The SAGE Handbook of Resistance
Publication Year: 2016
Subject: Sociology of Organizations
Occupy. Indignados. The Tea Party. The Arab Spring. Anonymous. These and other terms have become part of an emerging lexicon in recent years, signalling an important development that has gripped many parts of the world: millions of people are increasingly involved, whether directly or indirectly, in movements of resistance and protestation. However, resistance and its conceptual “companions”, protest, contestation, opposition, disobedience and mobilization, all seem to be still mostly seen in public and private discourses as illegitimate and problematic forms of action. The time is, therefore, ripe to delve into the concerns, themes and legitimacy. The SAGE Handbook of Resistance offers theoretical essays enabling readers to forge their own perspectives of what “is” resistance and emphasizes the empirical and experiential dimension of resistance - making ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: FOUNDATIONS
- Chapter 1: Globalization, Resistance, and Social Transformation
- Chapter 2: Emerging Subjectivity in Protest
- Chapter 3: Islamism, Feminism, and Resistance: Rethinking the Arab Spring
- Chapter 4: The Grand Refusal?: Struggling with Alternative Foucauldian InspiredApproaches to Resistance at Work
- Chapter 5: Resisting the 24/7 Work Ethic – Shifting Modes of Regulation and Refusal in Organized Employment
Part II: SITES OF RESISTANCE
- Chapter 6: The Body as a Site of Resistance
- Chapter 7: The Complexities and Contradictions of Resistance: An Intersectional Perspective
- Chapter 8: Individual Constraint and Group Solidarity: Marginalized Mothers and the Paradox of Family Responsibility
- Chapter 9: Protecting Our Children: Paradoxes of Resistance in an Era of Neoliberal Education
- Chapter 10: Resistance in Organizational Strategy-Making
- Chapter 11: Prisons as Sites of Power/Resistance
Part III: TECHNOLOGIES OF POWER AND RESISTANCE
- Chapter 12: Recasting Community for Online Resisting Work
- Chapter 13: Between Grassroots and ‘Astroturf': Understanding Mobilization fromthe Top-down
- Chapter 14: From Digital Tools to Political Infrastructure
- Chapter 15: Resisting the New: On Cooptation and the Organisational Conditions for Entrepreneurship
Part IV: LANGUAGES OF RESISTANCE
- Chapter 16: Musical Style, Youth Subcultures, and Cultural Resistance
- Chapter 17: Graffiti as Infrapolitics: A Study of Visual Interventions of Resistance in San Francisco
- Chapter 18: Naming, Shaming, Changing the World
- Chapter 19: Contesting Authority in a Moralized Market: The Case of a Catholic Hospital Unionization Campaign
- Chapter 20: Organizational Change and Resistance: An Identity Perspective
Part V: GEOGRAPHIES OF RESISTANCE
- Chapter 21: The World Social Forum and Global Resistance: The Trajectory of an Activist Open Space
- Chapter 22: Back to Work: Resisting Clientelism in a Poor Neighborhood of Buenos Aires
- Chapter 23: Bases of Governance and Forms of Resistance: The Case of Rural China
- Chapter 24: Resistance and its Pitfalls: Analyzing NGO and Civil Society Politics in Bangladesh
- Chapter 25: Urban Gardening: Between Green Resistance and Ideological Instrument
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At SAGE we take sustainability seriously. Most of our products are printed in the UK using FSC papers and boards. When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used as measured by the PREPS grading system. We undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability.
