14–19 Education: Policy, Leadership and Learning

Books

Jacky Lumby & Nick Foskett

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • About the Authors

    Jacky Lumby is Professor of Educational Leadership at the International Institute for Educational Leadership at the University of Lincoln. She has taught in a range of educational settings, including secondary schools, community and further education. She has published widely on leadership and management in schools and colleges in the UK and internationally.

    Nick Foskett is Professor of Education at the University of Southampton. He has taught in schools and post-16 colleges, and has taught and provided consultancy on many aspects of teaching, learning and management in the 14–19 sector. His research interests are in policy, leadership and management, particularly in relation to young people's progression and choices 14–19, and he has published extensively in this field. Recent books include Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions (with Jacky Lumby) for Sage.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Figures and Tables

    Figures

    • 8.1 A generic model of young people's choice 107
    • 9.1 Percentage of pupils aged 15 achieving five or more GCSEs at grades A* to C, England, 1992/93 to 2002/03 132
    • 11.1 Change in use of time in further education and sixth form colleges since 1993 155

    Tables

    • 6.1 The assumptions of andragogy 79
    • 6.2 Minion's matrix of control 79
    • 6.3 European Commission communication on lifelong learning: formal, non-formal and informal learning 80
    • 9.1 Hours given per term to group tutorials in sixth form and general further education colleges and schools 130
    • 9.2 Hours given per term to individual tutorials in sixth form and general further education colleges and schools 130

    Preface

    The shifting focus of public and political attention in education is a mysterious ebb and flow of fashion. What was a central concern one year, or one decade, fades into relative obscurity as another concern, another perspective, moves into the foreground. 14–19 education is one such concern that appears suddenly to have moved centre stage, the subject of intense scrutiny and reforming activity. As with many apparently ‘sudden’ manifestations, the preparations have been a long time in the making. Concerns over, for example, the numbers leaving schooling with few or no qualifications, youth unemployment, the unsuitability of the qualifications gained to equip young people for twenty-first century life and work, have all surfaced in many and varied forms for decades. The recent appearance of 14–19 education as a target for policy development is the result of such concerns increasing in intensity. A rising wave of anxiety that education and training do not do right by our young people, and that the implications are (and will be) widely felt in our society has finally crashed onto the policy shore. Catastrophe theory suggests that pressures for change build over time until suddenly the critical moment is reached, the wave breaks, and what seemed inevitable and unchangeable becomes malleable and changing. The Berlin Wall falls. We believe that 14–19 education is at such a point and that there is the potential for significant change in a way which has not previously been the case; the time is right for fundamental reconsideration of what 14–19 education is for. Even more importantly, it is time to consider who it is for. Even a cursory glance will reveal that the needs and voice of 14–19-year-olds themselves as individuals have not figured largely in the policy debate to date.

    Why should this be of interest to those who work to improve practice and reshape policy? We argue in this book that getting it right for 14–19-year-olds has implications for all of us, that the hopes of making our society more inclusive, more just and more efficient hinge on this phase of education. It is at 14–19 that corrosive divisions are finalized, between the ‘successful’ and the ‘unsuccessful’, the high status and the low status. This is hardly surprising given that policy and practice have been based for decades on division, by age, by ability, by background, by types of organization, by government department.

    With the White Paper Learning to Compete (DfES, 1997a) came a recognition that the elements in place maybe did not add up to a satisfactory whole, that young people do not see their learning as slices of different cakes but as a continuity through their lives, and that the legislation which allows them to opt out at 16 is less relevant to many than the choices they must make for how to continue to learn or to train. Sixteen is no longer the critical point in time it may once have been. The concerns of decades have then been more sharply focused and reformulated as ‘14–19 education’. The implication in labelling the last two years of compulsory schooling and the first two years of post-compulsory education and training in this way signals an emphasis on achieving greater coherence in what young people and their families experience.

    We argue also that young people of 14–19 are not the same in their beliefs and preferences as previous generations, and that the expectations of education and training are changing. The book maps out what is different and uniquely challenging about 14–19 education at this moment in time, the history of attempts at reform, the current experience of education and training of this age group and, finally, some of the directions and possibilities for the future. Parts of the volume will, we hope, be a valuable reference for those looking to understand how we have got to where we are. We also hope that parts will provoke, will stimulate and will demand reconsideration of the meaning and effects of current policy and practice, and will provide some ideas of how things might be different.

    This book is in part powered by a commitment formed by working with young people and staff in different ways, as teachers ourselves and, latterly, as researchers. Our thanks go to the many staff and young people who have talked to us in schools and colleges for a number of years, for their frankness, their generosity and from whom we learned a great deal. We also owe a debt to our own teenage children, who brought home on a daily basis some of the realities of 14–19-year-old life and how important it is to their future as well as our own to nurture all our young people.

    JackyLumby and NickFoskett

    University of Lincoln and University of Southampton

    July 2004

    Acknowledgements

    The following are reproduced with permission:

    • Figure 9.1 Accessed on line 1 July 2004, DfES (2004a) © Crown copyright.
    • Table 6.1 Armitage, A., Bryant, B., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. (1999) Teacher and Training in Post-Compulsory Education © McGraw-Hill Education.
    • Table 6.2 Armitage, A., Bryant, B., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. (1999) Teacher and Training in Post-Compulsory Education © McGraw-Hill Education.
    • Table 6.3 From Colley, R., Hodkinson, P. and Malcolm, J. (2003): Informality and formality in learning: a report for the Learning and Skills Research Centre, Figure 7 p. 25. © LSRC. To read this report visit http://www.LSRC.ac.uk

    Abbreviations

    A levelAdvanced level
    ASAdvanced Subsidiary
    AVCEAdvanced Vocational Certificate of Education
    BTECBusiness and Technology Education Council
    C&GCity and Guilds
    CBIConfederation of British Industry
    CEECertificate of Extended Education
    CEGcareers education and guidance
    CEOchief education officer
    COVECentre of Vocational Excellence
    CPVECertificate of Pre-vocational Education
    CSECertificate of Secondary Education
    CTCcity technology college
    DEDepartment of Employment
    DESDepartment of Education and Science
    DfEEDepartment for Education and Employment
    DfESDepartment for Education and Skills
    DTIDepartment of Trade and Industry
    EPPI CentreEvidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordination Centre
    FEfurther education
    FEFCFurther Education Funding Council
    FEUFurther Education Unit
    GCEGeneral Certificate in Education
    GCSEGeneral Certificate of Secondary Education
    GFECgeneral further education college
    GMgrant maintained
    GNVQGeneral National Vocational Qualification
    HEhigher education
    IAGinformation advice and guidance
    ICTinformation and communications technology
    IPPRInstitute for Public Policy Research
    ITinformation technology
    LEAlocal education authority
    LLSCLocal Learning and Skills Council
    LMSLocal Management of Schools
    LSCLearning and Skills Council
    LSSLearning and Skills Sector
    MAModern Apprenticeship
    MSCManpower Services Commission
    MLDmoderate learning difficulties
    NCNational Curriculum
    NCCNational Curriculum Council
    NCSLNational College for School Leadership
    NCVQNational Council for Vocational Qualifications
    NEETnot in education, employment or training
    NTOnational training organization
    NVQNational Vocational Qualification
    NVQFNational Vocational Qualification Framework
    O levelOrdinary level
    OECDOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development
    OFSTEDOffice for Standards in Education
    OPCorganizational partnership and collaboration
    ORFoutput-related funding
    PFIPrivate Funding Initiative
    PICPrivate Industry Council
    PPPPublic Private Partnership
    QCAQualifications and Curriculum Authority
    RDARegional Development Agency
    ROARecord of Achievement
    RSARoyal Society of Arts
    SATStandard Attainment Test
    SCAASchool Curriculum and Assessment Authority
    SENspecial educational needs
    sessocio-economic status
    SLDDspecific learning difficulties and disabilities
    TECTraining and Enterprise Council
    TTATeacher Training Agency
    TVEITechnical and Vocational Education Initiative
    YCSYouth Cohort Study
    YOPYouth Opportunities Programme
    YTSYouth Training Scheme
  • References

