The SAGE Handbook of Diplomacy


Costas M. Constantinou, Pauline Kerr & Paul Sharp

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    Editorial Board

    Michele Acuto, University College London

    Rebecca Adler-Nissen, University of Copenhagen

    Karin Aggestam, Lund University, Sweden

    Peter van Bergeijk, Erasmus University, Netherlands

    Corneliu Bjola, University of Oxford

    Caitlin Byrne, Bond University, Australia

    David Clinton, Baylor University, USA

    Noé Cornago, University of the Basque Country

    Erik Goldstein, Boston University, USA

    Paul Harris, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

    Gunther Hellmann, Goethe University Frankfurt

    Alan Henrikson, Tufts University, USA

    Dennis Jett, Pennsylvania State University, USA

    Christer Jonsson, Lund University, Sweden

    Richard Langhorne, University of Buckingham

    Jan Melissen, Clingendael, Netherlands

    Raquel Meneses, University of Porto

    Iver Neumann, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)

    Donna Oglesby, The Public Diplomacy Council

    Geoffrey Pigman, Bennington College, USA

    Kishan S. Rana, DiploFoundation

    Joana Setzer, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)

    Mikael Soendergaard, Aarhus University, Denmark

    Yolanda Kemp Spies, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    Yannis Stivachtis, Virginia Tech, USA

    See Seng Tan, Nanyang Technical University, Singapore

    Sam Okoth Opondo, Vassar College, USA

    I. William Zartman, Johns Hopkins University, USA

    Qingmin Zhang, Peking University, China

    List of Abstracts

    1. Theoretical Perspectives in Diplomacy – Costas M. Constantinou and Paul Sharp

    This chapter maps the evolution of diplomatic theory, within and across the discipline of International Relations (IR). It looks at early (classical and modern) perspectives in diplomacy as developed by orators, scholars and reflective practitioners. It also examines the perceived neglect of diplomacy within mainstream IR theory, its contested purpose and means, whether it is an instrument or a medium, its epistemic links to the study of foreign policy and statecraft, and its role in the production, maintenance and transformation of international systems. It outlines the contributions of critical theorizing with regard to exposing the knowledge contests and power implications of dominant understandings and practices of diplomacy, and its retrieving of alternative, non-elitist and non-state-centric cultures and practices. Finally, it looks at theoretical perspectives in diplomacy as developed within other disciplines, such as anthropology, psychology, religious and cultural studies.

    2. A conceptual history of diplomacy – Halvard Leira

    This chapter deals with the development of the concept of diplomacy. The focus is on how a specific understanding of diplomacy emerged and has developed over the last 250 years. Detailing first the etymological roots, the chapter deals primarily with how diplomacy emerged as a derogatory term during the revolutionary period, and how its meaning was immediately challenged by revolutionaries seeking to replace the old diplomacy with a new one. Calls for new diplomacy have been many in the ensuing centuries, but the way in which diplomacy itself has changed content is evident in that the calls are now for reform, rather than for revolution and/or abolishment.

    3. Diplomacy and the Colonial Encounter – Sam Okoth Opondo

    This chapter raises questions about modern diplomacy's entanglements with colonial encounters and practices. Through a contrapuntal reading of the ethic of ‘the necessity for continuous negotiations’ among other conceptions and practices of diplomacy, the chapter raises questions about discourses on the ‘genres of man', Eurocentrism, elitism and the statist geophilosophy that underlines the monological conception of diplomacy as statecraft or a set of skills, norms and rituals peculiar to professional diplomats. It also reveals the coloniality of modern diplomacy and the transgressive and life-affirming diplomatic practices and imaginaries that emerge in the colonies and elsewhere.

    4. Statecraft, Strategy and Diplomacy – Markus Kornprobst

    How do statecraft, strategy and diplomacy hang together? This chapter identifies five perspectives that address this question: classical realism, rational choice, cognitive approaches, culturalist approaches and critical approaches. After identifying the strengths and weaknesses of these perspectives, I make a case for more eclecticism. Statecraft, strategy and diplomacy are more important than ever in our globalizing age, in which more and more political issues move from the domestic to the international stage. But given global changes, we need to re-think the conceptual triad, similarly to scholars before us when they tried to make sense of a changing world.

    5. Diplomacy and Foreign Policy – Brian Hocking

    As the nature of foreign policy has changed in response to shifts in both international and domestic policy milieus, so the boundaries traditionally regarded as demarcating both features of the international order have weakened. This has produced challenges for both practitioners and observers of diplomatic processes and structures. In one sense, this is a manifestation of a long-established dual problem reflecting fundamental questions concerning the legitimacy of diplomacy and its efficiency in meeting the challenges of a changing foreign policy environment.

    6. Diplomacy, Communication and Signaling – Christer Jönsson

    Communication is essential to diplomacy. Diplomatic communication is both verbal and nonverbal, including not only words as well as actions, but also silence and inactivity. Diplomats send signals intended to convey messages, which are subject to decoding and interpretation. Throughout history verbal communication has relied on a lingua franca of diplomacy. More importantly, a common language has been developed in terms of shared symbols and references and interpretation of words and actions. Nonverbal signaling covers a range from personal gestures, via meeting and travel logistics, to the manipulation of military forces. The tension between the need for clarity and the incentives for constructive ambiguity impels diplomats to spend much time and effort on the formulation and interpretation of signals. The speed of diplomatic communication has varied over time. The revolution in information and communication technology tends to challenge the privileged role of diplomats in transborder communication and endanger flexibility and confidentiality. While there is no paradigmatic approach in the study of diplomatic communication, there is a store of applicable analytical tools and ample room for more theory-driven, systematic studies of diplomatic communication.

    7. Diplomatic agency – Rebecca Adler-Nissen

    Diplomatic agency is intriguing. On the one hand, diplomats are crucial to the management of day-to-day international relations and the negotiation of war and peace. On the other hand, most diplomatic action is highly constrained or invisible. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation and advocacy. It analyzes how professionalization, legalization, personalization and popularization of diplomacy have shaped diplomatic agency including how international law, bureaucracy, public diplomacy and new information technologies have impacted the scope and content of diplomatic agency. Finally, it discusses how diplomatic agency is linked to conceptions of diplomatic representation and legitimacy in its actual, functional and symbolic forms.


    This chapter discusses ‘diplomatic culture’ in its various iterations. It begins by tracing the genealogy of diplomatic culture as a universal cosmopolitan culture, a perspective most commonly associated with Hedley Bull and the English School of International Relations. We then turn from this abstraction to the concrete ways in which diplomats seek to reproduce particular aspects of their culture through professionalization. In the final section, we examine the proliferation of diplomatic cultures, concluding that the multiplicity of diplomacies (and hence, diplomatic cultures) is a source of strength for diplomacy, and attempts to produce a monolithic diplomatic culture are bound to fail.

    9. Diplomacy and the arts – Iver B. Neumann

    Diplomatic sites are saturated with art. Art always creates ambiance, and is sometimes also used by diplomats to project representations of polities. Art and diplomacy need one another to create the high status that they share. If diplomats are interested in art, art is also interested in diplomats. Diplomacy and diplomats are objects of artistic representation. They are also amongst the phenomena represented in popular culture, particularly within the genres of science fiction and fantasy. These representations have legitimacy effects. The chapter breaks down these questions and discusses the sparse extant literature.

    10. Diplomatic Ethics – Corneliu Bjola

    The delegated source of authority of diplomatic agency protects diplomats against ethical scrutiny, but their indirect exercise of power manifestly turns them into morally accountable subjects. This chapter examines this puzzle in two steps. First, it argues that the normative basis of ethical judgement of diplomats’ actions has historically revolved around the principle of loyalty, first to the Prince, later to the State and more recently to People. Each loyalty dimension sets limitations for moral inquiry, which are rather difficult to address from a theoretically abstract perspective. Second, the paper offers a contextually tailored framework of ethical analysis centred on the concept of reflection-in-action by which diplomats seek to align the practical requirements of the situation at hand with the normative imperatives prompted by their divided loyalties. The context in which diplomats handle ethical challenges through reflection and action is therefore a determining factor for understanding the extent to which the actions taken by a diplomat are morally justifiable.

