The SAGE Handbook of International Corporate and Public Affairs
This new edition of The SAGE Handbook of International Corporate and Public Affairs builds on the success of the first edition (2005) by comprehensively updating and enhancing the material and structure, setting a new standard for the practitioner and student of the global public affairs discipline. The new edition includes increased international coverage of the field, and a strong focus on emerging trends, as well as providing a comprehensive overview of the foundations and key aspects of the discipline. The Handbook is organised into six thematic sections, including a generously-sized section devoted to case studies of public affairs in action: Foundations of PA PA and its relationship to other Key Disciplines Emerging Trends in PA The Regional Development and Application of PA Case Studies of ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Corporate Public Affairs: Revisiting the Development of the Field
- Chapter 2: Theoretical Lenses and Conceptual Models for Understanding Public Affairs
- Chapter 3: Examining the Public Affairs Scholarship: What We’ve Learned (and still don’t know) from the Empirical Studies of Public Affairs
- Chapter 4: Achieving the Strategic Potential of Public Affairs
- Chapter 5: The Status of Instruction in Public Affairs: Peace in the Eye of the Hurricane?
- Chapter 6: Public Affairs and Marketing
- Chapter 7: International Relations and Public Affairs
- Chapter 8: Public Affairs and Political Philosophy
- Chapter 9: Public Affairs and Information Science/Systems
- Chapter 10: PA and Ecology
- Chapter 11: Political Marketing and Public Affairs
- Chapter 12: The Practice of Public Affairs in Public Administration
- Chapter 13: Public Affairs, Digital Media, and Tech Trends
- Chapter 14: Corporate Political Activity and Public Policy Outcomes: New Realities and Increasing Challenges
- Chapter 15: Business, Human Rights, and Sustainable Development
- Chapter 16: The Regulation of Lobbying Activity
- Chapter 17: Values, Ethics, and Professionalism in Public Affairs
- Chapter 18: Globalization and Multinational Corporations
- Chapter 19: Public Affairs in the Uncommon European Union
- Chapter 20: Public Affairs in Europe
- Chapter 21: Public Affairs in North America
- Chapter 22: Public Affairs in Latin America: The Gradual and Uneven Formalization of a Long-Time Informal Activity
- Chapter 23: Public Affairs in South Africa
- Chapter 24: Public Affairs in Australia and Oceania
- Chapter 25: Public Affairs in East and South-East Asia
- Chapter 26: Lobbying Resources and Strategies
- Chapter 27: Managing Regulatory Affairs and Intelligence: The Often Hidden Domain of Public Affairs Practice
- Chapter 28: Influencing the Legal and Judicial Process
- Chapter 29: Corporate Issues Management
- Chapter 30: Corporate Social Responsibility, Public Affairs and Corporate Community Involvement: Torn between Instrumentalism and Deliberation
- Chapter 31: Making and Managing Lobbying Coalitions
- Chapter 32: Three Case Studies from Latin America: A Living Museum of Government Affairs
- Chapter 33: The Kenya Chamber of Mines: A Case Study in Public Sector Advocacy
- Chapter 34: Lessons in Lobbying Regulation from the UK and Ireland
- Chapter 35: Public Affairs and National Level Lobbying in Japan: Winners and Losers in the Continuing Issue of the American Bases on Okinawa
- Chapter 36: Public–Private Dialogue and Policy Reforms: Lessons from Tanzania
- Chapter 37: Beppe Grillo: A Man, a Plan, a Van: The Tsunami Campaign and the National Elections, February 2013
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SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Editor: Delia Martinez Alfonso
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At SAGE we take sustainability seriously. Most of our products are printed in the UK using FSC papers and boards. When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used as measured by the PREPS grading system. We undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability.
Part I © John Mahon, 2017
Chapter 2 © Duane Windsor, 2017
Chapter 3 © Richard McGowan, 2017
Chapter 4 © Fruzsina M. Harsanyi and Geoff Allen, 2017
Chapter 5 © Shannon Blair Creighton and Martin Meznar, 2017
Part II © Phil Harris, 2017
Chapter 6 © Howard Viney, Paul Baines and Laura Stegen, 2017
Chapter 7 © Ian N. Richardson, 2017
Chapter 8 © Alberto Bitonti, 2017
Chapter 9 © Amy D. Meli and Edward A. Grefe, 2017
Chapter 10 © Simon Bryceson and Simon Levitt, 2017
Chapter 11 © Bruce I. Newman, Wojciech Cwalina and Andrzej Falkowski, 2017
Chapter 12 © Mordecai Lee, 2017
Part III © John M. Holcomb, 2017
Chapter 13 © Catie Snow Bailard, 2017
Chapter 14 © Michael Hadani, 2017
Chapter 15 © Laura Bernal-Bermudez and Tricia D. Olsen, 2017
Chapter 16 © Justin Greenwood, 2017
Chapter 17 © Shannon A. Bowen, 2017
Chapter 18 © Jeffrey A. Hart, 2017
Part IV © Carla Millar, 2017
Chapter 19 © Rinus van Schendelen, 2017
Chapter 20 © Alberto Bitonti and Phil Harris, 2017
Chapter 21 © John Mahon, 2017
Chapter 22 © Andréa Cristina Oliveira Gozetto and Clive S. Thomas, 2017
Chapter 23 © Ronel Rensburg and Olebogeng Selebi, 2017
Chapter 24 © Geoff Allen, 2017
Chapter 25 © Andrew Hughes, 2017
Part V © Craig S. Fleisher, 2017
Chapter 26 © William D. Oberman, 2017
Chapter 27 © Craig S. Fleisher, 2017
Chapter 28 © John M. Holcomb, 2017
Chapter 29 © John Mahon, 2017
Chapter 30 © Irina Lock and Peter Seele, 2017
Chapter 31 © Arco Timmermans, 2017
Part VI © Danny Moss, 2017
Chapter 32 © Clive S. Thomas and Kristina Klimovich, 2017
Chapter 33 © David Irwin and Kariuki Waweru, 2017
Chapter 34 © Conor McGrath, 2017
Chapter 35 © Koji Haraguchi and Ronald J. Hrebenar, 2017
Chapter 36 © Goodluck Charles, 2017
Chapter 37 © Gianluca Vinicio Aguggini, 2017
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2016957757
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
List of Figures[Page ix]
- I.1 Benefits of benchmarking in public affairs 7
