The SAGE Handbook of Drug & Alcohol Studies Volume 2

Handbooks

Kim Wolff, Jason White & Steven Karch

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: DETERMINATION OF SUBSTANCE MISUSE

    Part II: PK AND PD IN RELATION TO PATTERNS OF USE

    Part III: DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE

    Part IV: SPECIAL SETTINGS

    Part V: CONTROVERSIES AND NEW APPROACHES

  • Copyright

    Editorial board

    Professor Kathy Aitchison

    Alberta Centennial Addiction and Mental Health Research Chair

    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

    Senior Lecturer Dr Alyson Bond

    Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience

    King’s College London, UK

    Assistant Professor Kim P. C. Kuypers

    Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience,

    Dept. of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology,

    Maastricht University, Netherlands

    Senior Lecturer Dr Jane Marshall

    Addictions Division

    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    Professor Roy Sherwood

    Professor of Clinical Biochemistry,

    King’s College London, Dept of Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital

    London, UK

    Assistant Professor Joris C. Verster

    Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical

    Sciences, Division of Pharmacology,

    Utrecht University, Netherlands

    Associate Professor Deborah Zador

    National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre

    University New South Wales, Australia

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Kim Wolff

    Professor Wolff

    Jason White

    Steven Karch

    The Contributors

    Katherine Jean Aitchison serves as an Alberta Centennial Addiction & Mental Health Research Chair. She is a Professor of Psychiatry and an Adjunct Professor of Medical Genetics at the University of Alberta, and Co-Clinical Director and a Consulting Psychiatrist with the Edmonton Early Psychosis Intervention Clinic. She obtained her BA and BM BCh (MD equivalent) from the University of Oxford, psychiatry specialist training from the Maudsley Hospital, and PhD (Wellcome Trust funded) in pharmacogenetics from King’s College London. The latter included a Travelling Fellowship to the National Institutes of Health and the University of Colorado (USA). She served on the Faculty of King’s College London from 2001-2011, and joined the Faculty of the University of Alberta in September 2011. Her Chair program of work is in Mental Illness and Addictions (i.e., comorbid mental illness and additions). Within this field, to date her program has focused (in collaboration with Dr S.E. Purdon, P. Tibbo, and G. Macintyre) mainly on substance use in psychosis, the role that plays in age of onset of illness, plus in moderating metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity - and how these factors interplay with genetics. Previous work in addictions (in collaboration with Professor Kim Wolff, Dr A Hudson, and others) has focused on toxic effects of “ecstasy” and genetic vulnerability factors for the same, and she co-led a successful multicentre international pharmacogenomic study (GENDEP). She has served on various committees including the Consensus Statement on Improving Mental Health Transitions (Jury; http://www.ihe.ca/advanced-search/consensus-statement-on-improving-mental-health-transitions), Canadian Scientific Advisory Committee on Substance Abuse, and the Canadian Psychiatric Association Research Committee. Recent awards include an invitation by the Indocanadian Psychiatric Association to give a presentation at their 2015 Annual Meeting as a Distinguished Speaker.

    David J. Allsop is an Associate Professor in Psychopharmacology, and the Associate Clinical Director of the Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics, University of Sydney, Australia. He carries out research in the fields of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, biological psychiatry and substance dependence. His work has focused on understanding cannabis dependence and withdrawal and the development of treatment interventions for cannabis use disorder, including pharmacotherapies. He developed the first psychometrically validated measurement scale for quantifying cannabis withdrawal in adults, and the first paediatric cannabinoid withdrawal scale for use in trials of cannabinoids in childhood epilepsy. Dr Allsop is an expert in clinical cannabinoid research having performed a randomized clinical trial administering Sativex (THC and CBD) to heavily dependent cannabis users to help manage cannabis withdrawal as a test of a cannabinoid replacement therapy. This clinical work is one of Dr Allsop’s major research themes although he has broad interests in both preclinical and clinical cannabinoid research. Dr Allsop is interested in exploring the benefits of manipulating the endocannabinoid system for medicinal uses, including addictions, epilepsy, cancers and psychiatric disorders.