    Ahier, J. and Ross, A. (1995) The Social Subjects within the Curriculum, London, Falmer Press.
    Ainley, P. (1990) Vocational Education and Training, London, Cassell.
    Apple, M. (2004) ‘Cultural politics and the text’, in Ball. S. (ed.) Sociology of Education, London, RoutledgeFalmer.
    Armitage, A., Bryant, B., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. (1999) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education, Buckingham, Open University Press.
    Ashworth, L. (1995) Children's Voices in School Matters, London, ACE Ltd.
    Assessment and Learning Research Synthesis Group (2002) ‘A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and test on students' motivation for learning’, London, EPPI-Centre, accessed online January2004,http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/EPPIWebContent/reel/review_groups/assessment/ass_rvl/ass_rvl.pdf
    Audit Commission/OFSTED (1993) Unfinished Business: Full-time Educational Courses for 16–19 year olds. A Study by the Audit Commission and HMI, London, HMSO.
    Baldwin, J. (2003) ‘The management styles of further education managers during rapid and extensive change – a case study’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
    Ball, S. (1999) ‘Industrial training or new vocationalism? Structures and discourses’, in Flude, M. and Sieminski, S. (eds) Education, Training and the Future of Work II. Developments in Vocational Education and Training, London, Routledge in association with the Open University.
    Ball, S. (2003) Class Strategies and the Education Market, London, RoutledgeFalmer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203218952
    Ball, S.J., Maguire, M. and MacRae, S. (2001) Choice Pathways and Transitions: 16–19 Education, Training and (Unemployment in One Urban Locale, Swindon, ESRC.
    Bates, I. (1998) ‘The empowerment dimension in GNVQs’, Evaluation and Research in Education, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500799808666928
    Bates, I. (2002) Problematizing Empowerment in Education and Work: An Exploration of GNVQ, Leeds, School of Education.
    Becker, G.S. (1975) Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education, New York, Columbia University Press.
    Belfield, C., Bullock, A., Rikowski, G. and Thomas, H. (nd) Funding for the Future: Strategic Research in Further Education, Birmingham, University of Birmingham.
    Bennett, N., Harvey, J. and Anderson, L. (2004) ‘Control, autonomy and partnership in local education’, Educational Management Administration and Leadership, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 217–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143204041885
    Bentley, T. (1998) Learning Beyond the Classroom: Education for a Changing World, London, Routledge.
    Bernstein, B. (1977) Class Codes and Control, London, Routledge.
    Black, P. (1993) ‘Formative and summative assessment by teachers’, Studies in Science Education, vol. 21, pp. 49–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057269308560014
    Black, P. and William, D. (1998) ‘Assessment and classroom learning’, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 7–75, accessed online 19 December 2003,http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=725610&db=afhhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050102
    Blatchford, P. (1996) ‘Pupils' views on school work and school from 7–16 years’, Research Papers in Education, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 263–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152960110305
    Bloomer, M. (1998) ‘“They tell you what to do and then they let you get on with it”: the illusion of progressivism in GNVQ’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 167–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363908980110204
    Bolton, T. and Hyland, T. (2003) ‘Implementing key skills in further education: perceptions and issues’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol 27, no. 1, pp. 15–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03098770305630
    Bond, C. (1993) ‘Flexible learning – a conceptual framework’, Training Officer, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 166–8.
    Bottery, M. (2002) ‘The management and mismanagement of trust’, paper presented at the British Educational Leadership and Management Association Annual Conference, Birmingham, 20–22 September 2002.
    Bourdieu, P. (1993) ‘Postscript’, in Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L. (1992) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, Oxford, Polity Press.
    Bowring-Carr, C. and West-Burnham, J. (1997) Effective Learning in Schools, London, Pitman.
    Boyd, B. (1997) ‘The statutory years of secondary education: change and progress’, in Clark, M. and Munn, P. (eds) Education in Scotland: A Policy and Practice from Preschool to Secondary, London, Routledge.
    Briggs, A.R.J. (1999) ‘Open doors? Modelling accessibility of learning resource facilities’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol. 23, no. 3 pp. 317–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0309877990230302
    Broadfoot, P. (1998) ‘Records of achievement and the learning society: a tale of two discourses’, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, vol. 5, no. 3 pp. 447–78, accessed online 19 December 2003, http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1341652&db=afhhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050307
    Bryson, V. (1999) Feminist Debates: Issues of Theory and Practice, Basingstoke, Palgrave.
    Burke, J. (1995) ‘Theoretical issues in relation to Jessup's Outcomes Model’, in Burke, J. (ed.) Outcomes, Learning and the Curriculum, London, Falmer.
    Bush, T. and Glover, D. (2003) School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence, Nottingham, NCSL.
    Butterfield, S. (1998) ‘Conditions for choice? The context for implementation of curricular pathways in the curriculum, 14–19, in England and Wales’, Cambridge Journal of Education, vol. 28, no. 1 pp. 9–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764980280102
    Callaghan, J. (1976) ‘The Ruskin College Speech, 18th October 1976’, in Ahier, J., Cosin, B. and Hales, M. (eds) Diversity and Change: Education Policy and Selection, London, Routledge.
    Cameron, J. and Pierce, D.P. (1994) ‘Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: a meta-analysis’, Review of Educational Research, vol. 64, pp. 363–423.
    Cantor, L., Roberts, I. and Pratley, B. (1995) A Guide to Further Education in England and Wales, London, Cassell.
    Chapman, D. and Adams, D. (1998) ‘The management and administration of education across Asia: changing challenges’, International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 29, pp. 603–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2898%2900052-4
    Chitty, C. (1996) ‘The changing role of the state in education provision’, in Ahier, J., Cosin, B. and Hales, M. (eds) Diversity and Change: Education Policy and Selection, London, Routledge.
    Cockett, M. (1996) ‘Vocationalism and vocational courses 14–16’, in Halsall, R. and Cockett, M. (eds) Education and Training 14–19: Chaos or Coherence?, London, David Fulton.
    Cockett, M. and Callaghan, J. (1996) ‘Caught in the middle – transition at 16+’, in Halsall, R. and Cockett, M. (eds) Education and Training 14–19: Chaos or Coherence?, London, David Fulton.
    Coffey, D. (1992) Schools and Work: Developments in Vocational Education, London, Cassell.
    Colley, H., Hodkinson, P. and Malcolm, J. (2003) Informality and Formality in Learning: A Report for the Learning and Skills Research Centre, London, LSRC.
    Confederation of British Industry (CBI) (1989) Towards a Skills Revolution: A Youth Charter, London, CBI.
    Confederation of British Industry (CBI) (2002a) The CBI Response to the Government's Green Paper ‘14–19: Extending Opportunities, Raising Standards’, London, CBI.
    Confederation of British Industry (CBI) (2002b) Employment Trends Survey, London, CBI.
    Costley, D. (1996) ‘Making pupils fit the framework: research into the implementation of the National Curriculum in schools for pupils with moderate learning difficulties, focusing on Key Stage 4’, School Organisation, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 341–54.
    Crooks, T. (1998) ‘The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students’, Review of Educational Research, vol, 58, pp. 438–81.
    Crowther, G. (1960) 15–18: A Report, Central Advisory Council for Education (England).
    Cuban, L. (1993) ‘Computers meet classroom: classroom wins’, Teachers College Record, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 1–20, accessed online 3 May 2004, http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp
    Dass, P. and Parker, B. (1999) ‘Strategies for managing human resource diversity: from resistance to learning’, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 68–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1999.1899550
    Davenport, J. (1993) ‘Is there any way out of the androgogy morass?’, in Thorpe, M. and Edwards, R. (eds) Culture and Processes of Adult Learning, London, Routledge.
    Davies, P. (1993) Towards Parity of Esteem? Marketing GNVQs, Blagdon, The Staff College.