- 2.1 A basic conceptual model of political influence on public policy process 48
- 2.2 A basic model of communication to stakeholders 49
- 4.1 An integrated public affairs function 71
- 4.2 Evolution of public affairs 73
- 4.3 Public Affairs as an integral part of business operations 76
- 6.1 The Stakeholder Mapping Matrix 122
- 9.1 Tweet from Neil deGrasse Tyson 175
- 9.2 YouTube video of a hospice patient telling her story 176
- 10.1 Friends of the Earth campaigners place empty bottles outside the London HQ of Cadbury Schweppes in 1971, to promote re-use 187
- 11.1 The macro and micro view of political marketing 198
- 11.2 Strategic framework for lobbyists 209
- 15.1 Data on company policy and practice around human rights, in general 291
- 15.2 Data on company policy and practice specific to supply chain, child labor, and forced labor 291
- 17.1 Ethical Consideration Triangle 326
- 18.1 FDI inflows, global and by group of economies, 1995–2014 (Billions of dollars) 333
- 18.2 Value of cross-border M&As and announced greenfield projects, 2003–2014 (Billions of dollars) 336
- 18.3 Percentage of Global FDI Outflows by Country, 1914–2019 341
- 18.4 Annual Number of Investment Disputes Registered by ICSID, 1972–2014 342
- P IV.1 Informal versus formal business systems 351
- 20.1 Plan of the prime floor of Westminster Parliament 372
- 21.1 Early business-government-society relationships 389
- 21.2 Evolving business-society relationships 389
- 21.3 The current chaotic state of business-government-NGOs-society relationships 390
- 21.4 Criteria for evaluation of stakeholder influence 396
- 23.1 Example of South African government department structures 430
- 23.2 Trade union members protesting against e-toll system 433
- 25.1 The rapid rise of Asia as an economic power: Asia % of World GDP from 1980–2020 456
- 25.2 Asian public affairs stakeholder conceptual model – relationship & exchange 462
- 25.3 The relationship between relationship quality/level and length of time in Asian Public Affairs 463
- 27.1 Genericized job description for a senior regulatory affairs director 503
- 27.2 Main industries in which RA officials are regularly employed (circa 2015) 505
- 27.3 Overview of opportunities and threats for businesses in the public policy environment 506
- 27.4 Generic process for developing regulatory strategy 508
- 27.5 Range of analytical tools commonly used in RACI activities 513
- 29.1 The Simple Model 535
- [Page x]29.2 Narrowing discretion 538
- 29.3 How an issue builds support 542
- 29.4 Attacking the issue or the stakeholder 544
- 31.1 Empirical findings on the occurrence of coalitions 568
- 33.1 Timeline 607
- 33.2 Citations in report of Departmental Committee on environment & natural resources 608
- 36.1 Policy dialogue levels in Tanzania 655
List of Tables[Page xi]
- 1.1 The organizational activities that commonly constitute public affairs 3
- 1.1 The swinging pendulum of how the public generally viewed US government involvement in business activity over 5 decades 25
- 1.2 The different relations that constitute public affairs practice 30
- 3.1 2001–5 (33% of the public affairs articles had empirical data/analysis) 57
- 3.2 2006–10 (40% of the public affairs Articles had empirical data/analysis) 57
- 3.3 2011–14 (42% of the public affairs articles had empirical data/analysis) 58
- 5.1 Program titles within the domain of public affairs 84
- 5.2 Program costs 85
- 5.3 Largest programs based on enrollment 86
- 5.4 Executive programs 87
- 5.5 Program rankings compared 88
- 6.1 Stakeholder engagement strategies employed in different scenarios 128
- 9.1 Pros and cons of stakeholder databases 168
- 11.1 Contributions for House candidates in 2000 election (%) 201
- 11.2 Top spending on the top 10 issues 202
- 14.1 Comparison of different disciplinary views on CPA 266
- P IV.1 The World Bank classifies countries 350
- 20.1 Evolution of modern public affairs and lobbying in UK 375
- 21.1 Un principles for global corporations 401
- 22.1 The countries of Latin America 406
- 25.1 Stakeholder exchange based attribute model definitions 461
- 36.1 Advocacy issues vs roadmap and BRN focus 658
- 36.2 Advocacy projects implemented by members of the TPSF (2005-20–15) 664
- 37.1 February 24–25, Chamber of Deputies election results 677
- 37.2 February 24–25, Senate election results 678
Notes on the Editors and Contributors[Page xii]The Editors
Phil Harris is Executive Director of the Business Research Institute at the University of Chester, Previously Dean of University of Chester Business School from 2009 to 2014 and holds the Westminster Chair of Marketing and Public Affairs at the University. Past Chairman of the Marketing Council (UK) PLC, Board member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing, Professor of Marketing at the University of Otago, New Zealand and Founding Director of the Centre for Corporate and Public Affairs at Manchester Metropolitan University. Prior to becoming an academic he held positions in the international chemical, foods and radio industries with ICI, RHM and Radio Luxembourg and has chaired or been a board member of the American Marketing Association, Academy of Marketing, and the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy. He has been a candidate for the UK and EU Parliaments and is a past chairman of the Liberal Party and advisor to a number of business and governmental organisations. Phil is regarded internationally as one of the founders of research and theory development in political marketing and strategic public affairs management (lobbying). He has just completed two books: The International Handbook of Corporate and Public Affairs with Craig S. Fleisher for SAGE (2017) and Lobbying in Europe: Public Affairs and the Lobbying Industry in 28 EU Countries with Alberto Bitonti for Palgrave (2017). His current activities focus on China, entrepreneurship, family business, business competitiveness and global public affairs and management education. He holds visiting professorships in Beijing, Jiangsu, Wuhan and Xiamen.