    Jonathon Arnold is an Associate Professor and the Associate Director of Preclinical Research at the Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics at the University of Sydney, Australia. His research has focused on the psychopharmacology of cannabinoids. His team isolated genes that modulate the neurobehavioural effects of cannabinoids which has important implications for understanding the genetic basis of cannabis-induced psychosis and cannabis dependence. His group discovered that the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) regulate the brain uptake and effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). His group also demonstrated that the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) increases sensitivity to the neurobehavioural actions of cannabinoids. He also discovered that dieting and exercise elevated blood concentrations of THC by dislodging fat-soluble THC from adipose tissue. This phenomenon has far-reaching practical implications providing a means for false positive drug tests in the absence of recent cannabis use and a mechanism of cannabis flashback or re-intoxication.

    Philip Asherson is Professor of Psychiatry working in the department of Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London. He completed his PhD on molecular genetic studies of schizophrenia. In 1996 he started to work alongside Professor Eric Taylor and European and American collaborators to develop the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE project). He was among the first senior consultants in the UK to specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults. Since 1996 he has developed a programme of research on clinical, quantitative and molecular genetics of ADHD, with a particular focus on adults with ADHD. Recent work identified a key role of mood lability in adult ADHD and aims to understand the processes that lead to co-occurring psychiatric disorders. He was a member of the guideline development group for the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the British Association of Psychopharmacology and European Network Adult ADHD. He is president of the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN), a professional organization that supports clinical developments within the UK. He currently leads a project investigating the effects of methylphenidate on aggression in young adult offenders.

    Joël Billieux is Associate Professor of psychology at the catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. He is Director of the Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology and the Internet and Gambling Disorders Clinic (Saint-Luc University Hospitals). His main area of research regards the psychological processes involved in the etiology of addictions, with a particular focus on self-regulation-related mechanisms. Since 2014, he is an expert in a WHO workgroup related to the public health implications of behavioral addictions associated with the excessive use of ICTs. He is Regional Assistant Editor for International Gambling Studies and Associate Editor for the Journal of Behavioral Addictions.

    Gudrun Dora Bjarnadottir works at Medical School at the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Speciality training in Psychiatry at the National University Hospital of Iceland. Currently undertaking PhD research in the field of Addictions. Consultant Psychiatrist and clinical teacher at the National University Hospital of Iceland.

    Alyson Bond is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Addictions at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London. She has worked both in Clinical Psychopharmacology and Addiction and has been Deputy Programme Leader for the MSc in Clinical & Public Health Aspects of Addiction. Her research interests include the experimental measurement of mood, performance, cognition and psychophysiology after the administration of psychoactive substances, the psychopharmacological manipulation of 5-HT in anger and aggression, comparing the effects of different routes of administration of psychotropic substances and examining the interaction between benzodiazepines and maintenance opioid medications. She is also a Chartered Clinical Psychologist and has worked clinically with patients attending an out-patient clinic for benzodiazepine withdrawal, those presenting with psychological problems in general practice as well as being responsible for the Clinical Psychology service to attenders at a Supervised Injecting Opiates Clinic.

    Pieter-Jan Carpentier is a Psychiatrist (medical degree: Antwerp, 1981; certification as psychiatrist: Utrecht, 1988). He is head of the ADHD treatment programme for adults at the Reinier van Arkel Group, the mental health institute in ’s-Hertogenbosch. Between 1998 and 2010 he worked as consulting psychiatrist at Novadic-Kentron, the addiction treatment centre in the province of Noord-Brabant. Starting from clinical experience with adult ADHD patients, especially in combination with addiction, he has been active in promoting improved diagnosis and treatment for this patient group, giving lectures and courses on this topic. He is one of the key members of the ADHD Netwerk, the Dutch network uniting practitioners in this field. He participated in writing and implementing a screening and treatment protocol for ADHD in addicted patients (Trimbos Institute, Utrecht, 2000–2004). He was principal investigator in the first European controlled study on the use of methylphenidate in patients with ADHD and addiction. In 2012 he published his PhD thesis on psychiatric comorbidity in opiate-addicted patients in methadone treatment at Novadic-Kentron (scientific committee: Prof. dr. J.K. Buitelaar, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, and Prof. dr. C.A.J. de Jong, Department of Social Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen). He participates in ICASA (International Consortium on ADHD and Substance Abuse), an international study group. He contributed in the development of a protocol for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in addicted adolescents (Scoring Results, Kenniscentrum Verslaving, 2014). He is a member of the Guideline Development Group for ADHD in adults of the Dutch Psychiatric Association.