    De Pear, S. (1997) ‘Excluded pupils’ views of their educational needs and experience’, Support for Learning, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 19–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9604.00005
    Dearing, R. (1996) Review of Qualifications for 16–19 Year Olds, London, HMSO.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (nd) Private Finance Division: PFI/PPP project listings, London, DfEE.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1997a) Learning to Compete, London, HMSO.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1997b) Qualifying for Success, London, HMSO.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1997c) Excellence in Schools, London, HMSO.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1998) The Learning Age: A Renaissance for a New Britain, London: HMSO.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1999) Leaning to Succeed, Learning and Skills Council Prospectus, London, DfEE.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2002) 14–19: Extending Opportunities and Raising Standards: Summary Document, London, The Stationery Office.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003a) Pupil Absence in Schools in England, 2001/02 (Provisional Statistics), Statistical First Release, London, DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003b) Permanent Exclusions from Schools and Exclusion Appeals in England 2001/2002 (provisional), London, DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003c) GCE/VCE A/AS Examination Results for Young People in England 2002/2003, London, DfES accessed online 30 November 2003, http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000475/index.shtml
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003d) School Workforce Remodelling, London, DfES, accessed online 23 October 2003, http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/remodelling/
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003e) 21st Century Skills: Realising our Potential, London, The Stationery Office.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003f) The Core Principles: Teaching and Learning; School Improvement; System Wide Reform, London: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003g) National Statistics First Release. Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16–18 Year Olds in England 2001 and 2002, SFR 31/2003, London, HMSO.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003h) 14–19: Opportunity and Excellence (Summary), London, The Stationery Office.
    Department for Education and Skills DfES (2004a) ‘The standards site: specialist schools’, London, DfES, Accessed online 1 July 2004, http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/specialistschools/news/?version=l
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004b) ‘14–19 Green Paper consultation workshops review’, accessed online 8 January 2004, http://www.des.gov.uk/consultations/sor/sordocs/SOR_208_2.pdf
    Department of Education and Science (DES) (1984) Training for Jobs, London, HMSO.
    Department of Education and Science (DES) (1988) Advancing A-levels (Higginson Report)London, HMSO.
    Department of Education and Science/Department of Employment (DES/DE) (1991) Education and Training for the 21st Century, London, HMSO.
    Dweck, C. (1986) ‘Motivational processes affecting learning’, American Psychologist, (special issue: Psychological science and education, vol. 41, pp. 1040–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040
    Earley, P., Evans, J., Collarbone, P., Gold, A. and Halpin, D. (2002) Establishing the Current State of School Leadership in England, Research Brief RB336, London, DfES.
    East Midlands Learning and Skills Research Network (2002) ‘My Mates Are Dead Jealous Cause They Don't Get To Come Here!’: An Analysis of the Provision of Alternative, Non School-based Learning Activities for 14 to 16 Year-olds in the East Midlands, Nottingham, LSDA.
    Ecclestone, K. (2000) ‘Bewitched bothered and bewildered: a policy analysis of the GNVQ assessment regime 1992–2000’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 539–58, accessed online 19 December 2003, http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3847203&db=afhhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026809300750001685
    Ecclestone, K. and Pryor, J. (2003) ‘“Learning careers” or “assessment careers”? The impact of assessment systems on learning’, British Educational Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 471–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920301849
    Edem, A., Spencer, P. and Fyfield, B. (2003) Organisation of Provision of Post-16 Education and Training, London, DfES and Learning and Skills Development Agency.
    Edwards, T. and Whitty, G. (1997) ‘Specialisation and selection in secondary education’, Oxford Review of Education, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 5–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498970230102
    Elbaz, F. (1993) “Responsive teaching: a response from a teacher's perspective’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, vol. 215, no. 2, pp. 189–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022027930250208
    Elias, J.L. (1979) ‘Critique: androgogy revisited’, Adult Education, vol. 29, pp. 252–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074171367902900404
    Elliott, G. and Hall, V. (1994) ‘FE Inc. – business orientation in further education and the introduction of human resource management’, School Organisation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260136940140101
    Engestrom, Y. (1991) ‘“Non Scholae sed Vitae Distimus”: towards overcoming the encapsulation of school learning’, Learning and Instruction, vol. 1, no. 3. pp. 243–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-4752%2891%2990006-T
    Farley, M. (1985) ‘Trends and structural changes in English vocational education’, in Dale, R. (ed.) Education, Training and Employment – Towards a New Vocationalism?, Oxford, Pergamon Press.
    Farnham, D. (1993) Managing the New Public Services, London, Macmillan.
    Felstead, A. and Unwin, L. (2001) ‘Funding post compulsory education and training: a retrospective analysis of the TEC and FEFC systems and their impact on skills’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 91–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080020028729
    Ferguson, R. and Unwin, L. (1996) ‘Making better sense of post-16 destinations: a case study of an English shire county’, Research Papers in Education, vol 11, no. 1 pp. 53–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152960110105
    Finegold, D. and Soskice, D. (1988) ‘The failure of training in Britain’, in Esland, G. (ed.) Education, Training and Employment, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Foskett, N.H. (1999) ‘Strategy, external relations and marketing’, in Lumby, J. and Foskett, N.H. (eds) Managing External Relations in Schools and Colleges, London, PCP/Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219508
    Foskett, N.H. and Hemsley-Brown, J.V. (1999) Teachers and Careers Education – Teachers' Awareness of Careers Outside Teaching, Southampton, CREM.
    Foskett, N.H. and Hemsley-Brown, J.V. (2001) Choosing Futures: Young People's Decision-making in Education, Training and Careers Markets, London, Routledge-Falmer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203467534
    Foskett, N.H. and Hesketh, A.J. (1997) ‘Constructing choice in contiguous and parallel markets: institutional and school leavers’ responses to the new post-16 marketplace’, Oxford Review of Education, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 299–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498970230303
    Foskett, N. and Lumby, J. (2003) Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Foskett, N.H., Dyke, M. and Maringe, F. (2004) The Influence of the School in the Decision to Participate in Learning Post-16, London, DfES.
    Foskett, N., Lumby, J. and Maringe, F. (2003) ‘Pathways and progression at 16+ – ‘fashion’, peer influence and college choice’, paper presented to the Annual Conference of the British Educational Research Association, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 11 September.
    Fouts, J.T. and Chan, J. (1997) ‘The development of work-study and school enterprises in China's schools’, Curriculum Studies, vol. 29, pp. 34–46.
    Fullan, M. (2003) Change Forces with a Vengeance, London, RoutledgeFalmer.
    Furman, G. and Shields, C. (2003) ‘How can educational leaders promote and support social justice and democratic community in schools?’, paper presented at the American Educational Research Association 2003 Annual Meeting, Chicago, 21–25 April.
    Further Education Development Agency (FEDA) (1995) Mapping the FE Sector, London, DfEE.
    Further Education Unit (FEU) (1979) A Basis for Choice, Blagdon, FEU.
    Gambetta, D. (1996) Were They Pushed or Did They Jump? Individual Decision Mechanisms in Education, Boulder, CO, Westview Press.
