The SAGE Handbook of Sport Management

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Russell Hoye & Milena M. Parent

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    List of Figures

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Russell Hoye, Ph.D. is the Pro Vice-Chancellor for Research Development and Director of Sport at La Trobe University, Australia, having previously served as Director of the Centre for Sport and Social Impact. His research interests are in corporate governance, public policy, volunteer management and the impact of sport on individuals and society. He has published more than 50 refereed journal articles that have appeared in the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Journal of Management, Nonprofit Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, and Public Management Review. Russ has published seven books with colleagues, is the Editor of the Sport Management Series for Routledge and is a member of the editorial boards for International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, Sport Management Review and the Journal of Global Sport Management.

    Milena M. Parent is an Associate Professor at the University of Ottawa and Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. She is also a professor in the MEMOS (Executive Master in Sport Organizations Management) program and has taught in the Russian International Olympic University's Master of Sport Administration (MSA) program. She is a research fellow of the North American Society for Sport Management and a former holder of an Early Researcher Award from the Government of Ontario. Her research falls within the fields of organization theory and strategic management related to preparing and hosting major sports events. She is notably interested in governance, networks and stakeholder management.

    The Contributors

    Robin Ammon received his doctorate from the University of Northern Colorado and is currently an Associate Professor and Chair of the Kinesiology and Sport Management Department at the University of South Dakota. Dr Ammon has written over twenty-five articles in refereed journals, seventeen chapters in sport management books, and four textbooks. He has presented over 75 times on a variety of topics including facility management, legal liabilities in sport, risk management in sport and athletics, crowd management and premises liability. For the past twelve years Dr Ammon has served as an expert witness in various court cases regarding many of these issues.

    Kathy Babiak is an Associate Professor in the Sport Management Department at the University of Michigan. She has published widely in the areas of strategy, organizational performance, and social innovation and entrepreneurship. Her main line of research focuses on the interorganizational partnerships sport organizations create (with a focus on strategic alliances, marketing, or philanthropic interactions). She has explored strategic factors motivating sport organizations to enter into partnership relationships with other organizations in the non-profit, government and private sectors. Her research also examines the interaction and exchange dynamics involved in managing a diverse network of partners, with the objective to understand what factors are perceived to contribute to more effective relations between organizations.

    Laurence Chalip is the Brightbill/Sapora Professor at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), where he serves as Head of the Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism. He earned his Ph.D. in policy analysis from the University of Chicago. He has co-authored or co-edited three books, four monographs, over a dozen book chapters, and over 100 peer-reviewed articles. He was founding Editor of Sport Management Review, and has also served as Editor for the Journal of Sport Management. He is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Sport & Tourism, and is North American Editor of the International Journal of Event and Festival Management. He serves on the Editorial Boards of six other scholarly journals, and also consults widely to industry. In addition to being a Fellow of the Academy of Leisure Sciences, he was a founding board member of the Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand, from which he won the Distinguished Service Award, and is a Research Fellow of the North American Society for Sport Management, from which he won the Earle F. Zeigler Award.

    Packianathan Chelladurai specializes in organizational theory and organizational behavior in sport. Chelladurai had taught at the University of Madras in India, the University of Western Ontario in Canada, and the Ohio State University in the USA. He is currently a Distinguished Professor with the Troy University teaching online graduate courses in sport management. He was awarded the honorary degree of Letters of Law (LLD) by the University of Western Ontario, Canada in 2012 for his contributions to sport management. Most recently, the European Association of Sport Management named its most prestigious award the EASM Chelladurai Award.

    Dennis Coates is Professor of Economics at University of Maryland, Baltimore County. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Maryland, College Park and was on the faculty of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill before moving to UMBC in 1995. His research focuses on political economy and public policy issues with emphasis on sport and sports economics topics. He is the editor of the Journal of Sports Economics and on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Sport Finance, the Journal of Sport Management, Public Choice and several other journals. He was the founding president of the North American Association of Sports Economics.