    Lorenza Colzato is Principal Investigator at Leiden University since 2008. Her research focuses on cognitive enhancement. Recent work addresses the role of meditation, smart drugs, brain stimulation and nutrition in human cognition. She is chief editor of Frontiers in Cognition and the Journal of Cognitive Enhancement (Springer) she has (co-) authored more than 100 articles in international journals.

    Sandra D. Comer is Professor of Neurobiology in the Department of Psychiatry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, and a research scientist at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Dr Comer received her undergraduate degree at Vanderbilt University (1987), and completed her graduate training at the University of Michigan, where she received her Master of Science (1988) and Doctorate in Philosophy (1992) degrees for her research on the effects of opioid drugs. Dr Comer completed a 2-year post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, where she received training in preclinical animal models of cocaine self-administration in rodents and non-human primates. In 1993, Dr Comer began working at the Division on Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Her research focus has been on the development and testing of novel approaches to the treatment of opioid dependence.

    Jason P. Connor is a Professor of Clinical and Health Psychology in the Discipline of Psychiatry and a Professorial Research Fellow in the Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, both at The University of Queensland, Australia. His PhD (2002) examined the interaction of genetic and psychological factors in alcohol dependence. Professor Connor is a clinical psychologist by training and a Fellow of the Australian Psychological Society (APS), holding specialist membership in the APS Health and Clinical Colleges. He is also a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Career Development Fellow and was Director of the Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research from 2008–2014.

    Annie Crookes has been based in Dubai, UAE for the past 11 years as a lecturer in Psychology for two British institutions. She is currently Academic Head of Psychology for Heriot-Watt University at their Dubai Campus. During a sabbatical year while in the UAE, she gained an MSc in International Addiction Studies and has a research interest in substance use among young people (particularly expatriots) based in Dubai. As a member of the Gulf Tobacco Research Collaborative she has worked with other professionals and academics interested in both waterpipe and doha forms of tobacco as major health issues of the future.

    Deepak Cyril D’Souza is Professor of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and VA Connecticut Healthcare System. He received his medical degree from John’s National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India in 1986. He completed his psychiatric residency at State University of New York, Science Center at Brooklyn in 1992 followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Psychopharmacology and Neurosciences at Yale University School of Medicine. He then joined the faculty in the Dept. of Psychiatry at Yale and VA Connecticut Healthcare System. He is an active clinician, teacher and researcher. He is actively involved in teaching residents, fellows and other trainees and directs the VA Schizophrenia Research Fellowship program. His research involves 1) the use of various drugs to evaluate the contributions of various neurotransmitter systems to the pathophysiology of psychotic states and cognitive function; 2) laboratory studies of comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia, 3) the use of laboratory models to test potential therapies for schizophrenia, 4) clinical trials for schizophrenia and cannabis dependence, and more recently, 5) neuroreceptor imaging in nicotine and cannabis dependence, and schizophrenia. He directs the Schizophrenia Neuropharmacology Research Group at Yale (SNRGY) and the Neurobiological Studies Unit. His research is funded by NIDA, NIMH, NIAAA, the VA and several foundations. As an active clinician and clinician administrator, he directs the Neuropsychiatry Program at VA Connecticut Healthcare System, the clinical service that cares for veterans with psychotic, mood and personality disorders.

    Glenn J. H. Dumont, clinical pharmacologist, is Assistant Professor ‘pharmacology and pharmacotherapy’ at the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, director of Dumont Practical Psychopharmacology, the Netherlands, and lecturer at Zuyd University, Heerlen, the Netherlands. His research interests focus on the translation of experimental research findings to clinical practice, and the relation between drug targets and mechanisms and their behavioural effects.

    Magí Farré, clinical pharmacologist, is Professor of Pharmacology at the School of Medicine of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. He is Head of the Clinical Pharmacology Unit of the Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol in Badalona. He specializes in clinical pharmacologic research on drugs of abuse and abuse liability in humans. His main research interests focus on the study of the human pharmacology of different substances, including alcohol, natural and synthetic cannabinoids, nicotine, MDMA and amphetamines, synthetic cathinones and other new psychoactive substances.

