing Visual Research with Children and Young People. London: Routledge.
    Thomson, P. and Kamler, B. (2010) ‘It's been said before and we'll say it again – research is writing’, in P.Thomson and M.Walker (eds), The Routledge Doctoral Student's Companion. London: Routledge.
    Tinkler, P. (2008) ‘A fragmented picture: reflections on the photographic practices of young people’, Visual Studies, 23(3): 255–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14725860802489916
    Training and Development Agency (TDA) (2007) Professional Standards for Teachers. London: TDA.
    Trochim, M.K. (2006) Research Methods Knowledge Base.
    3rd edn.
    Available online at: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/.
    Troyna, B. and Griffiths, M. (1995) Anti-racism, Culture and Social Justice, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    University of Glasgow (2009) Research to Support Schools of Ambition Annual Report 2009. Report submitted to the Scottish Government. 5 November. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/11/05160217/18.
    Wallace, M. (2008) ‘Towards effective management of a reformed teaching profession’, in D.Johnson and R.Maclean (eds), Teaching: Professionalization, Development and Leadership. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 181–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8186-6_11
    Wengraf, T. (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic Narrative and Semi-structured Methods. London: Sage.
    Winter, R., Buck, A. and Sobiechowska, P. (1999) Professional Experience and Investigative Imagination. The Art of Reflective Writing. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203259719
    Woods, P. (1986) Inside Schools. Ethnography in Schools. London: Routledge.
    Worden, J.K., Flynn, B.S., Geller, F.M., Chen, M., Shelton, L.G., Seeker-Walker, R.H., Solomon, D.S., Solomon, L.J., Couchey, S. and Costanza, M.C. (1988) ‘Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research’, Preventive Medicine, 17: 531–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2888%2990051-5
    Yin, R. (2003) Case Study Research: Design and Methods.
    3rd edn.
    London and New York: Sage.
    Zeni, J. (ed.) (2001) Ethical Issues in Practitioner Research. New York: Teachers College Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website