Craig S. Fleisher is the Chief Learning Officer and Director of Professional Development at Aurora WDC, a 20+ year old professional services firm headquartered in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Craig holds academic roles as a long-serving graduate faculty member in the Executive Master of Science in Communication Management (EMScom) at the Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) in Lugano, Switzerland and Professor (adj.) in Business Information Management, Faculty of Business, Tampere University of Technology, Finland. He was previously President of the Canadian Council for Public Affairs Advancement and served as a board member of the Center for Public Affairs Management (Washington, DC), European Center for Public Affairs, Public Affairs Association of Canada, and George Washington University Graduate School of Political Management. He is the Regional Editor for the Americas of the Journal of Public Affairs. A Fellow and Meritorious award winner in strategy and competitive intelligence, Craig is an award-winning instructor and top-cited author in business and strategic analysis, managing corporate and public affairs and social issues in management. He is an active keynote speaker, [Page xiii]having addressed audiences in over 50 nations, and an advisor to senior executives in many class-leading organizations around the globe. He has written several acclaimed books, including Assessing, Managing and Maximizing Public Affairs Performance (1997), Public Affairs Benchmarking: A Comprehensive Guide (1995), Strategic and Competitive Analysis (2003), Handbook of Public Affairs (2005), Business and Competitive Analysis (2nd Ed, 2015) and has also published over 150 articles and chapters. He has previously served as dean, graduate program director, university research chair and/or professor at the Universities of Calgary, New Brunswick, Wilfrid Laurier, Windsor (Canada), Coastal Georgia (USA), and Sydney (Australia). He holds a PhD in Business Administration from the Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh.The Contributors
Gianluca Vinicio Aguggini was born on July 6, 1990 in Torino, Italy. He graduated in Foreign Languages applied to Business and Management at Catholic University of Sacred Heart in Milan, attaining his Bachelor degree in 2013. In order to enrich his marketing background and in line with his international vocation, he moved to London to pursue a Masters of Science in Marketing at Queen Mary University, where he was awarded First-Class Honours in 2015. After working in Milan as a Fashion Buyer Coordinator, he is now Business Development Associate at Condé Nast International in London. His long-term objective is to keep a strong connection between his career in the fashion industry and the editorial world, which he constantly looks at thanks to his passion for writing.
Geoff Allen has been a Civil Servant and Senior Advisor to the Australian Treasurer and Leader of the Opposition. He was co-founder, architect and foundation CEO of the Business Council of Australia. He has chaired a number of Australian Government advisory councils including its Trade Development Council, Trade Negotiations Advisory Group, and is currently Chairman of The Australian Statistics Advisory Council. He was a member of the Australian Government's Foreign Affairs Council and Prime Minister's Business-Community Partnership. He was National Chairman of the Committee for Economic Development of Australia and Director of a number of public companies. He was founder of Australia's largest independent public policy and economics consultancy and The Australian Centre for Corporate Public Affairs. He pioneered the teaching of business government relations in Australia as Senior Research Fellow and subsequently as adjunct professor at the Melbourne Business School. He was Deputy Chairman of that School for ten years. He has been consultant to boards and senior managements of major companies and to governments, including personal assignments for the Australian Prime Minister. He was made Member of the Order of Australia for services to business government relations and public affairs.
Catie Snow Bailard earned her PhD in Political Science from UCLA and is an Associate Professor at George Washington University in the School of Media and Public Affairs. Catie's research agenda seeks to broaden the field of political communication by focusing on political outcomes beyond the American borders and media technologies beyond legacy broadcast media. In acknowledgment of her work, Catie received the 2012 Sanders-Kaid Award from the International Communication Association for the best [Page xiv]paper published in political communication for her study, ‘Testing the Internet's Effect on Democratic Satisfaction: A Multi-Methodological, Cross-National Approach'. She was also awarded the 2015 Best Book Award by the American Political Science Association in the field of Information Technology and Politics for her book, Democracy's Double-Edged Sword: How Internet Use Changes Citizens’ Views of their Government.
Paul Baines is Professor of Political Marketing at Cranfield University. Paul was Managing Editor, Europe of the Journal of Political Marketing from 2010–13. He is author/co-author of more than a hundred published journal articles, book chapters and books on marketing issues. Over the last eighteen years, Paul's research has particularly focused on political marketing, public opinion and propaganda. Paul is (co-)editor and co-author of Political Marketing (Sage Publications, 2011), with Sir Robert Worcester, Roger Mortimore and Mark Gill, of Explaining Cameron's Comeback (Indie Books, 2015) and a four-volume set on Propaganda with Nicholas O'Shaughnessy (Sage Publications, 2012). Paul has worked on various communication research projects for the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Home Office and Ministry of Defence. He is Director of Baines Associates Limited.
Laura Bernal-Bermudez is a DPhil candidate in the Department of Sociology of the University of Oxford, where she researches access to justice for victims of corporate human rights violations. She focuses on business and human rights in Colombia, but has participated in the creation of large-N databases of abuses occurring in Latin America. Her published work can be found in peer-reviewed journals in Colombia, including International Law Revista Internacional de Derecho Internacional and Vniversitas.