    T. Bettina Cornwell is the Edwin E. and June Woldt Cone Professor of Marketing in the Lundquist College of Business at the University of Oregon. Prior to joining the University of Oregon, she was Professor of Marketing and Sport Management at the University of Michigan. Her research focuses on marketing communications and consumer behaviour and often includes international and public policy emphases. Bettina's research on corporate sponsorship of sports, arts and charity has recently appeared in the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, and Psychology & Marketing. She was the recipient of the 2009 American Marketing Association Sports Marketing and Special Events Special Interest Group's award for Distinguished Contributions to the Scientific Understanding of Sports Business.

    George B. Cunningham (Ph.D., The Ohio State University) is a Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the College of Education and Human Development at Texas A&M University. He is the Marilyn Kent Byrne Chair for Student Success, the director of the Laboratory for Diversity in Sport, and holds a joint appointment in the Women's and Gender Studies program. Author of over 180 articles and book chapters and an award winning book (Diversity in Sport Organizations), Cunningham studies diversity and inclusion in sport and physical activity.

    Graham Cuskelly is a Professor and Head of Department Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management in the AACSB accredited Business School at Griffith University. His research interests are in volunteers in sport, the development of community sport, and sport organization and governance. He has published in the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly, and Event Management. Graham has published two books with colleagues, Sport Governance (Elsevier) and Volunteers in Sport: Theory and Practice (Routledge) and has been chief investigator on four Australian Research Council grants and a Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council grant. His most recent funded research projects include the resilience of community sport organizations impacted by natural disasters, and the economic value of community club-based sport. As a former Editor of Sport Management Review he led its transition from an Australian-based publication to an international publication and he is a recipient of the Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand Distinguished Service Award.

    Simon C. Darnell is an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education at the University of Toronto. His research focuses on the relationship between sport and international development, the development implications of sports mega-events, and the place of social activism in the culture of sport. He is the author of Sport for Development and Peace: A Critical Sociology and co-author of Sport and Social Movements: From the Global to the Local (both published by Bloomsbury Academic). His research has also been published in the Sociology of Sport Journal, the International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, and Progress in Development Studies.

    Greg Dingle , Ph.D. is a Lecturer in Sport Management in the Department of Management and Marketing in the La Trobe Business School, and is an associate of the Centre for Sport and Social Impact at La Trobe University. Greg's expertise is in sport and climate change, sport management and environmental sustainability, and Education for Sustainability (EfS). His Ph.D. research examined the implications of climate change for major Australian sport stadia, while his current post-doctoral research is investigating the impacts of climate, and climate change, on community sport. He has published refereed articles in the International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing and Managing Leisure. His teaching currently includes sport management, sport policy, and sustainability problems and thinking, and he has previously convened and taught sustainability and climate change for sport management.

    Dana Ellis is an Assistant Professor in the School of Sports Administration at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. She received a Ph.D. and an MA in Human Kinetics from the University of Ottawa and a BA in Kinesiology from Western University. Her main research interests include ambush marketing, Olympic and mega-event brands and sponsorship, and mega-event management. Dana has presented research in these areas at several international conferences, published in refereed journals, and authored related textbook chapters.

    Stephanie Gerretsen is a doctoral student at the University of Michigan and a research assistant in the Center for Sport and Policy. Ms Gerretsen's research interests include the role of sports in urban planning and real estate development. Her research has already been published in State and Local Government Review and two collections. Ms. Gerretsen received her Master's degree in Urban Planning from the University of Michigan, a master's degree in Sport Management from the University of Michigan, and a bachelor's degree in International Relations and Anthropology from the University of California, San Diego.

    Lisa Gowthorp is an Assistant Professor at Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia and has previously worked in high performance sport for over 12 years, with organizations such as the NSW Institute of Sport, The Australian Institute of Sport and Australian Canoeing. Lisa has managed sport teams at the World Championships and was the gymnastics section manager on the Australian Olympic Team in Beijing in 2008. Lisa's research interests include the governance and management of the Australian high performance sport system, especially government involvement in elite sport; sport governance and regulation, high performance sport management issues and contemporary issues surrounding the Olympic Games. Lisa consults with industry on governance issues and sport policy. Lisa is also the Secretary-General of the Sliding Sports Australia (SSA), working towards the development and implementation of good governance practices and procedures for this new Olympic NSO.