Introduction and editorial arrangement © David Courpasson & Steven Vallas 2016
Chapter 1 © Jeffrey Juris and Marina Sitrin 2016
Chapter 2 © Bob Kurik 2016
Chapter 3 © Valentine M. Moghadam 2016
Chapter 4 © David Knights 2016
Chapter 5 © André Spicer and Peter Fleming 2016
Chapter 6 © Erynn Masi de Casanova and Afshan Jafar 2016
Chapter 7 © Amanda M. Gengler 2016
Chapter 8 © Jillian Crocker 2016
Chapter 9 © Linda Blum and Shelley Kimelberg 2016
Chapter 10 © Anniina Rantakari and Eero Vaara 2016
Chapter 11 © Tammi Arford 2016
Chapter 12 © Felipe G. Massa 2016
Chapter 13 © Edward T. Walker 2016
Chapter 14 © Marianne Maeckelbergh 2016
Chapter 15 © Daniel Hjorth 2016
Chapter 16 © Ryan Moore 2016
Chapter 17 © Guillaume Marche 2016
Chapter 18 © Gay Seidman 2016
Chapter 19 © Adam Reich 2016
Chapter 20 © Sierk Ybema, Robyn Thomas and Cynthia Hardy 2016
Chapter 21 © Giuseppe Caruso 2016
Chapter 22 © Pablo Fernández 2016
Chapter 23 © Xueguang Zhou and Yun Ai 2016
Chapter 24 © Lamia Karim 2016
Chapter 25 © Sandrine Baudry and Emeline Eudes 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016933075
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
List of Figures and Tables[Page viii]Tables
- 10.1 Three approaches to resistance in strategy-making 210
- 12.1 Selection of definitions of ‘community’ in sociology and community studies 252
- 12.2 Key dimensions differentiating online and offline communities and their resisting work 255
- 20.1 General characteristics of three views of resistance to change that feature in different literatures 395
Notes on the Editors and Contributors[Page ix]The Editors
David Courpasson is Professor of Sociology at emlyon Business School (France) where he is the Director of the OCE-EMLYON Research Centre. He is also Professor at Cardiff Business School, and the former Editor in Chief of Organization Studies (2008–2013). Professor Courpasson's research interests revolve around power, workplace politics and resistance, as well as issues of work and occupations. He has published extensively on these topics in journals like Organization Science, Organization Studies, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Human Relations, Journal of Business Venturing, Organization and Journal of Management Studies as well as journals in French. He has also published several books including Power and Organizations (2006, Sage, with Stewart Clegg and Nelson Phillips) and When Managers Rebel (2010, Palgrave McMIllan).
Steven Vallas is Professor of Sociology at Northeastern University in Boston, where he teaches contemporary social theory and the sociology of work. Most of his research has focuses on the processes that generate or challenge organizational inequalities, whether along class (management/worker), gender, or racial lines. His articles and books have appeared in leading sociological journals, dealing with a number of topics, such as the contradictions that unfold with the commercialization of science, the dilemmas that often afflict efforts to empower workers within traditional manufacturing; how technological change disrupts authority relations at work; and the meaning of workplace ‘flexibility’ in the liberal market economies. His most recent book is Work: A Critique (Polity, 2012). He currently edits the Emerald periodical Research in the Sociology of Work.The Contributors
Yun Ai is a research associate in the National Institute of Social Development, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Her research focuses on institutional changes and governance issues in China, government and grassroots organizations, and state–society relationships. One of Ai's current research projects examines the process of policy-making and implementation in local governments. She is also working on an ethnographic study of the reform of land ownership in rural China. This research is supported by a grant from the National Social Science Fund of China (13CSH084), and a fund from the program of Marxism Theoretical Studies and Construction, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2014mgchq016).[Page x]
Tammi Arford is Assistant Professor of Crime & Justice Studies at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. Her broad areas of interest are punishment and social control, critical criminology, abolitionism, knowledge, power and resistance, and social/criminological theory.
Sandrine Baudry is Associate Professor in American Studies at the University of Strasbourg. She is a member of the SEARCH research team and her research areas are the dynamics between citizens and institutions around urban public space, and the greening of the city in the United States and in France.
Linda Blum is Professor of Sociology at Northeastern University whose interests include persistence, change, and contradictions in contemporary US gender relations. She is the author of Between Feminism and Labor: The Significance of the Comparable Worth Movement (University of California Press, 1991), At the Breast: Ideologies of Breastfeeding and Motherhood in the Contemporary United States (Beacon, 1999), and Raising Generation Rx: Mothering Kids with Invisible Disabilities in an Age of Inequality (NYU Press, 2015).
Giuseppe Caruso is a trainee psychotherapist at the National Health Service England. He also works at the Richmond Fellowship, a mental health charity, in London. Previously he was a researcher and teacher at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, and at the University of Helsinki. He has published extensively on the World Social Forum, on the Free Software movement, on the Right to the City movement and on issues of difference, conflict and democracy in transnational social movements as well as a monograph on traditional health systems in the Peruvian Amazon.