    Gerald F. X. Feeney is a medical graduate from the University College Dublin with specialty training in internal medicine and rheumatology. He is a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) and a foundation Fellow of the Chapter of Addiction within RACP. Dr Feeney is the Medical Director of the Alcohol and Drug Assessment Unit, Division of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia and an Associate Professor affiliated with the Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research at The University of Queensland, Australia. He holds a postgraduate research doctorate in medicine (MD) in the field of addiction.

    A. Robert W. Forrest is a graduate of Edinburgh University (Pharmacology 1970, Medicine 1973) and University College of Wales (Cardiff Law School 1993). He was appointed as a Consultant in Clinical Chemistry & Toxicology at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield in 1981 and then as Professor of Forensic Toxicology at Sheffield University. He has held various appointments as assistant, deputy and senior coroner over the last 25 years. He is currently Honorary Professor in the School of Law at Sheffield University and Assistant Coroner for South Yorkshire (West).

    Matthew Goldin is a Consultant Psychiatrist in Recovery and Rehabilitation at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM). He currently works at Westways Rehabilitation Unit, Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Croydon Community Recovery and Rehabilitation Team. He has previously worked in both outpatient and inpatient Addiction units. He holds specialist accreditation in addictions and rehabilitation achieved during his higher specialty training years on the Maudsley Training Programme. Matthew maintains involvement in Addictions research.

    Michael Gossop worked in the addiction treatment services at the Bethlem Royal and Maudsley Hospitals in London for more than 35 years. He is currently Emeritus Professor at the National Addiction Centre, King’s College London. Since 2008 he has been a Research Professor at the Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research in the University of Oslo Faculty of Medicine. His publications include more than 450 works, including 9 books.

    Mark D. Griffiths is a Chartered Psychologist and Professor of Behavioural Addiction at Nottingham Trent University, and Director of the International Gaming Research Unit. He has spent 30 years in the field and is internationally known for his work on gaming, gambling and other behavioural addictions. He has published over 600 refereed research papers, five books, 140+ book chapters and over 1000 other articles. He has won 16 national and international awards for his work including the John Rosecrance Prize (1994), CELEJ Prize (1998), Joseph Lister Prize (2004) and the US National Council on Problem Gambling Lifetime Research Award (2013). He also does a lot of freelance journalism and has appeared on over 2500 radio and television programmes.

    Samantha Gross is the Institute Manager for the Policy Institute at King’s, where she leads on operational matters and oversees the professional services team. Prior to this she worked for the Graduate School at King’s managing the HEFCE and partner funded Postgraduate Support Scheme. Samantha carried out her PhD specialising in the addictions, with a particular interest in treatment system design and service quality. From 2008-2014 she was a Senior Researcher at the National Addiction Centre while serving jointly as Addictions Advisor to the Pilgrim Trust and the J. Paul Getty Jr Charitable Trust. Sam has consulted for a number of statutory and non-statutory organisations in her specialist areas and maintains an interest in drug policy. Samantha obtained both her PhD and MSc from King’s College London and a BA from McGill University in Canada.

    Aarti Gupta completed her general adult psychiatry residency training in 2012 followed by a Geriatric psychiatry fellowship in 2013 from Yale University School of Medicine. She then completed a 1-year Psychopharmacology research fellow at Yale University with the Schizophrenia Neuropharmacology Group at Yale (SNRGY) and is now Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine.

    Adrian B. Kelly is an Associate Professor and Principal Research Fellow in the Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research at the University of Queensland. His primary research interests are in the development of mental health problems, including substance use, across adolescence, and in the prevention of substance use disorders at the population level.

    Richard Kevin is a psychopharmacology graduate student at The University of Sydney. His work primarily examines the physiological, behavioural and neural effects of emerging synthetic cannabinoids. Utilising his background in psychology and pharmacology, he examines these effects in rodents with a view to establishing structure activity relationships in these new classes of compounds. He is particularly interested in the early identification of toxic compounds or alternatively compounds of therapeutic value. His other research interests include the effects of cannabis-produced terpenoids, and the development of drug-screening techniques for new cannabinoid compounds.

    Daria J. Kuss is a Chartered Psychologist and Chartered Scientist, who has published her research prolifically and her publications include 40 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, two authored books, and over 30 international conference presentations. Daria is a member of various professional bodies, including the British Psychological Society, European Psychiatric Association, International Communication Association, and International Association of Applied Psychology. In 2015, Daria was among the Top 10 publishing academics at Nottingham Trent University, and has won the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2015 for her research on online social networking.

