14–19 Education: Policy, Leadership and Learning
Publication Year: 2005
Schools and colleges are being asked to deal with fundamental changes in 14-19 education. Designed to support policy makers, practitioners and students of education in improving their understanding of this phase of education, the authors present a discussion of the evolution of policy and practice across schools and colleges, and their possible future development. A range of educational institutions are discussed with specific reference to changes in government policy, the curriculum, support services, and the advent of Learning and Skills Councils.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Setting the Context
- Chapter 1: 14–19 Education: The High-Stakes Battlefield
- Chapter 2: Riding the Waves of Policy
- Chapter 3: Moving the Pieces Around: Structural Change since 1979
Part 2: A Coherent Learning Experience?
- Chapter 4: Curriculum 14–19: Parallel Worlds or Brave New World?
- Chapter 5: Mind the Gap: The Vocational and Academic Divide
- Chapter 6: Teaching and Learning: The Learner's Perspective
- Chapter 7: Teaching and Learning: The Ritual of Assessment
- Chapter 8: Choices, Transitions and 14–19 Pathways
Part 3: Leading Teaching and Learning
- Chapter 9: Paying for Learning: Resourcing the System
- Chapter 10: Working Together? Collaboration and Partnerships for Learning
- Chapter 11: Leading 14–19 Education: Lifting Our Heads
Part 4: Futures
About the Authors[Page ii]
Jacky Lumby is Professor of Educational Leadership at the International Institute for Educational Leadership at the University of Lincoln. She has taught in a range of educational settings, including secondary schools, community and further education. She has published widely on leadership and management in schools and colleges in the UK and internationally.
Nick Foskett is Professor of Education at the University of Southampton. He has taught in schools and post-16 colleges, and has taught and provided consultancy on many aspects of teaching, learning and management in the 14–19 sector. His research interests are in policy, leadership and management, particularly in relation to young people's progression and choices 14–19, and he has published extensively in this field. Recent books include Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions (with Jacky Lumby) for Sage.
© Jacky Lumby and Nick Foskett 2005
First published 2005
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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Figures and Tables[Page vi]
- 8.1 A generic model of young people's choice 107
- 9.1 Percentage of pupils aged 15 achieving five or more GCSEs at grades A* to C, England, 1992/93 to 2002/03 132
- 11.1 Change in use of time in further education and sixth form colleges since 1993 155
- 6.1 The assumptions of andragogy 79
- 6.2 Minion's matrix of control 79
- 6.3 European Commission communication on lifelong learning: formal, non-formal and informal learning 80
- 9.1 Hours given per term to group tutorials in sixth form and general further education colleges and schools 130
- 9.2 Hours given per term to individual tutorials in sixth form and general further education colleges and schools 130
The shifting focus of public and political attention in education is a mysterious ebb and flow of fashion. What was a central concern one year, or one decade, fades into relative obscurity as another concern, another perspective, moves into the foreground. 14–19 education is one such concern that appears suddenly to have moved centre stage, the subject of intense scrutiny and reforming activity. As with many apparently ‘sudden’ manifestations, the preparations have been a long time in the making. Concerns over, for example, the numbers leaving schooling with few or no qualifications, youth unemployment, the unsuitability of the qualifications gained to equip young people for twenty-first century life and work, have all surfaced in many and varied forms for decades. The recent appearance of 14–19 education as a target for policy development is the result of such concerns increasing in intensity. A rising wave of anxiety that education and training do not do right by our young people, and that the implications are (and will be) widely felt in our society has finally crashed onto the policy shore. Catastrophe theory suggests that pressures for change build over time until suddenly the critical moment is reached, the wave breaks, and what seemed inevitable and unchangeable becomes malleable and changing. The Berlin Wall falls. We believe that 14–19 education is at such a point and that there is the potential for significant change in a way which has not previously been the case; the time is right for fundamental reconsideration of what 14–19 education is for. Even more importantly, it is time to consider who it is for. Even a cursory glance will reveal that the needs and voice of 14–19-year-olds themselves as individuals have not figured largely in the policy debate to date.
Why should this be of interest to those who work to improve practice and reshape policy? We argue in this book that getting it right for 14–19-year-olds has implications for all of us, that the hopes of making our society more inclusive, more just and more efficient hinge on this phase of education. It is at 14–19 that corrosive divisions are finalized, between [Page viii]the ‘successful’ and the ‘unsuccessful’, the high status and the low status. This is hardly surprising given that policy and practice have been based for decades on division, by age, by ability, by background, by types of organization, by government department.