    11. Diplomatic Knowledge – NOÉ Cornago

    This chapter examines the crucial importance of knowledge for the instrumental and communicative functions that diplomacy has performed historically and is still expected to perform. In so doing, the relationship between ‘diplomacy’ and ‘knowledge’ is examined through four different but related prisms. First, in the light of current discussions in the fields of epistemology and sociology of knowledge, specific attention will be paid to the conditions under which the mutually constitutive relationship – between the practice of diplomacy and the acquisition and diffusion of knowledge in the most diverse domains – emerged and evolved historically. Second, the importance of diplomacy as heterology, that is, as a venue for trans-cultural communication, humanistic discovery and understanding and its unending negotiation of identity and difference between political communities, is examined. Third, the theoretical foundations and the practical dimensions of diplomatic knowledge as statecraft and its corresponding techniques – from personal observation, reporting or espionage to remote sensing and satellite driven geographical information systems – are discussed. Finally, it will discuss what can be called the diplomatization of knowledge in the wider social realm, as well as its implications for our understanding of diplomacy as it is practised today, in the post-Wikileaks era, by a growing variety of public and private agents.

    12. Embassies, Permanent Missions AND Special Missions – Kishan S. Rana

    The resident embassy symbolizes the international system. Embassies are older than foreign ministries and have evolved since inception in ancient times when emissaries were sent to foreign courts. The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations sets the framework for the functioning of embassies. The utility of maintaining embassy networks is a perennial question; counter-intuitively we now find that resident embassies provide enhanced value in our globalized world of instant communication, volatility of international affairs and information overload, if only foreign ministries use them as key agents of bilateral diplomacy. Permanent missions, accredited to international or regional organizations remain equally pertinent. We witness the emergence of new representation forms, aimed at cost reduction, and these trends are likely to gain traction. Countries will always need agents on the ground, to build trust and pursue relationships with widening circles of state and non-state actors, working in varied circumstances, far removed from the formal settings of the past.

    13. Consulates and Consular Diplomacy – Ana Mar Fernández Pasarín

    This chapter analyses the consular dimension of diplomacy. It traces the historical development of the consular institution as a subfield of diplomatic representation, and examines its international codification, traditional functions and evolving practice in the face of contemporary challenges such as border security policy or the management of large-scale natural or man-made disasters. These developments have contributed to highlighting the strategic role played by consular officers in a globalized society. Key aspects of consular affairs today include dealing with increasing citizens’ expectations for responsive, efficient, multi-channel and customer service-oriented administrations: demands that have led foreign affairs ministries (MFA) to implement new forms of consular governance, among which consular cooperation, the delegation of representation, the automation of services, or the outsourcing of less sensitive consular functions stand out.

    14. The Diplomatic Corps – Paul Sharp and Geoffrey Wiseman

    The diplomatic corps is a term which conventionally refers to the diplomats of other sovereign states resident in a capital city. It can also refer to the diplomats accredited to regional or international organizations. Both its practical operations and its theoretical significance have been neglected until recently. This chapter examines the possible reasons for this neglect in the context of two trends: First, the term's apparently increasing use to refer to the diplomatic service of a particular state. Second, the rising significance of a broader term – the diplomatic community – of which the diplomatic corps is only one part and which encompasses the proliferating number and types of other international actors active in a capital city or international headquarters city. Although less significant than formerly, the diplomatic corps persists and remains an important, if elusive, set of practices that help constitute the international society of states.

    15. Diplomacy and International Law – David Clinton

    Diplomacy and international law share ancient origins as ways in which the participants in a highly pluralistic society, engaging in intensive interactions but lacking an authoritative sovereign over them, found means of regulating their conflictual and cooperative dealings. Despite the similarity in their background, diplomacy and international law have always been characterized by a complex relationship—sometimes competitive, sometimes complementary, and sometimes mutually reinforcing. They are also alike in that the rise of non-state actors seeking at least partial recognition as players in diplomacy and subjects of international law has diversified the roster and complicated the rules. This development, if no others, will ensure that these two primary ways of carrying on international society will continue to evolve, as they have throughout their history.

    16. Diplomatic Immunity – Linda S. Frey and Marsha L. Frey

    From ancient times to the present, many civilizations have respected the inviolability of envoys. Necessity forced most cultures to accord envoys basic protections because only then was intercourse between peoples possible. Rooted in necessity, immunity was buttressed by religion, sanctioned by custom, and fortified by reciprocity. As the essential foundations of immunity shifted from religious to legal, what had once been an expedient became over time a precedent. Courtesies hardened and over time became ‘rights.’ When expedients evolved into ‘precedents’ and earlier courtesies into ‘rights,’ the issue of whether and under what circumstances envoys were entitled to immunity became a legal one. Ultimately, national laws and international treaties codified these privileges.

    17. Diplomacy and Negotiation – I William Zartman

    Negotiations are the basic means of diplomacy, to pursue, prevent, manage, resolve, and transform conflicts among states (and other parties), to overcome problems and to instill cooperation. Negotiation has increased significantly since the end of the Cold War, but faces new types of challenges in fanatical ideological conflicts and worn out cooperative regimes. Negotiation operates under an unspoken Ethos of Equality, with notions of equal status, equal treatment, reciprocity and justice as its defining characteristics. Although parties are never equal in power, a sense of equality is helpful to productive negotiation. A perception of a mutually hurting stalemate (MHS) and a way out (WO) define a ripe moment, necessary but insufficient for the initiation of negotiations. Negotiations pass through the overlapping phases of diagnosis, formulation, and detailing to create a coherent agreement, reached through concessions, compensation, and construction (reframing). Conflict management ends violence and contains the promise for conflict resolution, which settles the issues of the conflict, removes the pressure to attain it.

    18. Diplomatic Mediation – Karin Aggestam

    The study of international mediation reflects a broad range of theoretical perspectives, methodological approaches and empirical practices. This chapter compares two dominant modes: principal and pure mediation. They illuminate contrasting assumptions about leverage, resources, power, strategy, entry and outcome. The chapter identifies three salient challenges that diplomatic mediation faces in theory and practice: (1) resistance to negotiation and mediation; (2) quest of timing; and (3) management of devious objectives. The chapter concludes by arguing that the study of international mediation needs to engage more with normative and critical perspectives including gender analysis as a way to move the research agenda forward.

    19. Diplomatic Summitry – David Hastings Dunn and Richard Lock-Pullan

    Summit diplomacy is the meeting of political leaders at the highest possible level. Although this practice dates back to the earliest days of diplomacy it was rare for the rulers of powerful states to meet in person until the nineteenth century. Now, however, summits are frequent and have superseded many more traditional forms and methods of diplomacy, especially as democratic politics has become more important in the summit processes. Summits have also increasingly become institutionalized. This chapter explores the history of summitry, the nature of modern summitry since the advent of nuclear weapons, and examines how to define the current nature of summitry as the range of meetings between executive leaders has expanded and evolved, ranging from G8 summits to personal bi-lateral summitry.

    20. Diplomatic Language – Donna Marie Oglesby

    The chapter Diplomatic Language examines the signals, codes and conventions constructed over time by diplomats to smooth and soothe the process of communication between states and the organizations created by states in the international political realm. It argues that diplomatic language is instrumental: it serves the purpose of allowing diplomats to form and maintain relationships with those who manage international relations. The chapter examines the theory and the practice of diplomatic speech acts through various theoretical perspectives. It explores the balance diplomats attempt to achieve between ambiguity and precision in the production of diplomatic texts. And, it considers how the expanded, and increasingly diverse, cast of actors on the diplomatic stage, with their contesting scripts and varied audiences, are changing the discourse patterns.

    21. Diplomatic Relations BETWEEN STATES – Alan James

    States, being notional persons, can only communicate with each other through their representatives. Such communication is primarily conducted via the diplomatic system – the world-wide network of embassies and allied arrangements, staffed by a multitude of diplomats. But to get easy and straightforward communication started (or resumed) between any two states, they have to agree to be ‘in diplomatic relations'. Almost all pairs of states do this. Accordingly, the concept of diplomatic relations is the key which opens the way to normal communication between states. As such it is a fundamental element in the whole inter-state set-up.