    Kim P. C. Kuypers works as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology at the Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience of Maastricht University. In 2007 she received her PhD from Maastricht University; her thesis focused on the effects of MDMA on cognitive, psychomotor and driving skills. Today, her main research interest is ‘the social neuropsychopharmacology of drugs of abuse’, i.e. striving to unravel the neurobiological mechanisms underlying drug-induced effects on social behavior. A recent publication related to this is: ‘No evidence that MDMA-induced enhancement of emotional empathy is related to peripheral oxytocin levels or 5-HT1a receptor activation’.

    Malcolm Lader is Emeritus Professor of Clinical Psychopharmacology. For many years, he conducted clinics at the South London & Maudsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Maudsley Hospital dealing with anxiety, sleep and depressive disorders and drug treatment problems. His experience in psychiatry and clinical pharmacology now extends to over 50 years. His main research interest is the drugs used in psychiatry, in particular, their side-effects and dependence potential. These researches have resulted in the publication of 20 authored, 40 edited books and about 650 scientific articles. Professor Lader trained in physiology with biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology and psychiatry and has formal qualifications, including three doctorates, in each of these disciplines. He also has an honours degree in Law. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, and of the prestigious Academy of Medical Sciences.

    Rohit J. Lodhi is a psychiatrist who trained in India, UK and Australia and obtained three post graduate qualifications in psychiatry - MD Psychiatry, MRCPsychiatry and FRANZCP. He has experience in the treatment of dual diagnosis and holds a certification in Addiction Medicine from the International Society for Addiction Medicine. Dr. Lodhi has a special interest in addiction, psychotherapy and pharmacogenetics and is currently pursuing a PhD in psychiatry at the University of Alberta, under the supervision of Dr. Katherine Aitchison and Dr. Scot Purdon. His areas of research include pharmacogenetic predictors of antipsychotic associated metabolic dysfunction, the effect of substance use on metabolic syndrome in psychosis, treatment of the latter, and cannabis-gene interaction effects on the age of onset of psychosis. In 2016, he received the University of Alberta Doctoral Recruitment Scholarship and the Hassan F.A. Azim Graduate award for his research work.

    E. Jane Marshall is a Consultant Psychiatrist and Visiting Senior Lecturer in the Addictions at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) and the National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London. She is currently seconded part-time to the NHS Practitioner Health Programme (PHP), a dedicated London-based service for doctors and dentists with mental health and addiction problems and is a Consultant Advisor to the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). She is a Medical Supervisor and Examiner for the General Medical Council and a medical member of the DVLA Medical Advisory Panel for alcohol, drugs, substance misuse and driving. She is a founder and continuing member of the Psychiatrists’ Support Service at the Royal College of Psychiatrists and is on the executive committee of the Society for the Study of Addiction (SSA). Jane remains active in the teaching and training field, with a current focus on the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, and addiction in healthcare/allied professionals and in the workplace.

    Verena E. Metz is a Postdoctoral Research Scientist in the Division on Substance Abuse at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Dr Metz graduated in 2005 in Psychology at the University of Vienna, Austria, where she had studied impairments of visual Gestalt perception in individuals with brain lesions for her diploma thesis. She then taught at the Faculty of Psychology for three semesters, while completing her undergraduate studies in Translation and Interpretation at the University of Vienna (2007). In 2007, she started working as a Research Assistant in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Medical University of Vienna. Dr Metz completed her postgraduate education and training in Clinical and Health Psychology (2009) and received her doctoral degree in Applied Medical Science (2011), ­conducting research on opioid-dependent pregnant women. In 2012, she started working with Dr Sandra E. Comer on the development and testing of novel approaches to the treatment of opioid use disorders.

    Bram Miserez is a post-doctoral researcher working at TICTAC Communications for the SEWPROF project, an EU project focused on the research needs in sewage based epidemiology. TICTAC Communications, based at St George’s, University of London, is a drug information and analysis provider to law enforcement, governmental bodies and the healthcare sector and specializes in the identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Dr Miserez got his PhD from Ghent Univeristy, Belgium, in analytical chemistry working with Professor Pat Sandra. Within SEWPROF, Dr Miserez provides data on NPS and their use. His research interests are mainly in identification of new substances of abuse in the market, their purity and their use.