Alberto Bitonti is Professor of Politics at IES Abroad Rome and at the Umbra Institute of Perugia (Italy), as well as a Fellow at LUISS Guido Carli University of Rome (Italy) and at the School of Public Affairs of the American University in Washington DC (United States). He holds a PhD in Political Theory (University of Roma Tre, 2011). His research is grounded in Political Theory, Philosophy of Science and Political Science, and focuses on lobbying and public affairs, philosophy of power, political influence and communication. He is editor of Lobbying in Europe (Palgrave MacMillan, 2017, with Phil Harris), and author of Classe dirigente, a book on the Italian ruling class (Datanews, 2012), besides several book chapters. He is an activist for various organizations promoting open government, transparency and innovation in the political world.
Shannon A. Bowen is Professor of Public Relations at the University of South Carolina; she is the 2011 winner of the Jackson Jackson and Wagner Behavioral Science Research Prize. She has published scores of studies on many aspects of ethics in professional practice, and is co-editor of Ethical Space, The International Journal of Communication Ethics. Her professional experience includes working on Capitol Hill followed by her years as a research analyst and strategist for dozens of election campaigns as well as for corporate clients. Her doctorate is from the University of Maryland in the excellence theory tradition of James E. Grunig, as well as in business management, and was the ICA outstanding dissertation award winner. Her recent books include An Overview of the Public Relations Function and Excellence in Internal Relations Management.[Page xv]
Simon Bryceson is a Political Consultant, and has worked with over 300 corporations in Europe, North America, South America, Russia and Australasia. He is currently chairperson of Harwood Levitt Consulting, a Public Affairs strategy consultancy based in Brussels. Simon was awarded the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for his services to politics in 1992. Previously, he held the position of General Secretary of the British Liberal Party between 1982–1987. For 7 years Simon was the Head of Public Affairs of Burson-Marsteller in London. He holds a degree in Politics from the University of York.
Goodluck Charles works with the University of Dar es Salaam Business School (UDBS) as a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Marketing. Over the last fifteen years he has taken a number of posts at the University including Deputy Director of the University of Dar es Salaam Entrepreneurship Centre (UDEC) and the School Coordinator of Research and Publications. He is currently the Coordinator of the Centre for Policy Research and Advocacy (CPRA), hosted by UDBS. He has researched and published on entrepreneurship and private-sector development, public–private dialogue and policy advocacy, family business, micro-financing and business environment.
Shannon Blair Creighton was recently named the MBA Director at Limestone College in Gaffney, South Carolina, after four years as a university Lecturer at Appalachian State University, North Carolina. Shannon is also currently finishing his DBA in International Business from Walden University with a research focus on reducing workplace discrimination. He has higher education experience in financial aid, student development, assessment, student club advising, strategic planning, diversity management, international travel experiences.
Wojciech Cwalina is Professor in the Department of Marketing Psychology at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland. His publications include numerous articles on political marketing, social psychology and media psychology, as well as chapters and books. The author of Television Political Advertising (TN KUL, Poland, 2000) and co-author of four books including A Cross-Cultural Theory of Voter Behavior (Haworth Press, 2007) and Political Marketing: Theoretical and Strategic Foundations (M.E. Sharpe, 2011). He is a member of the editorial board in Psychologia Społeczna (Social Psychology) and Journal of Political Marketing.
Andrzej Falkowski is Professor of Psychology and Marketing, and Head of the Department of Marketing Psychology at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Michigan. His publications include numerous articles in consumer behavior, political marketing, and cognitive psychology journals, as well as chapters and books. He is co-author of A Cross-Cultural Theory of Voter Behavior (Haworth Press, 2007) and Political Marketing: Theoretical and Strategic Foundations (M.E. Sharpe, 2011). He is advisory editor of the Handbook of Political Marketing, and editorial board member of Journal of Political Marketing.
Justin Greenwood is Professor of European Public Policy at The Robert Gordon University (Aberdeen, UK) and a Visiting Professor at the College of Europe. He is the author of Interest Representation in the EU (Palgrave Macmillan), the subject of his career [Page xvi]of long specialism, as well as Inside the EU Business Associations with the same publisher. He has also recently published articles on the European Transparency Register and the European Citizens’ Initiative. He is currently the Principal Investigator on a UK Economic and Social Committee (ESRC) funded project examining information flows between the three EU legislative institutions and civil society organisations during the course of informal ‘trilogue’ negotiations, through which most EU legislation is agreed at first reading.
Edward A. Grefe has spent more than 40 years in Communications and Politics. He started his career with The Washington Post and continued his early journalism with The Baltimore News American for which he wrote a front page series on reading problems in that city in 1964. He worked for three Members of Congress in the late 1960s. Ed's many campaigns include candidates seeking to become US Senator, US Congressmen, Governor, and Mayor. In working with organizations seeking victory in legislative battles at the city and village level, in particular, he and his firm have been involved in over 350 grassroots campaigns. He has also worked on political campaigns and community advocacy efforts in several foreign countries – including Australia, Canada, Costa Rico, Ecuador, Mexico, and France. He has taught at the Graduate School of Political Management at George Washington University since 1995; and has taught as well at Duquesne University (Pittsburgh, PA), Leiden University (The Hague, The Netherlands), and Rosario University (Bogotá, Colombia).
Michael Hadani is the TransAmerica Corporation Professor of Business Policy at the School of Economics and Business Administration at Saint Mary's College of California. He received his PhD from the Martin J Whitman School of Management at Syracuse University. Apart from teaching strategy and global strategy to MBA and executive MBA students at the graduate school of business, Michael's research into corporate political activity has been published in the Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management, Journal of Business Research, Business & Society and the Journal of Organizational Behavior and has appeared on several national media outlets. Michael also serves on the board of the Journal of Management and on the board of Business & Society.
Koji Haraguchi, a native of Japan, has his PhD in Political Science at the University of Utah and works at Yamanashi University's International College of Liberal Arts in Japan.