    22. Great Power Diplomacy – Cornelia Navari

    This chapter defines Great Powers and the capacities they are expected to have. It provides a brief history of their presence as diplomatic actors from the peace negotiations that concluded the Napoleonic wars through the nineteenth century, the major congresses that ensued and their results, and the institutionalization of their roles in international organization in the twentieth century. It considers the influence/power that each exercised, over what issues, during what periods, and through the use of what methods and mechanisms. It concludes with the four different approaches through which great power diplomacy can be understood, revisited and revised.

    23. Middle Power Diplomacy – YOLANDA KEMP SPIES

    Middle power diplomacy may be a contested and equivocal concept, but it offers a useful analytical tool to scholars and practitioners of diplomacy. It facilitates the understanding and prediction of state behaviour in the global diplomatic arena, and provides insights as to the projection of state identity through diplomacy. It also assists with comprehension of the changing norms and conventions that infuse the notion of international society. Importantly, middle power theory elucidates a fascinating phenomenon within global structural power: the dynamic diplomacy of states whose influence and leadership seem disproportionately large compared to their material, quantitative attributes.

    24. Small State Diplomacy – Baldur Thorhallsson and Alyson J.K. Bailes†

    Small states must acknowledge their limited diplomatic capacity. They need to take appropriate measures to compensate for these limitations, and utilize special characteristics of their public administration and foreign service – such as informal ways of communication, flexibility in decision-making and autonomy of officials – in order to defend their interests and gain influence in dealings with the outside world. Small states vary enormously in their diplomatic capacity, but those possessing basic economic and administrative competence can build on these and other features associated with smallness to succeed in international negotiations.

    25. European Union Diplomacy – Michael Smith

    The emerging system of diplomacy in the European Union has gained additional impetus and been newly institutionalised since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. This hybrid system of diplomatic representation and action involves not only a range of ‘Brussels institutions’ but also the EU Member States. The chapter looks first at the evolution of the current system and then at the new institutional context following the Lisbon Treaty. Ensuing sections explore the nature of the ‘EU diplomat’ and of EU diplomatic practices, the orientation and impact of EU diplomacy, and the types of theoretical approaches that can be deployed in order to understand the EU's system of diplomacy.

    26. American Diplomacy – Alan K. Henrikson

    The diplomacy of the United States originated in the American ‘nation,’ rather than deriving from state authority, and it continues to reflect republican ideals and democratic values. Somewhat paradoxically, while inheriting an ‘anti-diplomatic’ bias owing to the American Revolution's rejection of the hierarchy of European society, egalitarian Americans themselves have freely engaged in making international connections. Benjamin Franklin is the prototype. America's first ‘public diplomat,’ he set an example of citizen involvement. US professional diplomacy, as distinct from consular activity in support of American commerce, came only with the Rogers Act of 1924. The Second World War and the Cold War as well as the ‘Global War on Terror’ have increased the role of the military and the intelligence community in America's international relations. The Department of State has sought to augment its influence at home and abroad by drawing upon the nation's ‘civilian power’ and engaging foreign publics directly through the use of information technology and social media. Never merely intergovernmental, American diplomacy is international as well.

    27. Russian Post-Soviet Diplomacy – Tatiana Zonova

    Russian diplomacy has evolved through several historical stages. Over time, Byzantine tradition was substituted by a secular diplomacy. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the foreign policy decision making process also changed. According to the Constitution it is the President who determines the guidelines of foreign policy. From the mid-1990s the idea of creating a multipolar world and maintaining relations based on effective multilateralism has become more and more important for Russia's foreign policy and diplomacy. Relations with the former Soviet republics became one of its priorities. Russian diplomacy has tried to improve existing diplomatic structures and processes, and to create new ones for multilateral interstate cooperation. Great attention is paid to economic and energy diplomacy, network diplomacy and public diplomacy. Nearly 1000 Russian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are also engaged in foreign relations. The Subjects of the Russian Federation develop their international activity in the framework of what is increasingly known as paradiplomacy. The role of women in diplomacy still tends to be underestimated and there is considerable room for improvement in this framework.

    28. China's Diplomacy – ZHIMIN CHEN

    Historically, China, as a pivotal regional power in East Asia, developed its own ways of conducting foreign relations. In the nineteenth century, in a western-dominated world, China was forced to embrace modern diplomacy. Through its internal revolutions in the nineteenth century, China rebuilt itself into a strong sovereign state. Due to its economic success, unleashed by its integration with the world economy from the late 1970s, China is now reemerging as a major power in world affairs and starting to adopt a more proactive diplomacy. To make this argument this chapter is divided into four parts. The first part provides an historical account of the factors that influence Chinese diplomacy. The second part analyzes the institutional arrangements of contemporary Chinese diplomacy. And in the third part, behavioral patterns of China's diplomacy are identified. Finally, various understandings and predictions of China's future diplomacy are canvassed.

    29. Diplomacy in East Asia – Pauline Kerr

    There is a surprising deficit of studies on diplomacy in East Asia. Surprising because the region is economically the world's most dynamic and, politically, one of the world's most tense, not least because there is diplomatic competition between the US and a rising China. The Asian Century in East Asia is under-investigated in diplomatic studies. Unless its past and present evolution is understood, signs of its possible demise may be missed. This chapter starts from the assumption that this situation needs to be rectified. It argues that, from its examination of multilateral economic and security diplomacy in the region, there are several generalisations that could inform hypotheses needed to start an urgently required research agenda on diplomacy in East Asia.

    30. Latin American Diplomacy – Sean W. Burges and Fabrício H Chagas Bastos

    In this chapter we argue that although there is a temptation to view Latin American diplomacy as a single entity, such an approach is mistaken. Pressure to manage relations with the US and external assumption of homogenization underpins a double movement in regional diplomacy that sees a simultaneous process of coordination and fragmentation. With this in mind, we offer five principles for a general understanding of Latin American diplomacy. First, the region is not a homogenous entity. Second, although coordination is frequent, it is too much to speak of either unity or coalition in the Americas. Third, regional collectivization of positions is used as a strategy to protect national autonomy. Fourth, foreign policy is predominantly directed at structural, not relative power games. Finally, national development is the overriding priority and aim.

    31. Middle East Diplomacy – Stephan Stetter

    This chapter studies contemporary Middle East diplomacy by drawing from historical sociology, global history and social theory. It focuses in particular on how modern world society/culture, on the one hand, and a global political system characterized by considerable underlying hierarchies both in colonial and post-colonial environs, on the other, shape Middle East diplomacy. It then discusses three major sites of Middle East practice/struggles in this context of modern world society, namely (1) diplomatic anxiety, (2) popular, transnational as well as cultural diplomacy and (3) sublime diplomacy.

    32. African Diplomacy – Asteris Huliaras and Konstantinos Magliveras

    In the 1960s, after a long period of colonialism, most African states acquired their independence and soon became embroiled in the Cold War's competition. Bipolar rivalry obstructed the internationalization of Africa's diplomacy. Only after the mid-1990s did Africa's foreign relations expand considerably, having been assisted by economic development and recurrent waves of democratic consolidation as well as by the advent of multilateralism. Today, the African Union aims at becoming the continent's principal representative on the international plane.

    33. Southern African Diplomacy – Stephen Chan

    This chapter looks at Southern African Diplomacy as developed after the independence process began. It focuses on the Rhodesia issue and Zimbabwean diplomacy and how African and international diplomacy dealt with the Apartheid regime in South Africa. It then examines the challenges and prospects of South African diplomacy in the post-Apartheid era. It finally provides an overview of the great issues ahead within the context of African Union diplomacy and the future of the continent.

    34. Developing states diplomacy – Stephen Calleya

    This chapter examines the challenges small developing states are facing and identifies trends in their foreign policy decision-making track record. The fact that small developing countries have limited human and natural resources gives rise to numerous questions addressed in this analysis: what are the strategic mechanisms that small developing states employ?; what are the primary motivations that guide developing states diplomacy?; how do small developing states pursue their strategic objectives; how do small developing states prioritize their foreign policy objectives to remain relevant in the international society of states? This chapter also includes a review of the evolution of Malta's foreign policy, as an example of a developing state's diplomatic practice. The study concludes by exploring future options available to developing states to help them maintain a relevant stance in an ever changing international system, including focusing on multilateral diplomacy.