    Christian P. Müller is Professor of Addiction Medicine at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). He is a behavioural neuroscientist working on the molecular mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in animal models and in humans. Previous work includes: ‘Drugs as an instrument: A new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use’ (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34(6): 293–310) co-authored with Gunther Schumann (2011) and Handbook of the Behavioural Neurobiology of Serotonin (Academic Press, London, 2010) co-edited with Barry L. Jacobs.

    Ulrich Müller is a University (Senior) Lecturer at the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, and Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist with Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Cambridgeshire & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT). He is a Consultant Psychiatrist for the Rehabilitation & Recovery team in Huntingdon. He is director of the Adult ADHD Research Clinic at Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge and senior clinical collaborator of the ADHD/Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders cluster at the Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute (BCNI). He is a board member of the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) and leading or consulting for adult ADHD service development projects in East Anglia. Before he arrived in Cambridge in 2003 he was trained in Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, Neurological rehabilitation and Cognitive neuroscience in Germany (Würzburg, Munich and Leipzig). His research focuses on adult ADHD and cognitive enhancing medication. Recent studies clarified how drugs like atomoxetine and methylphenidate modulate cognitive functions and related brain processes. He has published more than 100 articles in scientific journals (h-index 25) and book chapters and is a regular speaker at national training events and international scientific conferences.

    Esther Papaseit, clinical pharmacologist, is Assistant Professor of Pharmacology at the School of Medicine of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. She is member of the Clinical Pharmacology Unit of the Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol in Badalona. She specializes in pharmacologic research on drugs of abuse and abuse liability in humans. Her main research interests focus on the study of the human pharmacology of different drugs of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, amphetamines, synthetic cathinones-cannabinoids and other new psychoactive substances).

    Halley M. Pontes is a Clinical Psychologist and a Doctoral Researcher at Nottingham Trent University. He has published nearly 50 refereed papers in the field of technological addiction. More specifically, 20 refereed research papers, three book chapters, and 16 conference presentations. His primary research interest is concerned with the issue of assessment of technological addictions, such as Internet Addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder. Although the focus of his work relates to technological addiction, he has also published in other related areas within the field of behavioral addictions, such as sex addiction, work addiction, and gaming transfer phenomena.

    Bjarni O. Rafnar works at Medical School at the University of Iceland. Speciality training in Psychiatry at Cambridge Psychiatric Training Scheme, Addenbrooke´s NHS Trust, UK. Staff Grade Psychiatrist in Addictions, Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care Trust, London, UK. M.Sc. in Clinical and Public Health Aspects of Addiction, King´s College, London, UK. He is a Consultant Psychiatrist, lecturer and clinical teacher in Addictions at the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    Johannes G. Ramaekers is a Professor in Psychopharmacology and Behavioral Toxicology at Maastricht University. Dr Ramaekers spent 8 years of research at the Institute for Human Psychopharmacology at Maastricht University. During these years he conducted a large number of experimental studies on the effects of medicinal drugs, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants and antihistamines on cognition, psychomotor function and ‘on-the-road’ driving performance of healthy volunteers and patients. Since 1998 Dr Ramaekers has been working at the Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience at Maastricht University. His current work focuses on drug-induced alterations of neurocognitive functions (e.g. impulse control, executive function) and susceptibility for drug effects as a function of drug use history and genetic predisposition.

    Noorzurani Robson is Associate Professor and Consultant Family Medicine Physician in the Department of Primary Care Medicine and University Malaya Center of Addiction Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, where she has been a faculty member since 1998, and currently also holds a Honorary Senior Researcher post at King’s College London. Robson obtained her PhD in the Addictions at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London and her Masters in Family Medicine and MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) studies at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her main research interests lie in the area of Nicotine and Recreational Addictions. Her research work includes nicotine addiction and smoking, electronic cigarettes, heroin, alcohol, ketamine and amphetamines, and other recreational drugs. Her other research areas also include psychology and public health impact of diseases. In recent years she has focused on the role of harm reduction for the treatment of recreational addictive disorders, the role of genetic disposition and tissue engineering in diseases.