    Gewirtz, S., Ball, S.J. and Bowe, R. (1995) Markets, Choice and Equity in Education, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Glatter, R. (1996) ‘Managing dilemmas in education: the tightrope walk of strategic choice in autonomous institutions’, in Jacobson, S.L., Hickox, E.S. and Stevenson, R.B. (eds) School Administration: persistent dilemmas in preparational practice, Westport, CT, Praeger.
    Glatter, R. (2003) ‘Collaboration, collaboration, collaboration – the origins and implications of a policy’, Management in Education, vol 17, no. 5, pp. 16–20.
    Glatter, R., Woods, P. and Bagley, C. (1997) ‘Diversity, differentiation and hierarchy: school choice and parental preference’, in Glatter, R., Woods, P. and Bagleyz, C. (eds) Choice and Diversity in Schooling: Perspectives and Prospects, London, Routledge.
    Gleeson, D. (1990) ‘Skills training and its alternatives’, in Gleeson, D. (ed.) Training and its Alternatives, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Gleeson, D. (1996) ‘Continuity and change in post-compulsory education and training reform’, in Halsall, R. and Cockett, M. (eds) Education and Training 14–19: Chaos or Coherence?, London, David Fulton.
    Gleeson, D. (2001) ‘Style and substance in education leadership: further education as a case in point’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 16, no. 3, 181–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930110041015
    Gleeson, D. and Shain, F. (1999) ‘Managing ambiguity: between markets and managerialism – a case study of “middle” managers in further education’, Sociological Review, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 461–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00181
    GMB (2003) Education's Hidden Professionals: GMB National Survey of Teaching Assistants and Nursery Nurses, London, GMB.
    Godfrey, C., Hutton, S., Bradshaw, J., Coles, B., Craig, G. and Johnson, J. (2002) Estimating the Cost of Being ‘Not in Education, Employment or Training’ at Age 16–18, London, DfES.
    Goldstein, H. (2001) ‘Using pupil performance data for judging schools and teachers: scope and limitations’, British Educational Research Journal, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 433–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920120071443
    Gorard, S. and Taylor, C. (2001) ‘The composition of specialist schools in England: track record and future performance’, School Leadership and Management, vol. 21, no. 4. pp. 365–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430120108916
    Gorard, S., Fitz, J. and Taylor, C. (2003) Schools, Markets and Choice Policies, London, RoutledgeFalmer.
    Goulding, J., Dominey, J. and Gray, M. (1998) Hard Nosed Decisions: Planning Human Resources in FE, London, FEDA.
    Griffiths, M. (2000) ‘Collaboration and partnership in question: knowledge, politics and practice’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 383–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026809300413400
    Gronn, P. (2000) ‘Distributed properties: a new architecture for leadership’, paper presented at BEMAS Research 2000, ‘Leading educational management in learning societies: research, policy and practice’, the 6th International Educational Management and Administration Research Conference, 29–31 March, Robinson College, University of Cambridge.
    Hall, V. (1999) ‘Partnerships, alliances and competition: defining the field’, in Lumby, J. and Foskett, N. (eds) Managing External Relations in Schools and Colleges, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Hallinger, P. and Heck, R. (1996) ‘The principal's role in school effectiveness: an assessment of methodological progress, 1980–1995’, in Leithwood, K., Chapman, J., Corson, D., Hallinger, P. and Hart, A. (eds) International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration, vol. 2, London, Kluwer Academic.
    Handy, C. (1994) The Empty Raincoat, London, Hutchinson.
    Hanson, E.M. and Henry, W. (1992) ‘Strategic marketing for educational systems’, School Organisation, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 255–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260136920120302
    Hargreaves, D. (2003) Education Epidemic: Transforming Secondary Schools through Innovation Networks, London, DEMOS.
    Harris, A. (2004) ‘Distributed leadership and school improvement: leading or misleading?’, Educational Management and Administration, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 11–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143204039297
    Harris, S., Wallace, G. and Rudduck, J. (1995) ‘“It's not that I haven't learned much. It's just that I really don't understand what I'm doing”: metacognition and secondary-school students’, Research Papers in Education, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 253–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152950100208
    Hemsley-Brown, J.V. (1999) ‘College choice: perceptions and priorities’, Educational Management and Administration, vol. 27, no. 1 pp. 85–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X990271007
    Hemsley-Brown, J.V. and Foskett, N.H. (2000) Factors Affecting Post-16 Choices in Inner London, London, FOCUS TEC.
    Hewitt, P. and CrawfordM. (1997) ‘Introducing new contracts: managing change in the context of an enterprise culture’, in Levacic, R. and Glatter, R. (eds) ‘Managing change in further education’, FEDA Report, vol. 1, no. 7.
    Higham, J., Sharp, P. and Yeomans, D. (1996) The Emerging 16–19 Curriculum, London, David Fulton.
    Higham, J., Haynes, G., Wragg, C. and Yeomans, D. (2004) ‘14–19 Pathfinders: an evaluation of the first year. Summary’, accessed online 26 May 2004, http://www.dfes.gov.uk/14-19/dsp_evaluation
    Hillier, J. (1996) ‘Introduction’, GNVQ research conference NCVQ, 11 December, Royal Institute of British Architects, London.
    Hodgson-Wilson, E.J. (2004) ‘Policy espousal, policy enactment and policy experienced: a study of the origins, tensions and contradictions embedded in the development of GNVQs between 1992–2000 in relation to student progression’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Southampton.
    Hodgson, A. and Spours, K. (eds) (1997) Dearing and Beyond: 14–19 Qualifications and Frameworks, London, Kogan Page.
    Hodgson, A. and Spours, K. (1999) New Labour's Educational Agenda: Issues and Policies for Education and Training from 14+, London, Kogan Page.
    Hodgson, A. and Spours, K. (2001) ‘Part-time work and full-time education in the UK: the emergence of a curriculum and policy issue’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 373–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080120086157
    Hodgson, A. and Spours, K. (2002) ‘Key skills for all? The key skills qualification and curriculum 2000’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 29–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930110100045
    Hodgson, A. and Spours, K. (2003) Beyond A Levels: Curriculum and the Reform of 14–19 Qualifications, London, Kogan Page.
    Hodkinson, P. (1998) ‘Choosing GNVQ’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 151–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363908980110203
    Hodkinson, P. and Sparkes, A. (1997) ‘Careership: a sociological theory of career decision-making’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 23–35.
    Hughes, C. (1997) Lessons Are for Learning, Stafford, Network Educational Press.
    Hughes, C. (1999) ‘Teenagers learning and earning’, press release, 15 July, London, FEDA.
    Huxham, C. and Vangen, S. (2000) ‘What makes partnerships work?’, in Osborne, S. (ed.) Public-Private Partnerships; Theory and Practice in International Perspective, London, Routledge.
    Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) (1990) A British Baccalaureate: Ending the Division between Education and Training, London, IPPR.
    Janis, I. and Mann, L. (1977) Decision-Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice and Commitment, New York, Macmillan.
    Jarvis, P., Holford, J. and Griffin, C. (2003) The Theory and Practice of Learning, London, Kogan Page.
    Jessup, G. (1991) Outcomes: NVQs and the Emerging Model of Education and Training, London, Falmer Press.
    Keep, E. (1999) ‘UK's VET policy and the “Third Way”: following a high skills trajectory or running up a dead end street?’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 12, no. 3. pp. 323–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363908990120307
    Kennedy, H. (1997) Learning Works: Widening Participation in Further Education (Kennedy Report), Coventry, FEFC.
    Keys, W. and Maychell, K., with Evans, C., Brooks. R., Lee, B. and Pathak, S. (1998) Staying On: A Study of Young People's Decisions about School Sixth Forms, Sixth-form Colleges and Colleges of Further Education, Slough, NFER.
    King, K. (1993) ‘Technical and vocational education and training in an international context’, Vocational Aspect of Education, vol. 45, pp. 201–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305787930450302
    Kingston, P. (2004) ‘Converted to the cause’, Education Guardian, 29 June 2004, p. 16.
    Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation,. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    Le Grand, J. (1990) Quasi Markets and Social Policy, Bristol, University of Bristol.
    Lepkowska, D. (2004) ‘Kept afloat by parents’, Times Educational Supplement, 2 January.