    Barrie Houlihan is Professor of Sport Policy at Loughborough University, UK and Visiting Professor at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. His research interests include the domestic and international policy processes for sport. He has a particular interest in sports development, the diplomatic use of sport, and drug abuse by athletes. He has authored or edited twenty books and over fifty journal articles. His most recent books are Sport Policy in Britain (with Iain Lindsey) Routledge 2012 and The Youth Olympic Games (co-edited with DV Hanstad and MM Parent) published by Routledge. In addition to his work as a teacher and researcher, Barrie has undertaken consultancy projects for various UK government departments, UK Sport, Sport England, the Council of Europe, UNESCO, the World Anti-Doping Agency and the European Union. He is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics.

    Aubrey Kent , Ph.D. is a Professor and Chair at Temple University. He has degrees from the University of Toronto, University of Windsor, and The Ohio State University. He teaches courses in strategic management and finance in the Temple sport business program, where he also co-founded the Sport Industry Research Center (SIRC) in 2008. He is a Research Fellow and former President of the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), and has published over 20 peer-reviewed articles relating to sport industry CSR.

    Eric MacIntosh is an Associate Professor at the University of Ottawa teaching and researching sport management. He earned his PhD at the University of Western Ontario. His research focuses on various organizational behavior and marketing topics covering concepts such as organizational culture, leadership, image and brand. His research delves into the functioning of the organization and how creating a favorable culture can transmit positively internally through human resources and outwardly into the sport marketplace. He is a well published scholar and an avid speaker in sport management internationally. Dr. MacIntosh has also co-edited the book International Sport Management.

    Joanne MacLean , Ph.D., is Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Fraser Valley in British Columbia, Canada. She earned her Ph.D. at the Ohio State University, and has held faculty positions at both Brock University and the University of Windsor. Dr MacLean is a NASSM Research Fellow, author of two books, and widely published in scholarly journals. Her career has spanned university coach and athletic director, membership on National Sport Organization Operating Committees and Board of Directors, and participation in three World University Games as coach, Assistant Chef and Chef de Mission for Canada.

    David Marchesseault is a Doctoral Candidate in the Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education at the University of Toronto. His research focuses on the international development through sport, participatory methodologies, and the relationship between participants, organizations and the global development agenda. His focus on East and West Africa has yielded extensive fieldwork in countries such as Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. With a commitment to praxis, David has been working in northern Uganda since 2010 as the Executive Director of Gainline Africa. He has consulted and researched for organizations such as the United Nations, Search for Common Ground, and the International Development Research Centre on issues of inclusion, monitoring and evaluation, and good governance.

    Daniel S. Mason is a Professor of Physical Education and Recreation and adjunct with the School of Business at the University of Alberta. His research focuses on sports leagues and franchises, cities, events, and infrastructure development, funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. His work has been published in American Behavioral Scientist, Journal of Sport Management, Journal of Urban Affairs, Economic Development Quarterly, Event Management, Managing Leisure, Economic Inquiry, Contemporary Economic Policy, Tourism Management, and Urban Studies. He was named a North American Society for Sport Management Research Fellow in 2004.

    John J. Miller is Professor and Associate Dean of the College of Health and Human Services at Troy (AL) University. John is also the director of sport management doctoral program at Troy University. He previously taught at Texas Tech University where he achieved full professor status. He is a Research Fellow in Research Consortium of Society of Health and Physical Educators (formerly AAHPERD), Research Fellow in the Sport and Recreation Law Association, and Fellow in the North American Society of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance Professionals. His research is primarily in risk management in sport, leadership, and marketing.

    Katie Misener, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences at the University of Waterloo. Dr Misener's primary research focuses on the capacity and social impact of nonprofit community sport organizations, with a particular focus on how capacity can be enhanced to support sport service delivery and foster social engagement through sport. In particular, she examines concepts such as social responsibility, social capital, volunteerism, and inter-organizational relationships. Katie's research interests also include the role of sport organizations in community health promotion and creating collaborative value through partnerships.