Fruzsina M. Harsanyi is a Consultant on Public Affairs, a Visiting Scholar at The American University, Washington, D.C., Director of the Global Government Relations Forum, and Senior Advisor to Interel, the global public affairs consultancy, headquartered in Brussels. Her consulting practice focuses on the strategic role of public affairs in business, on international public affairs and on public affairs as a leadership function. She has 30 years’ experience managing the public-affairs function for several US and non-US multinational corporations, including Tyco International Ltd (Vice President, Global Public Affairs) and ABB Inc (Senior Vice President, Public Affairs and Corporate Communications). She has been on the faculty of the Corporate Public Affairs Institute in Melbourne, Australia for 20 years, where she delivered the annual oration in 2010. She has lectured on public affairs in the US and abroad, including at Georgetown University, Leeds University Business School in the UK and the Asia Public Affairs [Page xvii]Institute in Hong Kong. She co-authored ‘Creating a Public Affairs Function in Countries without a Public Affairs Culture', published in the Journal of Public Affairs, 2011.
Jeffrey A. Hart is Emeritus Professor of Political Science at Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught international politics and international political economy from 1981 to 2012. His first teaching position was at Princeton University from 1973 to 1980. He was a professional staff member of the President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties from 1980 to 1981. Hart worked as an internal contractor at the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress 1985–6 and helped to write their report, International Competition in Services (1987). His books include The New International Economic Order (1983), Interdependence in the Post-Multilateral Era (1985), Rival Capitalists (1992), Globalization and Governance (1999), Managing New Industry Creation (2001), Technology, Television, and Competition (2004), The Politics of International Economic Relations, 7th edition (2009), and he has published scholarly articles in World Politics, International Organization, the British Journal of Political Science, New Political Economy, and the Journal of Conflict Resolution.
John M. Holcomb is a Professor of Business Ethics and Legal Studies and has over 35 years of teaching experience at the Universities of Denver, California (Berkeley), Maryland, Rutgers, and George Washington University. He has taught executive education programs in the US, Canada, and the United Kingdom, and has consulted to corporations, trade associations, and think tanks. He has written many articles and book chapters on the legal, political, and ethical aspects of business. His publications focus on corporate governance, corporate political activities, crisis management, and NGOs. He is former Chairman of the Colorado Commission on Judicial Discipline and has a JD degree from Georgetown University and MA in Political Science from Vanderbilt University.
Ronald J. Hrebenar is Emeritus Professor of Political Science at the University of Utah. He is author or editor of 17 books on Japanese and American politics in the subfields of interest groups, lobbying and political organization. He was a Fulbright Professor of Political Science at Tohoku University and Fulbright Distinguished Chair of Political Science at the University of Vienna.
Andrew Hughes is a Lecturer in Marketing in the Research School of Management, where he teaches marketing at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He is considered to be one of the leading researchers in political marketing in Australia and has given numerous interviews on politics and political marketing to international and national television, print and internet outlets. His past research has examined the role of stakeholders in political marketing, personal brands in political marketing, and the role of negative advertising. His thesis, ‘The relationship between advertisement content and pacing on emotional responses and memory for televised political advertisements’ was nominated for ANU's prestigious thesis prize, the J.G. Crawford Award.His main areas of research include emotions in television advertising, emotional responses in marketing and strategy generally, communications, personal branding, and political and non-profit marketing.[Page xviii]
David Irwin is a Social Entrepreneur and Consultant in enterprise and economic development working with clients such as DANIDA, Department for International Development, International Labour Organisation and the International Trade Centre. He advises on regulatory reform and the business-enabling environment and supports business associations to undertake projects to influence public policy. He works mainly in the UK and Sub-Saharan Africa. From early 2000 to 2002, he was Chief Executive of the Small Business Service, an executive agency of the Department of Trade and Industry, with responsibility for managing all of the UK Government's small business support programmes and a role as the ‘strong voice for small business at the heart of Government'. Before joining SBS, he co-founded Project North East (PNE), one of the UK's leading enterprise and economic development agencies, and was its chief executive for 20 years. He was awarded the Queen's Award for Enterprise Promotion in 2009. David has a BSc in Engineering Science and Management from Durham University and an MBA from Newcastle University. He is a Fellow of the RSA. He has a particular interest in the factors that lead business associations to success in their influencing activities.
Kristina Klimovich has a Master's degree in International Affairs from the New School University in New York City and a Bachelor's degree in Social Sciences from the University of Alaska Southeast. She has extensive experience conducting interest-group research as a graduate research assistant. Kristina also has broad experience working for non-profit advocacy, research and aid organizations. She is currently promoting innovative sustainable financing strategies as a Fellow at PACENation.
Mordecai Lee is Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He earned a PhD in public administration from Syracuse University (NY). Prior to joining the academy in 1997, he was a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution in Washington (DC), legislative assistant to a Member of Congress, elected to three terms in the Wisconsin State Legislature's State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate, and executive director of a faith-based NGO engaging in public policy advocacy. He has written extensively about public affairs in American government. His books include The Philosopher-Lobbyist: John Dewey and the People's Lobby, 1928–1940 (2015), Promoting the War Effort: Robert Horton and Federal Propaganda, 1938–1946 (2012), Congress vs. the Bureaucracy: Muzzling Agency Public Relations (2011) and The First Presidential Communications Agency: FDR's Office of Government Reports (2005). He co-edited The Practice of Government Public Relations (2012) and edited Government Public Relations: A Reader (2008). He has also authored several score articles in scholarly journals on public affairs in American government.