    Levačrić, R. and Glover, D. (1997) ‘Value for money as a school improvement strategy: evidence from the new inspection system in England’, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 231–53.
    Levačrić, R. and Vignoles, A. (2002) ‘Researching the links between school resources and student outcomes in the UK: a review of issues and evidence’, Education Economics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 313–31.
    Levin, B. (2003) ‘Educational policy: commonalities and differences’, in Davies, B. and West-Burnham, J. (eds) Handbook of Educational Leadership and Management, London, Pearson.
    Levin, J. (2001) Globalizing the Community College, New York, Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780312292836
    Lowndes, V. and Skelcher, C. (1998) ‘The dynamics of multi-organizational partnership: an analysis of changing modes of governance’, Public Administration, vol. 76, pp. 313–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9299.00103
    Lucas, R. and Lammont, N. (1998) ‘Combining work and study: an empirical study of full-time students in school, college and university’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 11, no. 1 pp. 41–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363908980110103
    Lumby, J. (1996) ‘Curriculum change in further education’, Vocational Aspect of Education, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 333–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363682960480402
    Lumby, J. (2001a) ‘Framing learning and teaching for the 21st century’, in Middlewood, D. and Burton, N. (eds) Managing the Curriculum, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Lumby, J. (2001b) Managing Further Education Colleges: Learning Enterprise, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Lumby, J. (2003a) ‘Constructing culture change: the case of sixth form colleges’, Educational Management and Administration, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 157–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X0303102104
    Lumby, J. (2003b) ‘Distributed leadership in colleges: leading or misleading?’, Educational Management and Administration, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 283–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X03031003005
    Lumby, J. and Briggs, A.R.J., with Wilson, M., Glover, D. and Pell, A. (2002) Sixth Form Colleges: Policy, Purpose and Practice, Leicester, Leicester University.
    Lumby, J. and Morrison, M. (2004) Local Evaluation of Boston College 14–19 Pathfinder Partnership, Lincoln, University of Lincoln.
    Lumby, J. and Wilson, M. (2003) ‘Developing 14–19 education: meeting needs and improving choice’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 533–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0268093032000124884
    Lumby, J., Foskett, N. and Maringe, F. (2003a) Choice, Pathways and Progression for Young People in London West: A Report to London West Learning and Skills Council, LondonLWLSC.
    Lumby, J., Foskett, N. and Maringe, F. (2003b) ‘Restricted view: school leadership and the “choices” of learners’, paper presented to the Annual Conference of the British Educational, Leadership and Management Society, Milton Keynes, 3–5 October.
    Lutz, F. (1988) ‘Strategy formation in the university setting’, in Westoby, A. (ed.) Culture and Power in Educational Organizations, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Manpower Services Commission (MSC) (1977) Young People and Work (Holland Report), London, HMSO.
    Manpower Services Commission (MSC) (1981) A New Training Initiative: An Agenda for Action, London, HMSO.
    Marples, R. (1996) ‘14–19’, in Docking, J. (ed.) National School Policy: Major issues in Education Policy for Schools in England and Wales, 1979 onwards, London, David Fulton.
    Mayne, P. (1992) ‘Teaching and learning styles’, in Whiteside, T., Sutton, A. and Everton, T. (eds) 16–19 Changes in Education and Training, London, David Fulton.
    McDonald, J. and Lucas, N. (2001) ‘The impact of FEFC funding 1997–99: research on 14 colleges’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 215–26.
    McLean, M. (1995) Educational Traditions Compared: Content, Teaching and Learning in Industrialised Countries, London, David Fulton.
    McQuaid, R. (2000) ‘The theory of partnership; why have partnerships?’, in Osborne, S. (ed.) Public-Private Partnerships: Theory and Practice in International Perspective, London, Routledge.
    Minton, D. (1991) Teaching Skills in Further and Adult Education, Basingstoke, City and Guilds/Macmillan.
    Mordaunt, E. (1999) ‘“Not for Wimps”: the nature of partnership’, paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference, Brighton, September.
    Morgan, G. (1986) Images of Organization, London, Sage.
    Morris, M., Nelson, J., Rickinson, M., Storey, S. and Benfield, P. (1999) A literature review of young people's attitudes to education, employment and training, Research Report 170, Sheffield, DEE.
    Morris, R. (1994) ‘New magistracies and commissariats’, Local Government Studies, vol. 20, no. 2, pp.57–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03003939408433720
    Mortimore, P. (1999) ‘Pedagogy: what do we know?’, in Mortimore, P. (ed.) Understanding Pedagogy and its Impact on Learning, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Moynagh, M. and Worsley, R. (2003) Learning from the Future: Scenarios for Post-16 Learning, Wellington: Learning and Skills Research Centre.
    National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (1997) Learning for the Twenty-first Century: First Report of the National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (Fryer Report), London, NAGCELL.
    National Curriculum Council (NCC) (1990) Core Skills 16–19, York, NCC.
    Nicholls, A. (1994) Schools and Colleges: Collaborators or Competitors in Education?, London, LASER FE Council.
    Noble, T. and Pym, B. (1989) ‘Collegial authority and the receding locus of power’, in Bush, T. (ed.) Managing Education: Theory and Practice, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    O'Hear, A. (1991) Education and Democracy against the Educational Establishment, London: Claridge.
    Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2003) Annual report of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools. Standards and Quality in Education 2001/02, London, DFES, accessed online 8 September 2003, http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/publications/docs/3150.doc.
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1992) High Quality Education and Training for All, Paris, OECD.
    Paechter, C. (2001) ‘Schooling and the ownership of knowledge’, in Paechter, C, Preedy, M., Scott, D. and Soler, J. (eds) Knowledge, Power and Learning, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Palmer, G., Carr, J., North, J. and Kenway, P. (2003) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion, London, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, accessed online 14 June 2004, http://www.poverty.org.uk/reports/mp2003.pdf
    Paterson, L. and Raffe, D. (1995) ‘“Staying on” in full time education in Scotland, 1985–1991’, Oxford Review of Education, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 3–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498950210101
    Payne, J. (2002) Choice at the End of Compulsory Schooling: A Research Review, London, DfES.
    Payne, J. (2003) ‘The impact of part-time jobs in years 12 and 13 on qualification achievement’, British Educational Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 599–611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920301844
    Perry, A. (1997) A Pencil Instead: Why We Need a New Funding System for Further Education, London, Lambeth College.
    Piore, D. and Sabel, C. (1984) The Second Industrial Divide, New York, Basic Books.
    Pring, R. (1990) The New Curriculum, London, Cassell.
    Pring, R. (1995) Closing the Gap: Liberal Education and Vocational Preparation, London, Hodder and Stoughton.
    Raffe, D. (1985) ‘Education and training initiatives for 14–18s: content and context’, in Watts, A.G. (ed.) Education and Training 14–18: Policy and Practice, Cambridge, CRAC.
    Raffe, D. (2002) ‘The issues, some reflections and possible next steps, in 14–19 education', paper arising from a seminar series held at the Nuffield Foundation, December 2001-January 2002, London, Nuffield Foundation, accessed on line 30 June 2002, http://.www.nuffieldfoundation.org
    Raffo, C. (2003) ‘Disaffected young people and the work-related curriculum at Key Stage 4: issues of social capital development and learning as a form of cultural practice’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 69–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363908022000032894
    Raggett, P. (1994) ‘Implementing NVQs in colleges: progress, perceptions and issues’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 59–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0309877940180107
    Rajan, A., Van Eupen, P. and Jaspers, A. (1997) Britain's Flexible Labour Market: What Next?London: DfEE.
    Reay, D. (2001a) ‘Finding or losing yourself? Working class relationships to education’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 29–47.