With the White Paper Learning to Compete (DfES, 1997a) came a recognition that the elements in place maybe did not add up to a satisfactory whole, that young people do not see their learning as slices of different cakes but as a continuity through their lives, and that the legislation which allows them to opt out at 16 is less relevant to many than the choices they must make for how to continue to learn or to train. Sixteen is no longer the critical point in time it may once have been. The concerns of decades have then been more sharply focused and reformulated as ‘14–19 education’. The implication in labelling the last two years of compulsory schooling and the first two years of post-compulsory education and training in this way signals an emphasis on achieving greater coherence in what young people and their families experience.
We argue also that young people of 14–19 are not the same in their beliefs and preferences as previous generations, and that the expectations of education and training are changing. The book maps out what is different and uniquely challenging about 14–19 education at this moment in time, the history of attempts at reform, the current experience of education and training of this age group and, finally, some of the directions and possibilities for the future. Parts of the volume will, we hope, be a valuable reference for those looking to understand how we have got to where we are. We also hope that parts will provoke, will stimulate and will demand reconsideration of the meaning and effects of current policy and practice, and will provide some ideas of how things might be different.
This book is in part powered by a commitment formed by working with young people and staff in different ways, as teachers ourselves and, latterly, as researchers. Our thanks go to the many staff and young people who have talked to us in schools and colleges for a number of years, for their frankness, their generosity and from whom we learned a great deal. We also owe a debt to our own teenage children, who brought home on a daily basis some of the realities of 14–19-year-old life and how important it is to their future as well as our own to nurture all our young people.and
University of Lincoln and University of Southampton
The following are reproduced with permission:
- Figure 9.1 Accessed on line 1 July 2004, DfES (2004a) © Crown copyright.
- Table 6.1 Armitage, A., Bryant, B., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. (1999) Teacher and Training in Post-Compulsory Education © McGraw-Hill Education.
- Table 6.2 Armitage, A., Bryant, B., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. (1999) Teacher and Training in Post-Compulsory Education © McGraw-Hill Education.
- Table 6.3 From Colley, R., Hodkinson, P. and Malcolm, J. (2003): Informality and formality in learning: a report for the Learning and Skills Research Centre, Figure 7 p. 25. © LSRC. To read this report visit http://www.LSRC.ac.uk
A level Advanced level AS Advanced Subsidiary AVCE Advanced Vocational Certificate of Education BTEC Business and Technology Education Council C&G City and Guilds CBI Confederation of British Industry CEE Certificate of Extended Education CEG careers education and guidance CEO chief education officer COVE Centre of Vocational Excellence CPVE Certificate of Pre-vocational Education CSE Certificate of Secondary Education CTC city technology college DE Department of Employment DES Department of Education and Science DfEE Department for Education and Employment DfES Department for Education and Skills DTI Department of Trade and Industry EPPI Centre Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordination Centre FE further education FEFC Further Education Funding Council FEU Further Education Unit GCE General Certificate in Education GCSE General Certificate of Secondary Education GFEC general further education college GM grant maintained GNVQ General National Vocational Qualification HE higher education IAG information advice and guidance ICT information and communications technology IPPR Institute for Public Policy Research [Page xi] IT information technology LEA local education authority LLSC Local Learning and Skills Council LMS Local Management of Schools LSC Learning and Skills Council LSS Learning and Skills Sector MA Modern Apprenticeship MSC Manpower Services Commission MLD moderate learning difficulties NC National Curriculum NCC National Curriculum Council NCSL National College for School Leadership NCVQ National Council for Vocational Qualifications NEET not in education, employment or training NTO national training organization NVQ National Vocational Qualification NVQF National Vocational Qualification Framework O level Ordinary level OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OFSTED Office for Standards in Education OPC organizational partnership and collaboration ORF output-related funding PFI Private Funding Initiative PIC Private Industry Council PPP Public Private Partnership QCA Qualifications and Curriculum Authority RDA Regional Development Agency ROA Record of Achievement RSA Royal Society of Arts SAT Standard Attainment Test SCAA School Curriculum and Assessment Authority SEN special educational needs ses socio-economic status SLDD specific learning difficulties and disabilities TEC Training and Enterprise Council TTA Teacher Training Agency TVEI Technical and Vocational Education Initiative YCS Youth Cohort Study YOP Youth Opportunities Programme YTS Youth Training Scheme
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