    35. Public Diplomacy – Ellen Huijgh

    Public diplomacy is a widespread practice at the heart of diplomacy, shaped by the ebbs and flows of circumstances in society as a whole. Part of the ongoing democratization of diplomacy, it is also a driver of it, kicked into high gear by globalization and the communication revolution. The development of public diplomacy amounts to the broadening of actors, issues, and instruments and must therefore contend with increased complexity and blurring boundaries in this digital age. Public diplomacy has become a multidisciplinary field of study that now extends beyond the confines of diplomatic studies. Its present form is so diverse that it has become a generic term with a fluid meaning. Within diplomatic studies, what are referred to as ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ diplomacy are now seen as too categorical, with moves toward more integrative scholarship. Much more study, particularly of a comprehensive nature (such as theoretical and empirical case study research on integrative public diplomacy), is required before claims about the future of public diplomacy solidify.

    36. Quiet and Secret Diplomacy – William Maley

    Quiet and secret diplomacy entail more than simply discretion: they involve a conscious desire to leave activities unadvertised, or to hide certain forms of engagement from scrutiny. Secrecy has a long history: it has been reinforced on occasion by laws and institutions, and has long been used to hide the frailties of political leaders. Secrecy can provide space for complex negotiations, especially with unappealing actors such as terrorist groups. However, it may be difficult to maintain, it may be a barrier to learning from experience and it is increasingly challenged by vigorous media, and by the expansion in the range of actors involved in diplomacy. Its consequences are often difficult to assess; as a result, it may be that it is best appraised by attention to situational issues rather than some grand ethical theory.

    37. Crisis Diplomacy – Edward Avenell and David Hastings Dunn

    Crisis diplomacy plays a vital role in the modern international system. It has had to be continually adapted as the world has changed. The crises that dominated the twentieth century are very different from those that are occurring in the twenty-first century. These crises are no longer restrained to armed conflicts between states but can emerge from every arena, financial, medical and natural. As the world has become smaller the potential impact of these crises has become much greater, with some able to quickly effect every corner of the globe. New tools and practices have developed, such as the Responsibility to Protect, which marks a significant development in crisis diplomacy. Researchers studying crisis diplomacy need to work closer with those practising it to better understand the changing nature of crisis and ensure that the practice of crisis diplomacy is fit to meet these challenges.

    38. Coercive Diplomacy – Peter Viggo Jakobsen

    Coercive diplomacy (CD) involves the use of military threats and/or limited force in support of diplomatic negotiations relying on persuasion, rewards and assurances. This combination of coercion (sticks) and diplomacy (carrots) is as old as the practice of diplomacy, and it is typically employed when actors want to resolve war-threatening crises and conflicts without resorting to full-scale war. This chapter analyses the establishment of CD as a field of study during the Cold War and shows how the theory and practice of CD has evolved in response to the strategic challenges of the day. Four separate strategic eras with distinct challenges and theoretical developments are identified since the field's emergence in the 1960s: the Cold War, the humanitarian 1990s, the war on terror and the hybrid future. The record clearly shows that skilful use of coercive diplomacy can resolve crises and conflicts short of full-scale war when the conditions are right. However, it is equally clear that our understanding of these conditions remains wanting in several respects. More research and scholarly attention are needed if we want to realize more of the potential for peaceful conflict resolution that coercive diplomacy does hold.

    39. Revolutionary Diplomacy – David Armstrong

    ‘Revolutionary diplomacy’ refers to the international outlook and conduct of states which, having undergone an internal revolution, adopt very radical postures in their external relations. Such postures inevitably have consequences for the ways states approach their diplomatic relations with other states. Examples include the United States of America, France, Soviet Russia, China, Iran and Libya. In the more extreme cases revolutionary states view world politics from a completely different perspective from the underlying principles of conventional diplomacy. The chapter outlines the role of diplomacy as an institution aimed at resolving disputes within a society of sovereign states and the inevitable confrontation between the conventional and the revolutionary views of diplomacy. It concludes by considering the degree to which revolutionary states become ‘socialised’ into adopting the more conventional norms and practices prevailing in the international community and also the extent to which international society itself changes in the process of the interaction between revolutionary and conventional diplomacy.

    40. Conference Diplomacy – Paul Meerts

    As modern technology makes war more costly, negotiations within and outside diplomatic conferences are becoming increasingly important, both as a peaceful decision-making and a conflict-management mechanism. This chapter analyzes the nature and evolution of conference diplomacy. It argues that negotiations are vulnerable, unless they are protected by procedural frameworks, comprising rules and conventions, such as those adopted in conference diplomacy conducted by organizations such as the United Nations. The study also raises questions about the future role of conference diplomacy in a globalizing world in which diplomats are losing their traditional hegemony in international relations. It concludes with several recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness, and thereby the significance, of conference diplomacy in the future.

    41. City Diplomacy – Michele Acuto

    World affairs are today more and more intertwined with the growing implications of urbanisation. Cities are increasingly popular actors on a number of fronts from the environment, to security and health. Yet how does this shape diplomacy? The chapter takes the phenomenon of ‘city diplomacy’ as the practice of mediated international relations by local governments as a starting point to answer this question. It argues that city diplomacy helps us expand our narrow International Relations horizon, reacquainting ourselves with the long durée of world politics, and appreciating the networked patterns that cities are weaving in international affairs. To make this argument the chapter explores the long affair between cities and diplomacy, the challenges in studying city diplomacy, the advances and limitations of practices of city diplomacy and concludes with observations about its future in an increasingly ‘urban’ age.

    42. Citizen Diplomacy – Melissa Conley Tyler and Craig Beyerinck

    Definitions of what citizen diplomacy is and who can be considered to be citizen diplomats are highly contested. The term citizen diplomacy can be used either as a metaphor for those who are involved in international interactions or, more narrowly, to refer to state-sanctioned use of citizens in more traditional forms of diplomacy. While the actions of private citizens have long played a role in interstate relations, either for or against their states’ interests, there has been a strong preference by states for official diplomacy. However, ease of travel and communication have led to a growing role for private citizens in relations between states. People-to-people contact between citizens can have benefits including forming deep and long-lasting relationships that are perceived as authentic and untouched by government. Changes in diplomatic practice mean a growing place for citizen diplomacy to fill the gaps found between publics and traditional diplomatic practice.

    43. Celebrity Diplomacy – Mark Wheeler

    This chapter analyses whether celebrity diplomats have effected a ‘politics of attraction’ through which they may bring public attention to international causes, such as poverty and human rights. It situates the theoretical concepts of celebrity diplomacy associated with soft power within a broader public diplomacy literature. It provides case studies of humanitarian initiatives supported by international governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and ‘go it alone’ individuals or groups. Finally, it considers the critiques of celebrity diplomacy in relation to celebrity-driven ‘affective capacities’ (for example, famous peoples’ ability to establish representational relationships with their audiences).

    44. Digital Diplomacy – Eytan Gilboa

    This chapter explores the meaning, evolution, contribution and effects of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) on diplomacy. It clarifies definitions and distinctions between digital diplomacy (DD) and other areas of diplomacy. It traces the historical development of DD, primarily via the American experience. It moves from diplomacy 1.0 to diplomacy 2.0, from passive email and websites to the hyper interactive social media of Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. The chapter investigates the effects of DD on foreign ministries, the Foreign Service, audiences, and public diplomacy (PD), and exposes limitations and challenges for both research and practice.

    45. Economic Diplomacy – Maaike Okano-Heijmans

    Economic diplomacy is a contested concept and a diverse practice. Nonetheless, the processes of globalization – including the revolution in communications technologies – are connecting the world's economies, while shifts in global power are causing governments to review the balance between their different national interests. The economic dimension of states’ foreign policies and therefore the role of economic diplomacy is receiving much attention. This chapter argues that as a result of these changes, the concept and practice of economic diplomacy is evolving, becoming more comprehensive and covering at least three types of diplomatic activity: trade and investment promotion (commercial diplomacy), negotiations on economic agreements (trade diplomacy) and development cooperation. The evolving nature of economic diplomacy is driving change in domestic and multilateral institutions, including new ways of decision making. Despite these and other changes, such as diplomatic networks of state and non-state actors, the state continues to be the primary actor in economic diplomacy.