    Reay, D. (2001b) ‘Finding or losing yourself? Working class relationships to education’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 333–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930110054335
    Salter, B. and Tapper, T. (eds) (1981) Education, Politics and the State: The Theory and Practice of Educational change, London: Grant Mclntyre.
    Schagen, I. and Schagen, S. (2003) ‘Analysis of national value-added datasets to estimate the impact of specialist schools on pupil performances’, Educational Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03055690303266
    Schagen, S., Johnson, F. and Simkin, C. (1996) Sixth Form Options – Post-compulsory Education in Maintained Schools, Slough, NFER.
    Schein, E.H. (1997) Organizational Culture and Leadership,
    2nd edn
    , San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.
    Scrimshaw, P. (1983) Purpose and Planning in the Classroom, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Shah, C. (2003) ‘Employment shifts in the technical and further education workforce, Education Economics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 193–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09645290210135779
    Shain, F. (1999) ‘Managing to lead: women managers in the further education sector’, paper presented at the BERA annual conference, University of Sussex, Brighton, 2–5 September.
    Shepherd, G. (1994) ‘Foreword by the Secretary of State’, in Education Means Business: Private Finance in Education, London, Department for Education.
    Shorter, P. (1994) ‘Sixth-form colleges and incorporation: some evidence from case studies in the north of England’, Oxford Review of Education, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 461–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498940200405
    Simkins, T. (2000) ‘Education reform and managerialism: comparing the experience of school and colleges’, Journal of Education Policy, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 317–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930050030455
    Smithers, A. (1994) All our Futures (Channel Four ‘Dispatches’ television programme).
    Steedman, H. (2002) ‘Employers, employment and the labour market, in 14–19 education’, paper arising from a seminar series held at the Nuffield Foundation, December 2001–January 2002, London, Nuffield Foundation, accessed online 30 June 2002,http://.www.nuffieldfoundation.org
    Stefani, L.A.J. (1994) ‘Peer, self and tutor assessment: relative reliabilities’, Studies in Higher Education, vol. 19, pp. 69–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079412331382153
    Stewart, W., Wright, G. and Slater, J. (2004) ‘Schools sound alarm over funding’, Times Educational Supplement, 23 January 2004.
    Stillman, A. and Maychell, K. (1986) Moving to Secondary School. Who Decides? A Questionnaire for Parents, Slough, NFER/Nelson.
    Stoll, L. and Fink, D. (1996) Changing our Schools, Buckingham, Open University Press.
    Storey, J. (1998) ‘HR and organizational structure’, Financial Times ‘Mastering Management’ Review, vol. 17, pp. 40–3.
    Tait, T., Frankland, G., Smith, D. and Moore, S. (2002) Curriculum 2000+2: Tracking Institutions' and Learners' Experiences, London, LSDA.
    Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) (1987) A Report, London, DES.
    Tawney, R.H. (1938) Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: An Historical Study, London, Penguin.
    Taylor, A. (1998) ‘Employability skills: from corporate “wish list” to government policy’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 143–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002202798183675
    Temple, H. (1991) Open Learning in Industry, Developing Flexibility and Competence in the Workforce, Harlow, Longman.
    Thomson, A. (2004) ‘Big questions, big answers’, FE Now, Summer, pp. 16–17.
    ThomasD. (1995) ‘Learning to be flexible’, in ThomasD. (ed.) Flexible Learning Strategies in Higher and Further Education, London, Cassell.
    Thomas, S., Smees, R., MacBeath, J. and Robertson, P. (2000) ‘Valuing pupils' views in Scottish schools’, Educational Research and Evaluation, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 281–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/edre.6.4.281.6934
    Thomas, W., Webber, D.J. and Walton, F. (2002) ‘The school leaving intentions at the age of sixteen: evidence from a multicultural city environment’, Economic Issues, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–14.
    Thrupp, M. (1998) ‘The art of the possible: organizing high and low socioeconomic Schools’, Journal of Educational Policy, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 197–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0268093980130203
    Torrance, H. (1993) ‘Formative assessment: some theoretical problems and empirical questions’, Cambridge Journal of Education, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 333–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764930230310
    Torrance, H. and Coultas, J. (2004) Do Summative Assessment and Testing Have a Positive or Negative Effect on Post-16 Learners' Motivation for Learning in the Learning and Skills Sector?, London, Learning and Skills Research Centre.
    Tuckett, A. (1997) Life Long Learning in England and Wales: An Overview and Guide to Issues Arising from the European Year of Lifelong Learning, Leicester, NIACE.
    Tunstall, P. (2003) ‘Definitions of the “subject”: the relations between the discourses of educational assessment and the psychology of motivation and their constructions of personal reality’, British Education Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 505–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920301845
    Unwin, L. (2002) ‘Young people, transitions and progression, paper arising from a seminar series held at the Nuffield Foundation, December 2001–January 2002, London, Nuffield Foundation, accessed online 30 June 2002, http://.www.nuffieldfoundation.org
    Walford, G. (2000) ‘From city technology colleges to sponsored grant-maintained schools’, Oxford Review of Education, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 145–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03054980050031363
    Ward, L. (2003) ‘NUT members in classroom assistants boycott’, Guardian, 7 October.
    Watkins, C. and Mortimore, P. (1999) ‘Pedagogy: what do we know?’, in Mortimore, P. (ed.) Understanding Pedagogy and its Impact on Learning, London, Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Watts, A.G. and Young, M. (1997) ‘Models of student guidance in a changing 14–19 education and training system’, in Edwards, R., Harrison, R. and Tait, A. (eds) Telling Tales: Perspectives on Guidance and Counselling in Learning, London, Routledge.
    West, A. and Pennel, H. (2000) ‘New Labour and school-based education in England: changing the system of funding’, British Education Research Journal, vol. 26, no. 4. pp. 523–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920050122345
    Williams, M. (1992) ‘Ruskin in context’, in Williams, M., Daugherty, R. and Burns, F. (eds) Continuing the Education Debate, London, Cassell.
    Willis, P. (1987) ‘Foreword’, in Finn, D. (ed.) Training without Jobs: New Deals and Broken Promises, London, Macmillan.
    Wolf, A. (1998) ‘Portfolio assessment as national policy; the National Council for Vocational Qualifications and its quest for pedagogical revolution’, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 413–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050306
    Wolf, A. (2002) Does Education Matter? Myths about Education and Economic Growth, London, Penguin.
    Wolf, A. and Black, H. (1990) Knowledge and Competence: Current Issues in Training and Education, Sheffield, Careers and Occupational Information Centre.
    Woods, P. and Levacic, R. (2002) ‘Raising school performance in the league tables (part 1): disentangling the effects of social disadvantage’, British Educational Research Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 207–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920120122167
    Woods, P., Bagley, C. and Glatter, R. (1998) School Choice and Competition: Markets in the Public Interest?, London, Routledge.
    Working Group on 14–19 Reform (2003) ‘14–19 Green Paper consultation workshops review’, accessed online 8 January 2004, http://www.des.gov.uk/consultations/sor/sordocs/SOR_208_2.pdf
    Working Group on 14–19 Reform (2004) 14–19 Curriculum and Qualifications Reform [Electronic Resource]: Interim Report of the Working Group on 14–19 Reform, London, DfES.
    Wyn, J. and Dwyer, P. (1999) ‘New directions in research on youth in transition’, Journal of Youth Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 5–21.
    Young, M. (1996) ‘A curriculum for the twenty-first century? Towards a new basis for overcoming academic/vocational divisions’, in Ahier, J., Cosin, B. and Hales, M. (eds) Diversity and Change: Education Policy and Selection, London: Routledge.
    10 Downing Street. (2004) ‘GCSE results improving’, accessed online 11 February2004, http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page4618.asp

