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Bus transport in Africa is usually provided by the informal sector, in the case of both urban and regional or interregional travel. State-owned formal bus systems operate in some countries but tend to be economically inefficient and have small coverage. However, some cities have started to implement bus rapid transit (BRT) systems. In rural areas, the network is sparse and the services are irregular. Some countries have an extensive network of intercity buses. The offering of international bus services is limited. Many roads are in poor condition, and the bus fleet tends to be old. Bus travel is usually subject to delays, overcrowding, and safety and security risks.

Formal Versus Informal Sector

State-owned bus companies were established in most African countries before or shortly after their independence. ...

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