Simon Levitt is a Founder and Partner of Harwood Levitt Consulting, a Public Affairs strategy consultancy in Brussels. Simon has designed global and European Public Affairs strategies for the world's leading companies in the healthcare, FMCG, and food/drink sectors. He also works with foundations, and other civil society organisations on environment and development issues. Simon trains senior management on how to integrate Public Affairs effectively into their organisations, and his experience spans New York, London, and Brussels. He has lectured on Public Affairs and business strategy at Solvay Business School and United Business Institutes in Brussels since 2013 and has over 15 years of experience of the Brussels lobbying environment. Simon holds a degree in Classics from Oxford University.[Page xix]
Irina Lock is Assistant Professor of Corporate Communication at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. She received her PhD from the Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.
John Mahon is the John M. Murphy Chair of International Business Policy and Strategy/Professor of Management at the Maine Business School, University of Maine. He was the founding director of the School of Policy and International Affairs at UM. From 2004 to 2006, was Provost ad interim; from 2007–2010 he was Dean, College of Business Public Policy and Health. Prior to Maine, Mahon was a Professor of Strategy and Policy/Chair of the Strategy and Policy Department at the School of Management, Boston University. He received his DBA from Boston University, his MBA (with honors) from Bryant College, and his BS in Economics from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author or co-author of nearly 300 cases, papers and book chapters.
Richard McGowan is a Professor of the Carroll School of Management at Boston College. The focus of his research is on the interaction of the Business and Public Policy processes especially, as they relate to the gambling, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana industries.Father McGowan has published seven books entitled: State Lotteries and Legalized Gambling: Painless Revenue or Painful Mirage, Quorum Books (October,1994); Business, Politics and Cigarettes: Multiple Levels, Multiple Agendas, Greenwood Press (September, 1995); Industry as a Player in the Social and Political Arenas, Quorum Press (June, 1996) and The Search for Revenue and the Common Good: An Analysis of Government Regulation of the Alcohol Industry, Praeger Books (May, 1997); Government and the Transformation of the Gaming Industry, Edward Elgar Publishing Inc. (July, 2001). In 2012, He published The Gambling Debate. His latest book, Privatize this? was published last year. He is finishing a book, entitled, Lotteries: The Key to Understanding the Gambling Industry and will begin a book entitled, The Ethics of Disgust and the Sin Industries. He has also published over a hundred referred articles in various academic journals and made over numerous academic and professional presentations.
Conor McGrath is Lecturer in Public Relations at Ulster University. He has worked for a Member of Parliament and as a lobbyist in the UK. Conor serves as Deputy Editor of the Journal of Public Affairs and as Practice Editor of Interest Groups and Advocacy. He is a former President of the Political Studies Association of Ireland, Chair of the Northern Ireland Government Affairs Group, Chair of the Education Sub-Council at the Public Relations Institute of Ireland, and Chair of the Research and Publications Committee at the European Centre for Public Affairs. His research interests include: lobbying regulation; the historical evolution and development of lobbying in the UK and US; professionalization of the lobbying industry; media coverage of Northern Irish politics; and fictional portrayals of lobbying and lobbyists.
Amy D. Meli serves as Senior Vice President for Grassroots Consulting at Aristotle. In this role, Amy helps her clients achieve their public affairs goals by building durable and effective grassroots programs. Over the past 14 years, Amy has managed grassroots programs for Fortune 500 companies, nonprofit groups, and other organizations; established and managed third party coalitions; and advised clients on the effective use of software in accomplishing their public affairs goals. Prior to her work at Aristotle, Amy worked on Capitol Hill for then-Congressman Richard Burr and the House Energy and Commerce Committee. Amy holds a BA from Virginia Tech in Political Science and [Page xx]Communication Studies, and a graduate degree in Political Management from The George Washington University Graduate School of Political Management, where she is currently an adjunct professor teaching Grassroots Politics.
Martin Meznar is a Professor and Associate Dean for International Programs and Assessment at the Walker College of Business at Appalachian State University (Boone, NC). He holds a PhD in International Business from the University of South Carolina. Much of his research centers on public affairs management in multinational corporations and on corporate social issues management. Prior to joining Appalachian State Dr Meznar taught at Arizona State University and before that at the University of Victoria, in British Columbia. His research has been published in a variety of academic journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Human Relations, Business & Society, Journal of International Management, Journal of Public Affairs and Latin American Business Review.
Carla Millar is a Fellow of Ashridge at Hult International Business School, Professor of International Marketing & Management at the University of Twente, and Professor of Public Affairs, University of Chester. As an executive in major MNCs she conceptualized and launched many international brands; as an academic she is a former Business School Dean and CEO; was CEO of City University Business School's Management Development Centre, a professor at RUG, Groningen, a visiting professor at ANU, Canberra & ESSEC, Paris, published over 100 academic papers, and guest edited a dozen Special Issues of peer reviewed Journals. For the Journal of Public Affairs she co-guest edited the much cited SIs on ‘Public Affairs in Central and Eastern Europe’ (2014) and on ‘Multi Stakeholder Public Policy and Governance in China’ (2014) after the special issue on ‘The Sustainability Challenge – Influencing the change’ (2012) and on ‘Looking into the Abyss: Global Unethical Leadership’ (2010), which offered international reflections on leadership in the face of corruption and manipulation. Currently she is guest editing the JPA SI on ‘Value Creation in Knowledge Intensive Institutions: Priorities for Governance and Public Affairs’ due in 2017. Her current research focuses on leadership, ethics and innovation, transparency, multi-age driven organisational change, knowledge intensive industries, branding and reputation, comparative public affairs, and national governance bundles.
Danny Moss is Professor of Corporate and Public Affairs at the University of Chester Business School and co-director of the University's International Centre for Corporate & Public Affairs Research. Previously he worked at Manchester Metropolitan University, and the University of Stirling, specialising in the field of Public Relations and Corporate Communications, and co- founding the annual Global Public Relations Research Symposium held at Lake Bled, Slovenia. Danny Moss is the founding co-editor of the Journal of Public Affairs and has published work in a wide range of journals and has authored a number of books, most recently Public relations: A managerial perspective (2011).