    Author Index

    • Ahier, J. and Ross, A. 47
    • Ainley, P. 54
    • Apple, M. 62
    • Anthony, V. 93
    • Armitage, A., Bryant, B., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. 53, 54
    • Ashworth, L. 77
    • Assessment and Learning Research
    • Synthesis Group 90, 95–96, 102
    • Audit Commission/Ofsted 8, 89
    • Baldwin, J. 36
    • Ball, S. 9, 11, 42
    • Ball, S.J., Maguire, M. and MacRae, S. 113
    • Bates, I. 55, 92
    • Becker, G.S. 106
    • Belfield, C, Bullock, A., Rikowski, G. and Thomas, H. 125
    • Bennett, N., Harvey, J. and Anderson, L. 133, 135, 142, 143
    • Bentley, T. 5 Bernstein, B. 75
    • Black, P. 98
    • Black, P. and William D. 89, 90, 91, 96–7, 98, 99, 100
    • Blatchford, P. 5, 77
    • Bloomer, M. 55
    • Bolton, T. and Hyland, T. 55
    • Bond, C. 86
    • Bottery, M. 135
    • Bourdieu, P. 73
    • Bowring-Carr, C. and West-Burnham, J. 8, 83
    • Boyd, B. 83
    • Briggs, A.R.J. 86
    • Broadfoot, P. 90, 95, 97
    • Bryson, V. 75 Burke, J. 53 Bush, T.-and Glover, D. 151
    • Butterfield, S. 16
    • Callaghan, J. 19, 24, 31, 164
    • Cameron, J. and Pierce, D.P. 97
    • Cantor, 1., Roberts, I. and Pratley, B. 19, 52, 54
    • CBI (Confederation of British Industry) 10, 11, 55, 171
    • Chapman, D. and Adams, D. 4
    • Chitty, C. 17
    • Cockett, M. 69, 70
    • Cockett, M. and Callaghan, J. 49, 64
    • Coffey, D. 61, 64, 72
    • Colley, H., Hodkinson, P. and Malcolm, J. 80, 81
    • Costley, D. 76
    • CPVE (Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education) – see
      • under MSC
    • Crooks, T. 98 Cuban, L. 83
    • Dass, P. and Parker, B. 167
    • Davenport, J. 79, 87
    • Davies, P. 72
    • Dearing, R. 23, 24, 55, 57
    • De Pear, S. 5, 6, 100
    • DES (Department of Education and Science) 20, 26, 57
    • DES/DE (Department of Education and Science/Department of Education 55
    • DfEE (Department for Education and Employment) viii, 14, 24, 57, 122, 126, 139
    • DfES (Department for Education and Science) 5, 24, 35, 51, 71, 76, 102, 129, 133–4, 169, 171
    • Dweck, C. 97
    • Earley, P., Evans, J., Collarbone, P., Gold, A. and Halpin, D. 152
    • East Midlands Learning and Skills
    • Research Network 81
    • Ecclestone, K. 95, 97
    • Ecclestone, K. and Pryor, J. 96
    • Edem, A., Spencer, P. and Fyfield, B. 136, 143–144
    • Edwards, T. and Whitty, G. 39
    • Elbaz, F. 87
    • Elias, J.L. 79
    • Elliott, G. and Hall, V. 154
    • Engestrom, Y. 81
    • Farley, M. 52
    • Farnham, D. 22
    • FEDA 37, 154
    • Felstead, A. and Unwin, L. 122, 129
    • FEU (Further Education Unit) 20, 54
    • Ferguson, R. and Unwin, L. 109
    • Finegold, D. and Soskice, D. 66
    • Foskett, N.H. 139
    • Foskett, N.H., Dyke, M. and Maringe, F. 107, 110, 144, 155
    • Foskett, N.H. and Hemsley-Brown, J.V. 56, 108, 109, 112, 113
    • Foskett, N.H. and Hesketh, A.J. 108, 109, 112, 144
    • Foskett, N.H. and Lumby, J. 119
    • Foskett, N.H., Lumby, J. and Maringe, F. 9, 107, 108, 112, 113, 114, 132, 175
    • Foucault, M. 8
    • Fouts, J.T. and Chan, J. 119
    • Fullan, M. 42, 167
    • Furman, G. and Shields, C. 14, 149, 150
    • Galbraith, J.K. 43
    • Gambetta, D. 105
    • Gewirtz, S., Ball, S.J. and Bowe, R. 23, 39, 104, 105
    • Glatter, R. 134, 135, 136, 140, 141
    • Glatter, R., Woods, P. and Bagley, C. 39
    • Gleeson, D. 17, 36, 64, 112, 132
    • Gleeson, D. and Shain, F. 33, 36, 154
    • GMB 36
    • Godfrey, C, Hutton, S., Bradshaw, J., Coles, B., Craig, G. and Johnson, J. 60, 76
    • Goldstein, H. 131
    • Gorard, S., Fitz, J. and Taylor, C. 104,
    • Gorard, S. and Taylor, C. 39, 40
    • Goulding, J., Dominey, J. and Gray, M. 18, 36
    • Griffiths, M. 136, 156
    • Gronn, P. 147
    • Hall, V. 139
    • Hallinger, P. and Heck, R. 148
    • Handy, C. 16
    • Hanson, E.M. and Henry, W. 168
    • Hargreaves, D. 137, 140
    • Harris, A. 148
    • Harris, S., Wallace, G. and Rudduck, J. 82, 83, 130
    • Hemsley-Brown, J.V. 106, 109, 112
    • Hemsley-Brown, J.V. and Foskett, N.H. 110