Erynn Masi de Casanova is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Cincinnati. She is the author of Making Up the Difference: Women, Beauty, and Direct Selling in Ecuador and Buttoned Up: Clothing, Conformity, and White-Collar Masculinity. She is co-editor (with Afshan Jafar) of the books Bodies without Borders and Global Beauty, Local Bodies. Casanova and Jafar also co-edit the book series Palgrave Studies in Globalization and Embodiment.
Jillian Crocker is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York, Old Westbury. Her research examines issues of agency and group solidarity at the intersections of communities, work, and families, with particular interests in practices of everyday resistance and the politics of caring labor. In other work she has analyzed gendered patterns in collective bargaining agreements. She received a PhD in Sociology from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Emeline Eudes is a lecturer at Sciences et Technologies des Arts (Université Paris 8). Her recent work concerns guerrilla planters in the Paris region, and environmental art and activism.
Pablo Fernández is Professor of Business and Society at IAE Business School, Austral University (Argentina) and member of the OCE Research Center at EMLyon (France), where he obtained his PhD. His research centers on processes of social inclusion in which marginalized actors seek to organize and work together to regain their dignity. At a more broad level, he is interested in understanding issues of power and resistance in and around [Page xi]organizations. Part of his research has been published in Organization Studies and Journal of Management Inquiry.
Peter Fleming is Professor of Business and Society at Cass Business School, City University of London. Peter's research focuses on the changing relationship between business and society, with special emphasis on Corporate Social Responsibility and new patterns of conflict in the workplace. He has also extensively studied the causes of organizational corruption in the private and public sectors.
Amanda M. Gengler is Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Wake Forest University. Her research interests include inequality and intersectionality, medical sociology, and the sociology of emotion. Her current research examines the unequal experiences of families whose children are diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses.
Cynthia Hardy is Laureate Professor in the Department of Management and Marketing at the University of Melbourne, Australia, and Professor at Cardiff Business School. Her research interests revolve around discourse, power, risk and organizational change. She has published over 60 articles in refereed journals including Academy of Management Journal, Academy Management Review and Organization Studies, as well as numerous book chapters and conference papers. She has published over 10 books, including two SAGE Handbooks: the Handbook of Organization Studies, which won the George R. Terry Book Award at the 1997 Academy of Management; and the Handbook of Organizational Discourse, which won the 2005 Outstanding Book at the Organizational Communication Division of the USA's National Communication Association. She is co-founder of the International Centre for Research in Organizational Discourse, Strategy and Change (ICRODSC), which links discourse researchers in Australia, the UK, Europe, North America, and Japan.
Daniel Hjorth is Professor of Entrepreneurship and Organization at the Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy, Copenhagen Business School, where he also is the Academic Director of the across CBS Entrepreneurship Business in Society Platform. He is also Professor at Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University. Hjorth is the editor of the four ‘Movements in Entrepreneurship’ books for Edward Elgar Publ. (together with prof. Chris Steyaert), initiating a European School of Entrepreneurship Research. He has also contributed to the opening up of Organisational Entrepreneurship as research field in the Handbook on Organisational Entrepreneurship (Edward Elgar, 2012), and recently edited the Oxford University Press Handbook of Process Philosophy and Organization Studies (2014, together with Jenny Helin, Tor Hernes, and Robin Holt). Hjorth is Senior Editor of Organization Studies (Journal, SAGE) and sits on the editorial boards of Organization (SAGE), Entrepreneurship and Regional Development (Taylor and Francis) and International Small Business Journal (SAGE).
Afshan Jafar is Associate Professor of Sociology at Connecticut College. Her interests are gender, Islam and Muslim immigrants, globalization, and embodiment. She is the author of Women's NGOs in Pakistan (2011) and the co-editor of Bodies without Borders (2013) and Global Beauty, Local Bodies (2013).
Jeffrey Juris is Associate Professor of Anthropology in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Northeastern University. He received his PhD in Anthropology from the [Page xii]University of California, Berkeley, and is the author of Networking Futures: the Movements against Corporate Globalization (Duke University Press, 2008), Global Democracy and the World Social Forums (co-author, Paradigm Press, 2008), and numerous articles on social movements, transnational networks, new media, and political protest in Spain/Catalonia, Mexico, and the US. He is also a co-editor of Insurgent Encounters: Transnational Activism, Ethnography, and the Political (Duke University Press, 2013), and has published on Occupy Boston, including a widely read piece in American Ethnologist called ‘Reflections on #Occupy Everywhere: Social Media, Public Space, and Emerging Logics of Aggregation'. He is currently writing a book regarding media and autonomy based on fifteen months of ethnographic research about ‘free’ or pirate radio activism in Mexico City and beyond.