    David Rossolatos was born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, grew up on the island of Syros, Greece, and was educated in Edmonton, Canada, where he studied Biology and Chemistry at Concordia University of Edmonton and Neuroscience at the University of Alberta. During his capstone year as a BSc student David explored his interest in psychosis at the University of Alberta’s Neurochemical Research Unit and had the opportunity to contribute to a publication in D-serine and schizophrenia under the supervision of Dr. Glen Baker in 2012. Later that year he joined Dr. Katherine Aitchison’s Alberta Centennial Addiction & Mental Health Research Chair Lab where he contributed to research in antipsychotic induced weight gain. He was awarded the Young Investigator Travel Award for 2014 to present this research at the 13th Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry Meeting in Miami, Florida.

    Manuel Ruiz is a researcher at the University of Granada in Spain. He works as an experimental cognitive psychology researcher at the Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC) in Granada. He obtained his PhD in Psychology from the University of Granada and Leiden University, the Netherlands. Recent work has focused on trends and patterns of illegal drug-use and the cognitive impairment caused by the abuse of stimulant drugs, namely cocaine, khat and synthetic cathinones. He serves the scientific community as associated editor and reviewer of international scientific journals.

    John B. Saunders is a Professor and Consultant Physician in Internal Medicine and Addiction Medicine, with appointments at the University of Queensland and University of Sydney, and several private hospital groups in Australia. He graduated in pharmacology and medicine from the University of Cambridge and undertook specialist medical training in internal medicine, gastroenterology/liver diseases, and addiction medicine. After a period as a clinical academic at King’s College London and the Institute of Psychiatry in the UK, he took up an appointment at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and the University of Sydney, and from 1996 was Professor of Alcohol and Drug Studies at the University of Queensland. He has extensive clinical experience in hospital and community settings. His research encompasses screening and brief interventions, diagnostic concepts and guidelines, susceptibility to alcohol- and drug-related disorders, physical sequelae such as liver and circulatory disease, new addictive disorders (such as Internet), treatment of alcohol, opioid and psychostimulant dependence, and medical education. He has been a member of several World Health Organization advisory committees, Australian government committees (including the Australian National Council on Drugs, 2001-07), and an office bearer with many international professional organisations. He has worked with WHO since 1981 and was responsible for developing the AUDIT Questionnaire. He is a member of WHO’s Expert Advisory Panel on Substance Abuse and the ICD 11 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Workgroup. He is Founding and Emeritus Editor-in-Chief of the Drug and Alcohol Review, being Editor-in-Chief from 1984 to 2009, and is Section Editor for Addictive Disorders for Current Opinion in Psychiatry. John Saunders has published four books (including Addiction Medicine, Second Edition, OUP) and over 350 peer-reviewed scientific papers, reviews and book chapters. In 2006 he became an ISI highly-cited researcher in the field of public health and medicine, with now over 22,500 citations to his work.

    Roy Sherwood is Consultant Clinical Scientist and Scientific Director in Viapath at King’s College Hospital and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry at King’s College London. He was the co-leader of the group who carried out a study on behalf of the UK Department of Transport of biomarkers for alcohol misuse in the assessment of fitness to return a driving licence following disqualification in high risk offenders. This study demonstrated that the markers previously in use Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) produced many false positive results and led to the adoption by the Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority of Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) as the sole biological marker in these cases. He has been an advisor to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) on a number of subject areas. He is co-author of 200 peer-reviewed papers, 25 book chapters/reviews and the book Liver Disease and Laboratory Medicine for the Association of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. He has been editor of 10 other books.

    Andrew A. Somogyi is Professor in Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology at the University of Adelaide. His major research interests are in examining interindividual variation in drug response through clinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical outcomes studies in drugs for the treatment of pain, especially the opioids, transplantation, depression, and HIV/AIDS, all underpinned by pharmacogenomic assessments. He has published over 260 papers and many review articles in the pain and addiction areas and has over 10000 citations. He is an honorary fellow of the Faculty of Pain Medicine, Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists.

    Ottilie Sedgwick is a PhD student in the Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London. Her doctoral research is based at Broadmoor Hospital, and aims to identify the neuropsychological and emotion processing characteristics of high-risk mentally disordered offenders. Her interests include the intersection of mental health and the criminal justice system, which has led to her involvement in projects focusing on ADHD and offending, including establishing the rate of ADHD and learning disability in those in police custody, and ­meta-analytic reviews which have demonstrated a high prevalence of ADHD (including those with comorbid disorders) in incarcerated populations.

