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Sexual Orientation–Based Legal Discrimination: Outside United States

The discriminations faced by homosexuals and bisexuals in many member countries of the European Union (EU) are highlighted by the Council of Europe and other organizations. A turning point in the fight against discriminations happened in 1997, based on sexual orientation in Europe, due to the fact that, thanks to the amendments to the EC Treaty, this ground of discrimination was introduced in the EU-binding legislation (specifically the Council Directive 2000/78/EC of November 27, 2000, establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation).

The implementation of this Directive in the 27 member states should grant minimum standards of protection against direct and indirect discriminations based on sexual orientation. In implementing the above-mentioned directive, member states went, in many cases, beyond the areas of ...

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