    • Hewitt, P. and Crawford, M. 36
    • Higham, J., Sharp, P. and Yeomans, D. 57, 85
    • Hillier, J. 94
    • Hodgson, A. and Spours, K. 6, 8, 9, 26, 35, 42, 57, 74, 89, 95, 119
    • Hodgson-Wilson, E. 55
    • Hodkinson, P. 55
    • Hodkinson, P. and Sparkes, A. 106, 107, 112
    • Holland Report – see
      • under MSC
    • Hughes, C. 6, 86
    • Huxham, C. and Vangen, S. 140, 143
    • IPPR (Institute for Public Policy Research) 26, 57, 65, 68
    • Janis, I. and Mann, L. 105
    • Jarvis, P., Holford, J. and Griffin, C. 75
    • Jessup, G. 53, 94
    • Keep, E. 10, 11, 12, 13, 89
    • Kennedy, H. 24, 127, 132, 139
    • Keys, W, Maychell, K., Evans, C,
    • Brooks, R., Lee, B. and Pathak, S. 125, 129
    • King, K. 13, 62
    • Kingston, P. 155, 156
    • Lave, J. and Wenger, E. 81
    • Le Grand, J. 22, 32
    • Lepkowska, D. 121
    • Levacic, R. and Glover, D. 120, 132
    • Levacic, R. and Vignoles, A. 120
    • Levin, J. 37, 38, 103
    • Lowndes, V. and Skelcher, C. 140
    • Lucas, R. and Lammont, N. 6
    • Lumby, J. 32, 86, 122, 123, 126, 148, 152
    • Lumby, J. and Briggs, A.R.J. 6, 9, 12, 85, 86, 100, 125, 126, 130, 153, 154
    • Lumby, J., Foskett, N. and Maringe, F. 6, 9, 11, 30, 85, 173
    • Lumby, J. and Morrison, M. 82, 124, 129, 145, 151, 154, 159, 172
    • Lumby, J. and Wilson, M. 13, 101
    • Lutz, F. 43
    • Marples, R. 64
    • Mayne, P. 84
    • McDonald, J. and Lucas, N. 126
    • McLean, M. 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 75
    • McQuaid, R. 140, 141
    • Minton, D. 80
    • Mordaunt, E. 135, 141, 146
    • Morgan, G. 33, 34
    • Morris, R. 19, 100
    • Mortimore, P. 86
    • Moynagh, M. and Worsley, R. 175
    • MSC (Manpower Services Commission) 19, 20, 31, 32, 42
    • National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning 24
    • Nicholls, A. 112
    • Noble, T. and Pym, B. 33, 35
    • OFSTED (Office for Standards in Education) 5, 8, 77, 78
    • O'Hear, A. 134
    • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 4, 7, 13, 28, 75
    • Paechter, C. 81
    • Palmer, G., Carr, J., North, J. and Kenway, P. 4, 6
    • Paterson, L. and Raffe, D. 109
    • Payne, J. 28, 106 Perry, A. 32
    • Piore, D. and Sabel, C. 65
    • Pring, R. 4, 8, 41, 64, 83
    • Raffe, D. 42, 69, 157
    • Raffo, C. 51, 76, 81
    • Raggett, P. 53
    • Rajan, A., Van Eupen, P. and Jaspers, A. 17
    • Reay, D. 9, 42, 67, 73, 157
    • Salter, B. and Tapper, T. 17
    • Schagen, I. and Schagen, S. 40
    • Schagen, I., Johnson, F. and Simkin, C. 125, 129
    • Scheins, E.H. 99
    • Scrimshaw, P. 47
    • Shah, C. 37
    • Shain, F. 36
    • Shepherd, G. 122
    • Shorter, P. 40
    • Simkins, T. 132, 153, 154
    • Sithers, A. 94
    • Steedman, H. 10, 11, 89
    • Stefani, L.A.J. 98
    • Stewart, W., Wright, G. and Slater, J. 121
    • Stillman, A. and Maychell, K. 105
    • Stoll, L. and Fink, D. 83
    • Storey, J. 136
    • Tait, T, Frankland, G., Smith, D. and Moore, S. 58
    • Task Group on Assessment and Learning (TGAT) 88
    • Taylor, A. 88
    • Technical and Vocational Education
    • Initiative – see
      • under MSC
    • Temple, H. 86
    • Thomas, D. 86, 92
    • Thomas, S., Smees, R., MacBeath, J. and Robertson, P. 77, 114
    • Thomson, A. 146, 177
    • Thrupp, M. 152
    • Tomlinson Committee – see
    • Reform Torrance, H. 88, 91
    • Torrance, H. and Coultas, J. 58
    • Tuckett, A. 17
    • Tunstall, P. 91
    • Unwin, L. 16
    • Walford, G. 122, 128
    • Ward, L. 127
    • Watkins, C. and Mortimore, P. 77
    • Watts, A.G. and Young, M. 112
    • West, A. and Pennel, H. 120, 122
    • Williams, M. 25
    • Willis, P. 54
    • Wolf, A. 10, 13, 89, 92, 94, 95
    • Wolf, A. and Black, H. 53
    • Woods, P. and Levacic, R. 42, 131
    • Woods, P., Bagley, C. & Glatter, R. 123
    • Working Group on 14–19 Reform 13, 14, 58, 167, 173, 174
    • Wyn, J. & Dwyer, P. 116
    • Young, M. 62, 63, 66, 67, 68
    • YTS (Youth Training Scheme) – see
      • under MSC

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website