    Eef L. Theunissen works as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology at the Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience of the University of Maastricht. In 2005 she obtained her PhD in psychopharmacology on the sedating and stimulating effects of antihistamines. Since then, her research has focused on the cognitive effects of cannabis, while she is also involved in experimental studies on the effects of other illicit drugs and medicinal drugs on cognition, psychomotor and driving performance. Recent publications include: ‘Rivastigmine but not vardenafil reverses cannabis-induced impairment of verbal memory in healthy humans’ and ‘Neurophysiological functioning of occasional and heavy cannabis users during THC intoxication’.

    Rafael de la Torre, pharmaceutical doctor, is Professor of Toxicology at the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. He is the research coordinator of the Neuroscience Research Group at Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute. His main research interests focus on analysis and pharmacokinetics of drugs of abuse, development of new therapies for intellectual disabilities and cognitive impairment and biomarkers related to health, nutrition and toxicology.

    Alexander L. N. van Nuijs is a post-doctoral researcher and assistant professor at the Toxicological Center within the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the University of Antwerp, Belgium. Professor Dr van Nuijs obtained his PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Antwerp, Belgium, for his work in the development and application of wastewater analysis for estimating illicit drug consumption in the general population. As a postdoctoral researcher, Dr van Nuijs aims at the further validation of the wastewater analysis approach and to demonstrate its applicability to gather knowledge on the general health status of communities.

    Natalie E. Walsham is Lead Clinical Scientist and Clinical Director of Pathology at Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust. Her research interests are in the field of biomarkers for the detection of alcohol misuse. She was a member of the group who carried out a study on behalf of the UK Department of Transport of biomarkers for alcohol misuse in the assessment of fitness to return a driving licence following disqualification in high risk offenders. She also carried out studies on Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) as a marker of medium-term alcohol excess which led to EtG becoming part of the protocol for assessing patients on the waiting list for a liver transplant. She has been the co-author on three recent reviews on the subject of biomarkers of alcohol misuse and was the editor of Cardiovascular Disease and Laboratory Medicine for the Association of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Susan Young is a Clinical Senior Lecturer in Forensic Clinical Psychology in the Centre for Mental Health, Imperial College London, and a visiting professor at Reykjavik University. She has an honorary contract as a Consultant Psychologist at Broadmoor Hospital and is Director of Forensic Research and Development for West London Mental Health Trust. Dr Young has extensive clinical experience in the assessment and treatment of youths and adults with ADHD and in the assessment and treatment of offenders with mental disorder. Previously, she was employed as a Clinical Neuropsychologist at the Maudsley Hospital, where she set up and developed the neuropsychology service at the first adult ADHD service in the United Kingdom. She was a member of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) ADHD Clinical Guideline Development Group (2009; 2013). Dr Young has published over 100 articles in scientific journals. She is the author of five psychological intervention programmes, four books, the ADHD Child Evaluation [ACE] and adult version [ACE+]. Her work has been translated into Icelandic, Hebrew, Danish, Spanish, Polish, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Catalan, Italian, Hungarian, French, Norwegian, Dutch and Swedish, Sinhala and Tamil. Dr Young has acted as a consultant with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, the South Florida Behavioral Health Network, the Kriminalvården huvudkontor in Sweden and St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital in Norway. Following a Danish National ADHD Action Plan (2013), she is currently collaborating in a project, led by Socialstyrelsen (The National Board of Social Services in Denmark), that aims to improve the lives of youths and adults with ADHD.

    Deborah Zador is Deputy Clinical Director, Drug & Alcohol Services, Justice Health & Forensic Mental Health Network, New South Wales Ministry of Health, Australia. She is Conjoint Associate Professor, National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW and a Fellow of the Australasian Chapter of Addiction Medicine (RACP). She was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine by the UNSW for her original research work into opioid drug- related deaths. She has a long-standing interest in opioid and benzodiazepine drug dependence, and has published a number of original research papers, reviews, editorials and book chapters on drug-related deaths, opioid treatment and drug-using behaviours among other topics. She is currently a co-investigator on a nationally funded research project into recidivism, mortality and social factor outcomes of an innovative state jurisdictional release-planning model of care for prisoners with problems of drug dependence.


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