Lamia Karim is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of Oregon. She is a cultural anthropologist with a focus on political anthropology. Her primary area of research is Bangladesh in South Asia. Her research interests are in women, globalization, development, the neoliberal state, religious nationalism, human rights, and social movements. Dr. Karim is the author of the much-acclaimed book Microfinance and Its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh (University of Minnesota Press, 2011)
Shelley Kimelberg is an adjunct Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University at Buffalo. Her research has appeared in numerous peer-reviewed journals, including City & Community, Sociological Forum, Sociological Perspectives, Journal of Education Policy, and Urban Education. Her most recent work on middle-class parents and urban public schools was featured in Choosing Homes, Choosing Schools (Russell Sage, 2014).
David Knights is Professor of Organization Work and Technology at the Lancaster University Business School. His research interests include gender, technology, higher education, and the financial sector. His current research relates to academics in business schools, the global financial crisis, the body and embodiment and most recently, veterinary surgeons. He jointly created and continues to edit Gender, Work, and Organization and has published several books and international refereed journal articles.
Bob Kurik is Research Associate in the Department of Social and Cultural Ecology at Charles University in Prague. He was a Fulbright Fellow at UCLA (2013/2014). He received his PhD (2015) in Anthropology from Charles University based on his ethnographic research among activists in Germany. His dissertation titled Revolutionary Amoebas: Political Versatility as the Art of Resistance in Germany explores amoebic subjectivity of left radicals in post-revolutionary times. His main areas of anthropological interest involve protest, subjectivity, ecology, and the Internet.
Marianne Maeckelbergh is Associate Professor of Cultural Anthropology at Leiden University in the Netherlands and a Marie Curie visiting scholar at University of California, Berkeley. She is the author of The Will of the Many: How the Alterglobalization Movement is Changing the Face of Democracy (Pluto Press, 2009) and is the co-creator and co-producer of the www.globaluprisings.org film series.
Guillaume Marche is Professor of American Studies at Universite Paris-Est Creteil (France). His publications deal with contemporary social movements in the United States – mainly the LGBT movement. His research focuses on sexual identities, subjectivity, and [Page xiii]the interplay between the cultural and political – as well as the symbolical and instrumental – dimensions of collective mobilization. His recent research also addresses infrapolitical forms of mobilization and the use of biography in social science – especially memoirs and biographies as sociological sources. He is currently working on infrapolitical forms of mobilization in San Francisco – e.g. graffiti, murals, urban greening, LGBT theatricality, public nudity – and on the use of LGBT biographies and memoirs in social movement sociology. He is a member of IMAGER (Institute for the Study of English-, German-, and Romance Language-Speaking Cultures).
Felipe G. Massa is Assistant Professor of Management, Kloor Professor of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, and co-founder of the Center for Entrepreneurship and Community Development at Loyola University New Orleans. His research is focused on the formation and introduction of disruptive entities, practices, and ideas. In particular, he investigates the efforts of social actors who collectively engage in activities that violate institutional boundaries and span social worlds in the creative industries and online spaces. His articles have appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Organization Studies, among other management and organization theory journals.
Valentine M. Moghadam is Professor of Sociology and International Affairs, and Director of the International Affairs Program, at Northeastern University, Boston. Born in Tehran, Iran, she is the author of Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East (1993, 2003, 2013), Globalization and Social Movements: Islamism, Feminism, and the Global Justice Movement (2009, 2013), and other books and journal articles. Her current research compares the transitions in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia with a number of third wave democratic transitions, with a focus on women's mobilizations and gendered outcomes.
Ryan Moore is Assistant Professor of Sociology at CUNY-Queensborough and the author of Sells like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis (NYU, 2010). He lives in New York City and is a member of the editorial collective at Situations: Project of the Radical Imagination.
Anniina Rantakari is doctoral candidate at the University of Oulu Business School, Finland. Her key areas of research are the process and practice perspectives on strategy, and the dynamics of power and resistance in organizational research in general and strategy research in particular. In her upcoming doctoral dissertation she examines strategy-making from a Foucauldian perspective.