    Matthew Nicholson , Ph.D. is Director of the Centre for Sport and Social Impact and Head of Sport Management within the Business School at La Trobe University. Matthew's expertise is in sport policy, the management of community and state sport organizations, particularly as it relates to the sport-public health nexus, the social impact of sport, recreation and leisure and the representation of sport through the media. Matthew's recent publications include Sport and the Media: Managing the Nexus (2nd edn) and Sport Management: Principles and Applications (4th edn).

    Danny O'Brien is an Associate Professor and Head of Program, Sport Management, in the Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine at Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia. He teaches in strategic management, sport governance, sport tourism, and event management. Danny's research is in surf tourism, event leveraging, and organizational change in sport. He is on the editorial boards of Sport Management Review, and also Journal of Sport and Tourism. Danny is a Visiting Professor at the Center for Surf Research, San Diego State University, US; and a Visiting Research Fellow at the Plymouth Sustainability and Surfing Research Group, Plymouth University, UK.

    Mark S. Rosentraub is the Bickner Endowed Professor of Sport Management at the University of Michigan. His most recent articles have appeared in Applied Economic Letters, the Journal of Sports Economics, and Public Money and Management. His latest book is Reversing Urban Decline: Why and How Sports, Entertainment, and Culture Turn Cities into Major League Winners (2014). Together with Jason Winfree, he published Sports Finance and Management: Real Estate, Entertainment, and the Remaking of the Business in 2012.

    Michael P. Sam is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences at the University of Otago (New Zealand). His research encompasses policy, politics and governance as they relate to the public administration/management of sport. Dr Sam has published widely in both sport studies and parent discipline journals and has co-edited two books: Sport in the City: Cultural Connections (2011) and Sport Policy in Small States (forthcoming). Mike serves on the editorial board of the International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics and is an executive board member of the International Sociology of Sport Association (ISSA).

    Sally Shaw is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Management at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Her research includes the critical examination of gender relations and sexuality in sport organizations. She also focuses on other aspects of sport organizational life, such as non-profit governance, funding relationships, sport sponsorship and organizational partnerships. Sally is a Research Fellow of the North American Society for Sport Management and a board member of Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand. She is an editorial board member and book review editor for Sport Management Review and an editorial board member of the Journal of Sport Management.

    Merryn Sherwood, Ph.D. lectures in journalism in the Department of Communication and Media at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. She has worked as a newspaper journalist, in media operations at major sports events, and as a media contractor for the International Triathlon Union. She completed her Ph.D. in the Centre for Sport and Social Impact at La Trobe University, where her research focused on the roles of public relations staff in Australian sports organizations. She is a co-author of the second edition of Sport and the Media: Managing the Nexus.

    Aaron C.T. Smith is Professor in the Graduate School of Business and Law at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Australia. Aaron has research interests in the management of psychological, organizational and policy change in business, sport, health, religion and society, and has authored seventeen books and consulted to more than 100 clients concerning these issues. Aaron's qualifications include a Bachelor of Applied Science (Hons) and two doctorates, the first in management and the second in cognitive science.

    Bob Stewart is Professor of Sport Policy in the College of Sport and Exercise Science at Victoria University in Melbourne Australia. Bob has a special interest in player regulation in professional team sports, and the ways in which the forces of neoliberalism and hyper-commercialism shape the structure and conduct of contemporary sport. Bob is the sole author of Sport Funding and Finance, (Routledge: 2015) a co-author – with Aaron C.T. Smith – of the Rethinking Drug Use in Sport: Why the war will never be won (Routledge: 2014) the editor of The Games are Not the Same: The political economy of football in Australia (Melbourne University Press: 2007), and lead author of Australian Sport: Better by design? The evolution of sport policy in Australia (Routledge 2004).

    Mike Szymanski is a Ph.D. candidate in international management and organizations at the Gustavson School of Business, the University of Victoria. He holds a master's degree in Strategic Management from the Warsaw School of Economics and a master's degree in American Culture from the University of Warsaw. Before starting his Ph.D. training, Mike spent time working in strategic management consulting. Mike's passion for sport has influenced both his teaching and research. His recent research projects focus on the potential effect of bicultural individuals on team performance in the context of international association football.