    46. Business Diplomacy – Huub Ruël and Tim Wolters

    Decades of globalization have intensified the relationship between business and governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and interest groups. The role of multinational corporations (MNCs) in today's complex business landscape has grown to such an extent that MNCs have a leverage that is comparable to nation-states. In this perspective, MNCs have become diplomatic actors. However, they are experiencing increased pressure from a multitude of stakeholders. In order to manage these pressures and create legitimacy, MNCs need to engage in long-term relationships with foreign governments and NGOs. This chapter aims to deepen our understanding of this relatively unexplored and fragmented concept of ‘business diplomacy'.

    47. RELIGION AND DIPLOMACY – David Joseph Wellman

    When examining the religious dimension in the analysis and practice of diplomacy, it is important to first distinguish between two broad categories of analysis. The first category, which comes under the rubric of religion and diplomacy, refers principally to the influence of religion on the practice of track-one diplomacy among nation-state actors. The second category, faith-based diplomacy, generally refers to the practice of diplomacy on the part of track-two actors in the form of religious institutions, religiously affiliated NGOs and/or individual practitioners of a religious tradition. This chapter's goal is to examine the approaches these two categories engage, in an effort to understand the insights they can provide analysts and practitioners of diplomacy.

    48. Military Diplomacy – See Seng Tan

    Military diplomacy has grown in prominence as a strategy in response to the changing strategic environment and the evolving remit of militaries in the post-Cold War era. It involves the peacetime cooperative use of military assets and resources as a means of a country's foreign and security policy. Its goals are both conservative or pragmatic, such as building capacity and interoperability and enhancing mutual understanding among countries and their militaries, and transformative, such as resolving conflicts and developing democratically accountable armed forces. While its rise has been encouraging, its contributions to enhancing military transparency and strategic trust among states have at best been mixed.

    49. Environmental Diplomacy – Saleem H. Ali and Helena Voinov Vladich

    Ecosystems transcend geopolitical boundaries and hence diplomacy has been essential to manage environmental resources most efficiently and effectively. However, ‘environmental diplomacy', as a term and concept has evolved to encompass not only interactions on natural resource governance between nation-states but conflict resolution and peace-building around the environment more broadly. This chapter situates environmental diplomacy within the broader context of conflict resolution, consensus-building and peace-building. We also investigate the tools being used to improve the efficiency of environmental diplomatic negotiation and processes, such as mediated modeling and GIS technology, and the role science can play as an arbitrator for environmental diplomacy while recognizing that scientific knowledge can also be socially and politically constructed by stakeholders. Our chapter suggests that environmental diplomacy transcends conventional notions of Westphalian inter-state dynamics and also operates in a parallel community-driven field of human endeavor. While international relations remain the dominant arena for environmental diplomacy, grassroots environmentalism has also necessitated that community-based conflict resolution also be encompassed by such an ecological worldview.

    50. Sports Diplomacy – Stuart Murray

    Compared to some of the major problems in twenty-first-century international relations – terrorism, poverty and climate change, to name but a few – sports diplomacy is a positive phenomenon that should be encouraged. However, in the modern diplomatic environment it is often oversimplified either as a remedy for the world's problems or derided as a gimmick, an accoutrement that only rich states can afford in these austere times. Such opinion is parochial and unhelpful. This chapter argues that to realise the potential of sport as a diplomatic tool it is necessary to map the relationship between states, sport and international relations. From this survey it introduces and critiques two categories of sports diplomacy: the traditional (version 1.0) and a ‘new’ networked form (version 2.0). As a result, the landscape of sports diplomacy becomes clearer, as do certain pitfalls and limitations of using sport as a tool for overcoming and mediating separation between states. In this chapter, opportunities for cooperation between theorists and practitioners are generated, and research gaps in the sports diplomacy identified. By mapping and re-imagining the relationship between sport, international relations and diplomacy, it then becomes conceivable that sports diplomacy could become a major soft power tool.

    51. Science Diplomacy – Daryl Copeland

    Science diplomacy is a critically important but under-resourced, under-utilized instrument of international policy. Since the end of the Cold War, science diplomacy, and collaborative programs in the area of international science, technology and innovation more generally, have been marginalized and replaced by a preference on the part of governments for the use of armed force. Militarizing international policy and privileging defence over diplomacy and development have proven costly; there are no military solutions to the complex transnational issues which imperil the planet. Science diplomacy offers a better way forward, especially if it regains its former standing as a soft power tool of public diplomacy. This chapter provides a critical introduction to the relationship between science, technology, diplomacy and international policy and examines the prospects for improving science diplomacy.

    52. Indigenous Diplomacy – J. Marshall Beier

    Despite broadened and still broadening understandings of diplomacy in recent decades, as well as of the range of actors and sum of practices it connotes, relatively little attention has been paid to historic and contemporary diplomacies of Indigenous peoples. At the same time, important developments in Indigenous-state relations, in hegemonic fora of global governance concerned with Indigenous issues, and in the rise of global indigenism – characterized by, among other things, a complex network of networks through which Indigenous peoples interact and coordinate globally – have become increasingly prominent. Notwithstanding oft times considerable resistance from sovereign power, Indigenous peoples’ global political subjecthood has grown in visibility and in applied efficacy with respect to a wide range of political projects. These developments have not escaped the notice of states, even if students and scholars of diplomacy have been slow to take note. This chapter takes Indigenous peoples’ unique and varied traditions of diplomatic practice seriously as well-functioning diplomacies which, though qualitatively different in many cases from even the more novel preoccupations of diplomatic studies, have nevertheless underwritten the provision of political order and have worked to sustain relations and exchange between peoples in myriad contexts across time and space. It also offers the important cautions that these distinct traditions are not reducible to one another or to some aggregate form and that care must be taken, so far as it is possible to do so without relevant competencies, to engage them on their own terms rather than those of hegemonic imagining.

    53. Pariah Diplomacy – Hussein Banai

    Pariahs are actors whose rogue behavior constitutes a source of disorder in international society. Precisely because pariahood is a subjective mode of conduct, it requires diplomatic tools and methods to articulate its grievances, aims, and interests, and to negotiate the terms of coexistence with others in international society. Such practice is routine by both the great powers and states at the periphery of world politics. Pariah diplomacy testifies to the methods by which extra-legal and disorderly conduct – whether by members of the international society or those standing outside of it – are justified or impressed upon other diplomatic actors in international politics.

    List of Figures, Tables and Boxes

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The editors

    Costas M. Constantinou is Professor of International Relations at the University of Cyprus. He also taught at the Universities of Lancaster, Hull and Keele and as visiting scholar at the Taras Schevchenko and Middle East Technical Universities. He specializes in diplomacy, conflict, international theory and legal and normative aspects of international relations. He has taught academic courses on diplomacy, organized training courses for new diplomats, and published numerous books and articles, including On the Way to Diplomacy (Minnesota University Press, 1996), States of Political Discourse (Routledge, 2004) and Sustainable Diplomacies (co-edited with J. Der Derian, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

    Pauline Kerr is Emeritus Fellow in the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy (APCD) at the Australian National University. She teaches courses in the APCD's Master of Diplomacy programme and her research focuses on theories and practices of diplomacy, both ancient and contemporary. Her recent publications include Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices (co-edited with Geoffrey Wiseman, Oxford University Press, 2013. Second edition forthcoming 2016.); and China's New Diplomacy: Tactical or Fundamental Change? (edited with Stuart Harris and Qin Yaqing, Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2008).

    Paul Sharp is Professor and Head of Political Science at the University of Minnesota Duluth and Senior Visiting Fellow at the Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingendael. He was formerly Department Head, Director of International Studies and Director of the Alworth Institute, as well as founding chair of the Diplomatic Studies and English School sections of the International Studies Association. His recent books include American Diplomacy (co-edited with Geoffrey Wiseman, Brill, 2012), and Diplomatic Theory of International Relations (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

    The contributors

    Michele Acuto is Research Director in the Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP) at University College London, where he is also Associate Professor in Global Networks & Diplomacy, and Director of the UCL City Leadership Initiative, a joint project of UCL, World Bank and UN-Habitat. He is also a fellow of the Programme for the Future of Cities at the University of Oxford, expert advisor on city diplomacy for the World Health Organization, a senior fellow of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and author of The Urban Link (Routledge, 2013).