Bruce I. Newman (PhD) is Professor of Marketing and Wicklander Fellow in Business Ethics in the Department of Marketing, Kellstadt Graduate School of Business at DePaul University, USA. He has held visiting scholar positions at several universities, including Stanford University, the University of California-Berkeley, and more recently at Meiji University in Tokyo, Japan. His publications have appeared in top academic journals, [Page xxi]including the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Business Research, Psychology &Marketing, among others. Bruce has published 15 books, some of which have appeared in Chinese, Korean, Hungarian and Italian. His most recent book is The Marketing Revolution inPolitics: What Recent U.S. Presidential Campaigns Can Teach Us About Effective Marketing (Rotman-UTP Press, 2016, Award-Winner in the Business: Marketing & Advertising category of the 2016 International Book Awards). He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Political Marketing, now in its fifteenth year. Dr Newman is a recipient of the Ehrenring (Ring of Honor) from the Austrian Advertising Research Association, and advised senior aides in the Clinton White House of 1995–1996 on communication strategy. Dr Newman has been invited to give Keynote Addresses in over 30 countries.
William D. Oberman is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Management, Marketing, and Entrepreneurship at the John L. Grove College of Business, Shippensburg University. He completed his doctoral work in Business Environment & Public Policy and Strategic Planning & Policy at the Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh. In addition to Shippensburg, he has taught business & society, ethics, public affairs, leadership, and strategic management at the University of Pittsburgh, the University of New Mexico, and the Pennsylvania State University. His research interests include business involvement in the public policy process, corporate social responsibility, the roles and responsibilities of leaders and followers in large organizations, and social networks and organizational governance.
Andréa Cristina Oliveira Gozetto is a Political Scientist specializing in interest groups and political advocacy. She earned her PhD from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) in 2004 and her Master in Political Sociology from Unesp-Araraquara in 1998. She is also academic coordinator of the MBA in Economics and Management-Government Relations at the Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) MGM, visiting professor of the Public Management MBA at the Senac and advisor/researcher in the Local Public Administration MBA at Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp). Andréa works as consultant for the National Industry Confederation (CNI). She has authored many articles on Brazilian lobbying. These include: Interest Groups in Brazil: a new era and its challenges (2014).
Tricia D. Olsen is the Marcus Faculty Fellow and an Assistant Professor at the University of Denver where she researches and teaches about business ethics, human rights, and sustainability in emerging economies. Dr Olsen's current research is on business and human rights, which involves the creation of a large-N database of historical trends of businesses’ human rights practices in Latin America. She also writes about the development, and ethics, of microfinance across Brazil and Mexico. Her work has been published in the Journal of Business Ethics, Human Rights Quarterly, Journal of Human Rights, and Journal of Peace Research. Olsen has received support from Fulbright-Hays, the British Academy/Leverhulme, USAID, among others. She has consulted with the UN Working Group on Business and Human Rights and the Global Business Initiative.
Ronel Rensburg is Professor and Head of the Communication Management Division, as well as Director of the Center for Communication and Reputation Management at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. She holds a a PhD in Communication Science from the University of South Africa (Unisa). Much of her research centers on strategic communication management in the business environment and on reputation management. [Page xxii]She is a Fellow of the Public Relations and Communication Management Institute of southern Africa (PRISA) and has published a variety of articles and books on these subject matters.
Ian N. Richardson is Director of Executive Education and Director of the MSc Strategic Public & Political Marketing at Stockholm University. In addition to advisory board responsibilities at Cranfield School of Management and Cracow University, he's also a member of the European Club Association (ECA) Scientific Advisory Panel. Prior to his doctorate at Cranfield, which explored consensus in transnational elite networks, Ian was a business leader in the magazine publishing and internet sectors. At the height of the dotcom era, he was Chief Operating Officer of the most well-funded internet start-up in Europe and has managed a number of pan-European digital information businesses. He has advised – and continues to advise – numerous organisations within the sector. As lead author of ‘Bilderberg People: Elite Power and Consensus in World Affairs’ (Routledge, 2011), and a political contributor to the Huffington Post, Ian also provides advice and consulting on issues related to political strategy, public affairs and public diplomacy.
Rinus van Schendelen has been Full Professor in Political Science since 1980 and is Emeritus since 2005 at Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands (NL). His special interest has always been ‘influencing decision-making', nowadays also called public affairs management. He published more than forty books and 200 articles in academic journals. His current leading title is ‘The Art of Lobbying the EU: More Machiavelli in Brussels’ (1st ed. 2002, 4th ed. 2013 and translated in German, Polish, Czech and Bulgarian. For over 35 years he advised all sorts of interest groups (governments, NGO's, companies etc.) for their EU-affairs. He is associate at PA Bureau Brussels in the EU capital. In NL he co-founded four PA ‘King William’ and other groupings of PA practitioners and at the EU level he co-founded and chaired for ten years the Research Committee of the then European Centre for Public Affairs.
Peter Seele is Associate Professor of Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Ethics at the Faculty of Communication Sciences at the Università della Svizzera italiana in Lugano, Switzerland.
Olebogeng Selebi is a Lecturer and PhD student from the University of Pretoria. Her research focus is primarily on public, intercultural and business communication. She currently holds an MCom degree in Communication Management. Ms Selebi teaches Business Communication Skills to approximately 2,000 first-year BCom students a year while also lecturing Strategic Corporate Communication Management as well as Reputation Management on Honours level. In addition to her teaching responsibilities, she provides two one-day communication workshops to actuaries who form part of the Actuarial Society of South Africa. In the past, she provided communication training for participants in the Albertina Sisulu Executive Leadership Programme in Health (ASELPH).