    Tracy Taylor is a Professor of Sport Management and Deputy Dean of the University of Technology Sydney Business School. She is also a Professor in the Executive Master in Sport Organizations Management. Tracy is currently a board member of the IOC Athlete Learning Gateway Advisory Committee and the Australian National Rugby League Research Committee. She is a research fellow of the North American Society for Sport Management and the current Editor of European Sport Management Quarterly. Her research interests are in the areas of human resource management and cultural diversity in sport.

    Pamela Wicker is a Senior Lecturer and Researcher at the German Sport University Cologne. Her main research areas fall within the fields of sport economics, sport finance, and sport management. She is notably interested in non-profit economics, economics of physical activity, labor market research, and willingness-to-pay studies. Pamela is Associate Editor and Social Media Editor of Sport Management Review and a member of the Editorial Board of another five scientific journals (Journal of Sport Management, European Sport Management Quarterly, International Journal of Sport Finance, Managing Sport and Leisure, and Journal of Sport and Tourism).

    Richard A. Wolfe is a Professor at the Gustavson School of Business, the University of Victoria. Wolfe uses sports as a lens through which he researches and teaches corporate strategy. From 2001 to 2007, he served as the director of the Sport Management Masters’ Program, and was the director of the Michigan Centre for Sport Management, at the University of Michigan. Wolfe is the past Editor of the Journal of Sport Management and has published in such journals as the Journal of Management, Organization Science, Journal of Sport Management, Human Resource Management, the Academy of Management Executive, the European Sport Management Quarterly.

    Mike Weed is Professor of Applied Policy Sciences and Pro Vice-Chancellor for Research and Enterprise at Canterbury Christ Church University . Drawing on a wide range of social science disciplines, including social psychology, sociology, economics, geography and policy sciences, his work has focused on informing, improving and interrogating policy in the applied domains of sport, public health, physical activity, physical education, tourism, transport, urban development and major events. Professor Weed is Strategic Director of the Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research (SPEAR), Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Sport & Tourism (Routledge), Editor of the SAGE Library of Sport & Leisure Management, and currently sits on the Editorial Boards of Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise & Health (Routledge) and Psychology of Sport and Exercise (Elsevier). In the REF2014 period in the UK (2008–2013), he authored 18 peer-reviewed journal outputs, 6 books, 11 book chapters and 22 reports to funders.

    Annick Willem holds a Ph.D. in Applied Economics (Ghent University). She is a professor in Sport Management at the Department of Movement and Sports Sciences (Ghent University) and holder of the Olympic Chair Henri de Baillet Laour-Jacques Rogge. Her research is on management and policy in the sports sector, with a particular focus on organizational issues, such as knowledge management, collaboration, and networking; and on ethical management issues. Her work appears in several academic journals including among others: European Sports Management Quarterly, Journal of Business Ethics, Public Management Review. She teaches several sport management courses and is academic coordinator of the Belgian Olympic Academy.

    Preface

    This Handbook of Sport Management draws together into one volume the current research on the major topics relevant to the field of sport management and is written by the world's leading sport management academics from Asia-Pacific, Canada, New Zealand, USA, the UK and Europe. The book is primarily written for undergraduate university students studying sport management courses and postgraduate students who wish to research the non-profit, government and commercial dimensions of sport. It is especially suitable for students studying sport management within business-focused courses, as well as students seeking an overview of sport management principles within human movement, sport science or physical education courses. The book is divided into two parts. Part I covers the core aspects of sport management, the fundamental building blocks of how sport organizations, events and programs are governed and managed. Part II covers the main challenges facing sport managers, the generic challenges facing sport organizations, events and programs at all levels of the global sport industry, from community or grassroots sports to international federation and governing bodies.

    We would like to thank the team of international authors who accepted our invitation to contribute to this book; we aimed to recruit the best from across the globe and we succeeded, as shown by the list of contributors. We acknowledge and thank our respective partners and families for understanding our need to devote our time and energy toward this book.

    Russell Hoye and Milena M. Parent


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