    Rebecca Adler-Nissen is Associate Professor and Research Coordinator in the Institut for Statskundskab at the University of Copenhagen. Her research focuses on International Relations theory (especially international political sociology, stigma, status, norms and the practice turn), diplomacy, sovereignty and European integration, as well as fieldwork, participant observation and anthropological methods in IR. She has authored several books including the prize-winning Opting out of the European Union: Diplomacy, Sovereignty and European Integration (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

    Karin Aggestam is Professor of Political Science, honorary Professor at University of Queensland and former Director of Peace and Conflict Studies at Lund University. Her research interests include conflict analysis, diplomacy, peacebuilding, gender, negotiation/mediation and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. She has authored and edited numerous international journal articles and seven books, including the recent volume Rethinking Peacebuilding (Routledge, 2013/2014).

    Saleem H. Ali is Director of the Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (CSRM) and Professor of Politics and International Studies at the University of Queensland, Australia. He is also Adjunct Professor of Environmental Planning at the University of Vermont in the USA. Professor Ali's research focuses on environmental conflicts in the extractive industries and how ecological cooperation can promote peace in international relations. He is the author of three sole-authored books including Treasures of the Earth: Need, Greed and a Sustainable Future (published by Yale University Press), and Environmental Diplomacy (with Lawrence Susskind, Oxford University Press). Professor Ali was chosen as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum in 2011 and received an Emerging Explorer award from the National Geographic Society in 2010, and has since then also been a member of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. He received his doctorate in Environmental Planning from MIT, a Master's degree in Environmental Studies from Yale University and Bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Tufts University.

    David Armstrong is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at the University of Exeter. He was founder-editor of the journal Diplomacy and Statecraft and his books include Revolutionary Diplomacy: the United Front Doctrine and Chinese Foreign Policy (California University Press, 1977), Revolution and World Order (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993) and The Rise of the International Organisation (Macmillan Press, 1982). As well as articles in journals including International Organization, Review of International Studies, International Affairs and Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, he has published six single and co-edited books, most recently Civil Society and International Governance (Routledge, 2008), A Handbook of International Law (Routledge, 2008) and Force and Legitimacy in World Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2006) and a co-authored book, International Law and International Relations (Cambridge University Press, 2007).

    Edward Avenell is a Research Administrator for the Developmental Leadership Program and the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre at the University of Birmingham. His research interests include US Foreign Policy, US–UK relations, and the Chinese–US relationship.

    Alyson J.K. Bailes served as Visiting Professor at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik, teaching on general security topics and on Nordic and European security. Alyson Bailes’ former career was spent largely in the British Diplomatic Service, where her foreign postings included Hungary, the UK delegation to NATO, Bonn, Beijing, Oslo, and finally the post of British Ambassador at Helsinki. She published widely on issues of general security policy, European security and defence, arms control, and Arctic and Nordic matters.

    Hussein Banai is Assistant Professor of International Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, and Research Affiliate at the Center for International Studies at MIT. He is a co-convener of the multi-volume critical oral history project on US–Iran relations. The first volume in this series, Becoming Enemies: U.S.-Iran Relations and the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88, was published in 2012. His broad research agenda concerns the impact of Western imperialism on the development of diplomatic institutions in post-imperial settings, especially in Iran. Currently, he is completing a book manuscript on the hidden but robust influence of liberalism in Iran's political development.

    J. Marshall Beier is Professor in the Department of Political Science at McMaster University. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of childhood and militarism, Indigenous peoples’ global diplomacies, critical security studies, Canadian foreign policy, and postcolonial and feminist theory. He is the author of International Relations in Uncommon Places: Indigeneity, Cosmology, and the Limits of International Theory (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 2009), editor of Indigenous Diplomacies (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) and The Militarization of Childhood: Thinking Beyond the Global South (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, 2013), and co-editor with Lana Wylie of Canadian Foreign Policy in Critical Perspective (Oxford University Press, 2010). He has authored numerous book chapters and his articles have appeared in Contemporary Security Policy, Critical Studies on Security, Global Governance, International Political Sociology, International Politics, International Studies Review, Security Dialogue and Third World Quarterly.

    Craig Beyerinck holds a Master of Arts (Honours) in International Relations from the University of St Andrews and is currently pursuing a Masters in Development Studies at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. His professional experience centres on global health and he currently works at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. He has previously worked at the UNAIDS Global Secretariat, the UNAIDS Secretariat for Nepal and Bhutan, the Australian Institute of International Affairs, Local Interventions Group and the Attorney General's Office in the Republic of Palau. He is specifically interested in the topics of global health, LGBTI rights and diplomacy.

    Corneliu Bjola is Associate Professor of Diplomatic Studies in the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. Bjola's general research interests lie at the intersection of diplomatic studies, negotiation theory, international ethics and crisis management. His current research focuses on the structural and normative conditions by which digital technologies inform, regulate and constrain foreign policy. He has authored or edited five books, including the recent co-edited volumes on Secret Diplomacy: Concepts, Contexts and Cases (Routledge, 2016) and Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice (Routledge, 2015). Bjola is also Editor-in-Chief of the new journal Diplomacy and Foreign Policy with Brill.

    Sean W. Burges is a Senior Lecturer in International Relations in the College of Arts and Social Sciences and Deputy Director of the Australian National Centre for Latin American Studies at the Australian National University. His research focuses on Brazilian foreign policy, inter-American affairs and emerging market countries (BRICs) in world affairs, with special reference to trade and foreign aid. Burges is author of two single-author books and over twenty peer-reviewed articles and chapters on Brazilian foreign policy and inter-American affairs.

    Stephen Calleya is the Director of the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies (MEDAC), and Professor in International Relations at the University of Malta. As well as being an advisor to Malta's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he is the author of Security Challenges in the Euro-Med Area in the 21st Century (Routledge, 2013) and has published several articles on Mediterranean affairs in international journals including in Mediterranean Quarterly, Duke University Press.

    Fabrício H. Chagas Bastos is an Assistant Professor in International Relations at the Political Science Department at the Universidad de Los Andes (Bogotá) and a Research Associate of the Australian National Centre for Latin American Studies at the Australian National University, and an Associate Research Fellow at the International Relations Research Centre (NUPRI) at the University of Sao Paulo. His research concerns the global insertion of Latin America countries in contemporary international systems, especially Brazil and Mexico.

    Stephen Chan is Professor of World Politics at SOAS University of London. His research focuses on the international politics of Southern Africa. Chan was an international civil servant involved with several key diplomatic initiatives in Africa, helping to pioneer modern electoral observation, and continues to be seconded to diplomatic assignments today.

    Zhimin Chen is Professor of Political Science at Baylor University, Texas, USA. He studies International Relations theory, American foreign policy, the art and practice of diplomacy, and ethics and international relations.

    W. David Clinton is Professor of Political Science at Baylor University, Texas, USA. He studies International Relations theory, American foreign policy, the art and practice of diplomacy, and ethics and international relations.

    Melissa Conley Tyler was appointed National Executive Director of the Australian Institute of International Affairs in 2006. She was previously Program Manager of the International Conflict Resolution Centre at the University of Melbourne and Senior Fellow of Melbourne Law School. She is a lawyer and specialist in conflict resolution, including negotiation, mediation and peace education. She is a lawyer with an international profile in conflict resolution including membership of the Editorial Board of the Conflict Resolution Quarterly. During her time with the AIIA, she has edited more than 40 publications, organized more than 60 policy events, overseen dramatic growth in youth engagement and built stronger relations with other institutes of international affairs worldwide. She is listed in Routledge's Who's Who in International Affairs and International Who's Who of Women.