Laura Stegen was a Postgraduate student on the MSc in Management and Corporate Sustainability 2014–15 at Cranfield University.[Page xxiii]
Clive S. Thomas is a Senior Fellow at the Thomas S. Foley Institute for Public Policy and Public Service at Washington State University, in the State of Washington in the US, and a Visiting Professor at the University of São Paulo in Brazil. His publications include several books and articles on interest groups in US, European, Asian and Latin American politics, including A Research Guide to US and International Interest Groups (Praeger, 2004). His most recent publications are included in a Special Double Issue of the Journal of Public Affairs, published in Fall 2014, titled ‘Interest Groups and Lobbying in Latin America: A New Era or More of the Same,’ of which he was the guest editor. He also runs the political consulting firm PAS–Political Advocacy Strategies.
Arco Timmermans is Professor of Public Affairs at the Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs at Leiden University, the Netherlands. He obtained his PhD in the political and social sciences at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. Former positions were at the Delft University of Technology, Twente University and the Montesquieu Institute in the Hague where he was research director. Arco's research and teaching is about comparative public policy and public affairs, focusing on the dynamics of issue attention, coalition building, grassroots lobbying, and the professionalization of public affairs in the Netherlands. He has published in journals such as the European Journal of Political Research, Policy Studies Journal, Comparative Political Studies, Interest Groups & Advocacy, the Journal of Common Market Studies, and he is a co-editor of the Palgrave book series Comparative Studies of Political Agendas. He is the co-founder of the Netherlands project in the international Comparative Agendas Project. The chair he holds is a unique collaboration between Leiden University and the Netherlands Association for Public Affairs, seeking to promote the dialogue between research and practice. Arco also wrote numerous newspaper columns and comments in various media on news issues relating to public affairs and politics.
Howard Viney is a Visiting Fellow at Open University Business School (OUBS), having previously been Senior Lecturer in Strategic Management there and at Cranfield University. He is also a Programme Director for the Centre for Management Development at London Business School. Prior to joining OUBS, Howard was a research fellow and lecturer at Middlesex University. His research interest is primarily focused upon stakeholder–management issues and nonmarket strategies and he is particularly interested in non-traditionally competitive industries, the marketized public sector and utility organizations. He has published over 20 academic papers, co-edited two books and presented his work at numerous international conferences.
Kariuki Waweru is an Advocacy Manager at the Business Advocacy Fund. He supports business associations in Kenya to identify, clarify and understand their economic-policy issues and then supports them as they advocate public-policy reform.
Duane Windsor obtained his PhD from Harvard University, is a Rice University alumnus (BA) and is now Lynette S. Autrey Professor of Management in the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business there. He was editor (2007–14) of the journal Business & Society, founded in 1960 and sponsored by the International Association for Business and Society (IABS), from which he received the 2014 Distinguished Service Award. He served as elected programme chair and head of IABS and of the Social Issues in Management (SIM) Division of Academy of Management, from which he received the 2009 Sumner Marcus Award for Outstanding Service. He has published several books and monographs, his recent work focusing on corporate social responsibility and stakeholder theory. His articles have appeared in Business & Society, Business Ethics Quarterly, Cornell International Law Journal, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, Journal of International Management, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of Public Affairs and Public Administration Review.
In putting together the SAGE Handbook of International Corporate and Public Affairs there are many people we owe thanks to. It has been a long task and one which at times has seemed very daunting. ‘Where do you start and when do you end?’ we kept on saying. The discipline continues to evolve and remains dynamic. We hope we have done it credit in an international context. Thanks are due to many.
There are many unsung heroes such as our doctoral students and fellow researchers who typed and did background research for us or shared ideas, invariably at the last moment and at breakneck speed. These included Darby Best, Albert Carter, Wing Lam, Henry Sidsaph, Sarah Soriano, Sally Williamson, Sen Yang, Ying Zhao and the library and research staffs of our respective institutions. We also would particularly like to thank the support of our respective universities in Chester, UK and Lugano, Switzerland (The Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland) and employers (Aurora WDC, Madison, Wisconsin) and research support given by the School of Journalism and International Communications at Beijing Foreign Studies University without whose support and investments of resources we would never have been able to produce what we believe is a groundbreaking global guide to effective international corporate and public affairs. Also to organizations across the world such as the Academy of Marketing Political Marketing Group, the Australian Centre for Corporate Public Affairs (ACCPA), Business Research Institute, University of Chester, Canadian Council for Public Affairs Advancement (CCPAA), European Centre for Public Affairs (ECPA), Foundation for Public Affairs (FPA), International Association of Business and Society (IABS), International Association of Business Communicators (IABC), International Public Relations Research Symposium, Public Affairs Association of Canada (PAAC), Public Relations Consultants Association (PRCA), International Centre for Corporate and Public Affairs Research, Chester, US Public Affairs Council and its Center for PA Management (Washington, DC) and the Journal of Public Affairs and its publishers, John Wiley & Sons. The latter, which has become the leading journal in the corporate and public affairs field and with the support of its distinguished editorial board helped in the development and underpinning of the work.
Most importantly we thank SAGE and our superbly creative and supportive editor, Delia Alfonso Martinez, who encouraged and supported us at every stage of the development of the Handbook regardless of the time and other pressures. Also to Matthew Oldfield of SAGE who has helped manage and coordinate contributions in a timely, professional and effective manner and also to our India based production group of Rudrani Mukherjee, Sushant Nailwal and team for their dedication in producing a first class manuscript. Finally, and perhaps most important to us, can we thank Irene Harris, Angela, Zachary, Austin, and KJ Fleisher for their patience, support, and good humour. As always, it was freely given and gratefully received and has provided the support and sustenance which we needed to put together what we feel is a primer and handbook for a great global business discipline that makes a strategic difference.
Phil and Craig