Adam Reich is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Columbia University. He received his PhD in Sociology from UC Berkeley in 2012, and was a Robert Wood Johnson Health & Society Scholar at Columbia from 2012 to 2014. His focus, broadly, is on economic and cultural sociology. Reich is the author of three books, including With God On Our Side: The Struggle for Workers’ Rights in a Catholic Hospital (Cornell University Press, 2012). He is also the author of several peer-reviewed articles, which have appeared in journals such as the American Journal of Sociology and Social Science & Medicine.
Gay Seidman is Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her research has focused on labor and other social movements, especially in South Africa and Brazil, and on transnational movements, including the anti-apartheid and feminist movements. Her books include Manufacturing Militance: Workers’ Movements in Brazil and South [Page xiv]Africa (1994) and Beyond the Boycott: Labor Rights, Human Rights, and Transnational Activism (2007).
Marina Sitrin is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Justice at the State University of New York. She holds a PhD in Global Sociology and JD in International Women's Human Rights. She is the co-author of They Can't Represent US: Reinventing Democracy from Greece to Occupy (Verso Press, 2014) and the author of Everyday Revolutions: Horizontalism and Autonomy in Argentina (Zed Books: 2012), Horizontalism: Voices of Popular Power in Argentina (AK Press, 2006) and the forthcoming The New Revolutions with the University of California Press. Her work focuses on societies in movement, specifically looking at social relationships and forms of organization, such as autogestión, horizontalidad, prefigurative politics, and affective social relationships. She grounds her work in ethnographic participant observation, oral history, and narrative sociology while striving for militant research.
André Spicer is Professor of Organizational Behaviour and the founding director of ETHOS: The Centre for Responsible Enterprise at Cass Business School, City University of London. He is an expert in the areas of Organizational Behaviour, Leadership, and Corporate Social Responsibility. Currently, Professor Spicer is working on a book about stupidity in organizations.
Robyn Thomas is Professor of Management at Cardiff Business School, UK. Robyn's research primarily focuses on the critical analysis of management and organization, exploring the dynamics of power–resistance relations. Her current research projects include: the critical analysis of the contestation around professional and work-based identities; the construction of age in organizational contexts; and the role of middle managers in strategic change processes. Robyn publishes mainly in management and organization journals, including: Organization Science, Organization Studies, Organization, Journal of Management Studies, and the British Journal of Management.
Eero Vaara is Professor of Organization and Management at Aalto University School of Business, a Permanent Visiting Professor at EMLYON Business School, and a Distinguished Visiting Scholar at Lancaster University, UK. His research interests focus on organizational, strategic and institutional change, strategic practices and processes, multinational corporations and globalization, management history, management education, and methodological issues in organization and management research. He has worked especially on discursive and narratives approaches.
Edward T. Walker is Associate Professor and Vice-Chair in the Department of Sociology at UCLA. He studies how organizations interact with their external environments through public participation and political activism. He is author of Grassroots for Hire: Public Affairs Consultants in American Democracy (Cambridge University Press, 2014) and co-editor of Democratizing Inequalities: Dilemmas of the New Public Participation (NYU Press, 2015). His articles have appeared in the American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Social Problems, and other journals. He is currently studying political mobilization and industry responses to activism around hydraulic fracturing, and continues to investigate political activism and the politics of business more broadly.
Sierk Ybema is Associate Professor in the Department of Organization Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. His research centers on processes of meaning-making, identity construction and organizational politics in a diversity of empirical settings. He has published on culture and conflict, relational and temporal identity talk, managerial discourse and ‘postalgia', intercultural communications, interorganizational relationships, and organizational change and crisis. Current research projects include the ethnographic analysis of contestation around professional identities and processes of innovation in health care. He has published in such journals as Human Relations, Organization, Organization Studies, Journal of Business Ethics, and Work, Employment & Society.
Xueguang Zhou is the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in Economic Development, a Professor of Sociology and a Senior Fellow at Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University. His main areas of research are Chinese organizations and management, government behaviors, and the institutional logic of governance in China. His current research projects examine the rise of the bureaucratic state in China and intra-organizational relationships in the Chinese bureaucracy.