    Daryl Copeland is an educator, analyst, consultant and former Canadian diplomat. He is the author of Guerrilla Diplomacy: Rethinking International Relations, a Research Fellow at the Canadian Global Affairs Institute and a Policy Fellow at the University of Montreal's Centre for International Studies and Research (CERIUM). Mr Copeland specializes in the role of science and technology in diplomacy, international policy, global issues and public management. He is Visiting Professor at the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna, and has taught at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs, the University of Ottawa's Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, the London Academy of Diplomacy (University of East Anglia), Otago University (NZ) and the Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (Malaysia). In 2009 he was a Research Fellow at the University of Southern California's Center on Public Diplomacy. Mr Copeland is a member of the Editorial Board of the journal Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, and sits on the International Advisory board of the Canadian Foreign Policy Journal. During his 30 year career in the Canadian foreign service, he served abroad in Thailand, Ethiopia, New Zealand and Malaysia, and at headquarters in Ottawa as Senior Intelligence Analyst, South, Central and Southeast Asia; Director of Communications Services, Director for Southeast Asia, and as Senior Advisor: Public Diplomacy; Strategic Policy and Planning. From 1995 to 1999 he was seconded to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs in Toronto as National Program Director and Editor of Behind the Headlines. He has published over 175 articles in the popular and scholarly press.

    Noé Cornago is Associate Professor of International Relations at the University of the Basque Country in Bilbao, Spain, where he is also in charge of the Graduate Programme in International Studies. His research interests are focused on the transformations of diplomacy, global regulation, critical sociology of knowledge, post-development and aesthetics and politics. He has held diverse visiting positions at Ohio State University, Sciences Po Bordeaux and University of Idaho, and was the Basque Visiting Fellow (2011–12) at St. Antony's College, University of Oxford. He is the author of Plural Diplomacies: Normative Predicaments and Functional Imperatives (Brill, 2013).

    Jason Dittmer is Professor of Political Geography at University College London. His research focuses on three key areas: geopolitics, critical approaches to diplomacy and geographies of media, especially comic books. His recent books include Geopolitics: An introductory reader (Routledge, 2014).

    David Hastings Dunn is Professor in International Politics and Head of the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Birmingham. His research interests are diverse and have evolved and broadened over his career. They fit largely within the areas of US Foreign and Security Policy, Strategic and Security Studies and Diplomacy and Statecraft.

    Ana Mar Fernández Pasarín is an Associate Professor in Politics and Public Administration at the Autonomous University of Barcelona and an Associate Researcher at Sciences Po Paris (Observatory of European Institutions). Her main research areas are European institutional dynamics, with specific reference to the EU presidential system and comitology procedures, and consular diplomacy. She has co-edited Consular Affairs and Diplomacy (Brill, 2011) and published articles in European Foreign Affairs Review and The Hague Journal of Diplomacy. She is a member of the scientific team of the Observatory of European Institutions (OIE) of Sciences Po Paris and the scientific coordinator of the EUGOV Consolidated Research Group.

    Linda S. Frey, Professor of history, University of Montana and Marsha L. Frey, Professor of history, Kansas State University have specialized in the history of international relations and the development of international law. They have written in tandem The History of Diplomatic Immunity; ‘Proven Patriots': The French Diplomatic Corps, 1789–1799; The French Revolution; Friedrich I; and edited The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession and Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Europe, 1618–1900 among others. The Earhart Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, American Council of Learned Societies, the Newberry Library and the Folger Shakespeare Library, to name but a few, have generously funded their work. They are currently completing a monograph on the culture of French revolutionary diplomacy.

    Eytan Gilboa is Professor of International Communication and Director of the Center for International Communication at Bar-Ilan University. He is also a visiting Professor of public diplomacy at the University of Southern California. He has written several books and numerous articles and book chapters on media diplomacy, public diplomacy, media and international conflict, and the CNN effect. He received his MA and PhD degrees from Harvard University, and has been a visiting Professor in leading American and European universities. He has won several prestigious international awards.

    Alan K. Henrikson is the Lee E. Dirks Professor of Diplomatic History and Director of Diplomatic Studies at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, USA. He has taught the history of the foreign relations of the United States, US–European relations, political geography, and the theory and practice of diplomacy. He was Fulbright-Schuman Professor at the College of Europe in Bruges and served earlier as Fulbright Professor at the Diplomatische Akademie in Vienna. He has also lectured at the Estonian School of Diplomacy, University of Pretoria, China Foreign Affairs University, US Department of State and the National Institute of Defence Studies in Japan. His writings in the field of diplomacy include ‘Diplomacy's Possible Futures’ in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy (2006) and Negotiating World Order: The Artisanship and Architecture of Global Diplomacy (Scholarly Resources, 1986) of which he was editor.

    Brian Hocking is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Loughborough University and Senior Visiting Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute in The Hague, where he is involved in various projects relating to contemporary diplomacy – currently, on digital diplomacy and has produced a report co-authored with Jan Melissen: Diplomacy in the Digital Age (Clingendael Institute, 2015). He currently teaches a course on diplomacy at the College of Europe in Bruges and was an associate editor of The Hague Journal of Diplomacy from 2005 to 2016. His research interests focus on the evolution and changing nature of foreign policy and diplomacy.

    Ellen Huijgh conducts research on public diplomacy, including its domestic dimension, at the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ (since 2008) and the University of Antwerp (since 2010). She was also a Research Fellow at the University of Southern California's Center on Public Diplomacy, working on emerging powers’ public diplomacy (2013–2015). She is currently conducting research in Beijing. Huijgh was also a Resident Visiting Fellow at Carleton University in Ottawa (2007–2012) and the Centre for Strategic and International Studies in Jakarta (2012). She has provided government consultancy and diplomatic training to several (sub)national governments, and has written widely in academic journals and book chapters, including as lead author of an annotated bibliography of public diplomacy literature (Oxford University Press, 2013), and as guest editor of a special issue of The Hague Journal of Diplomacy on public diplomacy's domestic dimension (2012).

    Asteris Huliaras is Professor in the Department of Political Science and International Relations at the University of the Peloponnese, Greece, and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair in EU Relations with Less Developed Countries. He specializes in North–South relations, international development assistance, African politics and foreign policy analysis. He has participated in EU and UN missions in several African countries. He has published in international academic journals including African Affairs and the Journal of Modern African Studies.

    Peter Viggo Jakobsen is Associate Professor at the Institute for Strategy, Royal Danish Defence College, and Professor (part time) at the Center for War Studies, University of Southern Denmark. He is a former head of the Department of Conflict and Security Studies and director of The Defence and Security Studies Research Programme at the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), and former Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen. He is frequently used by the Danish and international media as a commentator on defence and security issues, gives many lectures on these issues and has acted as an advisor and consultant for several governments and international organizations. He has written extensively on civil–military cooperation and the integrated approach, coercive diplomacy, Danish and Nordic foreign and security policy, NATO, peace and stabilization operations, and use of military force.

    Alan James spent two years in the British Civil Service, taught at the London School of Economics from 1957 to 1973, and was Professor of International Relations at Keele University, UK, from 1974 to 1998. With G.R.Berridge he co-authored the first and second editions of A Dictionary of Diplomacy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001 and 2003).

    Christer Jönsson is Emeritus Professor of Political Science at Lund University, Sweden and a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. His main research interests are international negotiation and diplomacy, international organization and transnational relations. His publications include Communication in International Bargaining (1990, Pinter), Essence of Diplomacy (co-author 2005, Palgrave), Transnational Actors in Global Governance (co-editor 2010, Palgrave) and The Opening Up of International Organizations (co-author 2013, Cambridge University Press) along with several articles in leading academic journals. He is a contributor to the Routledge Handbook of Diplomacy and Statecraft (2012).

    Yolanda Kemp Spies is a research associate of the SARCHI Chair in African Diplomacy and Foreign Policy at the University of Johannesburg. She trained as diplomat at the South African foreign ministry and at Oxford University, and practiced diplomacy for 18 years, living and working on four continents before she joined academia. Her doctoral studies on diplomatic training for developing countries, completed in 2005, resulted in her designing and presenting training for diplomats from various African countries. As senior lecturer at the University of Pretoria, from 2008 to 2016, she taught International Relations and developed a customised Master of Diplomatic Studies programme, a programme she also directed. Her areas of academic specialisation include diplomacy, international ethics, foreign policy analysis, international organisation, conflict resolution in Africa, and changing global power relations.

    Markus Kornprobst holds the Chair in International Relations at the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna. He previously taught at the School of Public Policy at University College London and Magdalen College at Oxford University. He held research fellowships at the Mershon Center at the Ohio State University, and the Department of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University. His research appears in leading journals in the discipline such as International Organization, European Journal of International Relations, International Studies Review, Review of International Studies and Millennium. He is the author of Irredentism in European Politics (2008, Cambridge University Press), co-author of Understanding International Diplomacy (2013, Routledge), as well as co-editor of Metaphors of Globalization (2008, Palgrave) and Arguing Global Governance (2011, Routledge).

    Halvard Leira is currently senior researcher at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI). Leira has published extensively in English and Norwegian on international political thought, historiography, foreign policy and diplomacy. His work has appeared in e.g. Review of International Studies, Millennium, Leiden Journal of International Law, International Studies Perspectives, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Global Society and Cooperation and Conflict. Leira has been co-editor of the Sage Library of International Relations sets International Diplomacy (2013) and History of International Relations (2015). He is currently chair of the Historical International Relations Section of the International Studies Association.

    Richard Lock-Pullan is Senior Lecturer in International Politics in the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Birmingham. He is interested in twentieth-century international history and teaches and researches on traditional security and strategic issues. He is currently working on issues of religion and politics.

    Konstantinos Magliveras is Professor of the Law of International Organizations at the University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece. His teaching and research interests cover Public International Law (with an emphasis on International Criminal Law), European Union Law, International and Regional Protection of Human Rights, Transnational Migration and Human Trafficking. He also has a strong interest in African legal affairs and multilateral institutions. His publications include K. Magliveras and G. Naldi, The African Union: Institutions and Activities (2014).

    William Maley is Professor of Diplomacy, Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy, The Australian National University. He is author of Rescuing Afghanistan (2006) and The Afghanistan Wars (2009) and co-editor of Global Governance and Diplomacy: Worlds Apart? (2008) and Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (2015).

    Fiona McConnell is Associate Professor in Human Geography at the University of Oxford's School of Geography and the Environment. As a political geographer Fiona's research aims to develop new areas of thinking regarding governance beyond the state and different modes of political legitimacy. In particular, she is interested in how communities officially excluded from formal state politics are nevertheless engaging with aspects of statecraft, and in using such seemingly anomalous cases as a lens to critically examine the ‘norms’ of governance. With Jason Dittmer, she is the co-editor of Diplomatic Cultures and International Politics: Translations, Spaces and Alternatives (Routledge, 2016).

    Paul Meerts is Senior Research Associate and former Deputy Director of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ in The Hague. He is also Visiting Professor at the College of Europe in Bruges and Member of the Steering Committee of the Processes of International Negotiation (PIN) programme.

    Stuart Murray is a Senior Lecturer in International Relations and Diplomacy at Bond University, Australia, a Global Fellow at the Academy of Sport, Edinburgh University, and Associate Editor of the academic journal Diplomacy and Foreign Policy (Brill). Alongside reflections on traditional diplomacy, he has extensively published on new forms of international dialogue and exchange such as sports, digital and secret diplomacy.

    Cornelia Navari is Visiting Professor of International Affairs at the University of Buckingham, UK, and Honorary Senior Lecturer at the University of Birmingham. Her publications include Internationalism and the State in the 20th Century (2000), Theorising International Society (2009) and Guide to the English School in International Studies, edited with Daniel Green (2014). Fundamental Institutions and International Organizations, edited with Tonny Brems Knudsen is forthcoming from Macmillan.

    Iver B. Neumann is the Montague Burton Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science and a lifelong associate of the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. His research focuses on Public Administration, in Russia and Scandinavia in particular. He has published widely on diplomacy, inter alia, At Home with the Diplomats (2011) and Diplomatic Sites (2012).

    Donna Marie Oglesby has spent nearly three decades as an American diplomat, learning four languages to serve in American embassies in Latin America, Europe and Asia. She also held senior headquarter positions, including Director of Latin American Affairs, Director of the Presidential Youth Exchange Initiative and, finally, Counselor of Agency (USIA), the ranking career position. On retirement from the United States Foreign Service, she came to Eckerd College as Diplomat in Residence to resume an academic journey. As a member of the Public Diplomacy Council, she devotes her teaching and writing to spanning the boundary between practitioners of statecraft and scholars of the art. She recently concluded extensive research comparing how diplomats and academics teach diplomacy in the United States. The SAIS Review, The Center for Public Diplomacy (CPD) and the Foreign Service Journal have published her earlier work.

    Maaike Okano-Heijmans is a senior research fellow at the Netherlands Institute for International Relations ‘Clingendael’ in The Hague and a visiting lecturer at the University of Leiden. Her research interests are in economic diplomacy and international relations in East Asia and in consular affairs and diplomacy. She is the author of Economic Diplomacy: Japan and the Balance of National Interests (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013). Her work has been published/translated in Dutch, English, Japanese, Spanish, Chinese and Arabic.

    Sam Okoth Opondo is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Vassar College, NY. His research is guided by an interest in colonialism, race and the mediation of estrangement. With an emphasis on violence, ethics and diplomacies of everyday life, he engages the problematics of humanitarianism, the politics of redemption and the popular culture in urban Africa. He teaches courses on comparative politics, settler colonialism, postcolonial diplomatic cultures and African cities.

    Kishan S. Rana was India's Ambassador/High Commissioner to Algeria, Czechoslovakia, Kenya, Mauritius and Germany, and was on the staff of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1981–82. He currently holds positions as Professor Emeritus of DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva and is an Honorary Fellow at the Institute of Chinese Studies, Delhi. His books include Bilateral Diplomacy (2002), Asian Diplomacy (2007), Diplomacy of the 21st Century (2011), The Contemporary Embassy (2013) and Diplomacy at the Cutting Edge (2015). His teaching and research include economic and public diplomacy, and also comparative study of diplomacy practices in the Global South.

    Huub Ruël is Professor of International Business at Windesheim University of Applied Sciences (The Netherlands) and affiliated with the University of Twente (The Netherlands). He studied Psychology and European Studies, and holds a PhD in Business Administration from the University of Twente (The Netherlands). His research focuses on commercial diplomacy and business diplomacy.

    Michael Smith is Professor in European Politics at the University of Warwick, and Emeritus Professor of European Politics at Loughborough University. His key areas of research are European Union external relations and the development of the EU's system of diplomacy, and Relations between the European Union and the United States, both in terms of their historical development and in terms of current policy issues. He is the co-editor of International Relations and the European Union (Oxford University Press, 2011).

    Stephan Stetter is Professor of Global Politics and Conflict Studies at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany/EU. His research focuses on the Middle East and on global social theory. He is an editor of the leading German-language International Relations journal, the Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen (ZIB).

    See Seng Tan is Professor of International Relations at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University. A student of Asian security, his most recent books include Multilateral Asian Security Architecture: Non-ASEAN Stakeholders (Routledge, 2015) and The Making of the Asia Pacific: Knowledge Brokers and the Politics of Representation (Amsterdam University Press, 2013).

    Baldur Thorhallsson is Head and Professor at the Faculty of Political Science at the University of Iceland. He is also Jean Monnet Chair in European Studies and Programme and Research Director at the Centre for Small States at the University. His research focus is primarily on small state studies, European integration and Iceland's foreign policy. He has published extensively in international journals and contributed to several academic books. He has written two books on small states in Europe: Iceland and European Integration: On the Edge and The Role of Small States in the European Union.

    Helena Voinov Vladich is a senior scientist at the Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland. She works on Systems Analysis, Geospatial tools, and a concept of Ecosystem Services for the Natural Capital assessment and environment decision making in the regional context. She earned her doctorate at the University of Vermont, Rubinstein School of Environment and Natural Resources and her MS in Automatic Control Systems from the Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, specializing in the modelling of ecological-economic systems. She is a fellow of the Institute for Environmental Diplomacy and Security, James M. Jeffords Center, University of Vermont, USA.

    David Joseph Wellman is an Associate Professor of Religious Studies at DePaul University, Chicago. Wellman's work focuses on the relationship between religion and diplomacy, ecological ethics and interreligious engagement. He is the author of Sustainable Diplomacy: Ecology, Religion and Ethics in Muslim-Christian Relations (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) and Sustainable Communities (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 2001). Wellman's writing on diplomacy was used as the basis for an international conference, whose outcome was the collaborative volume Sustainable Diplomacies, edited by Costas Constantinou and James Der Derian (Basingstroke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

    Mark Wheeler is Professor of Political Communications at London Metropolitan University. He has written four books including Celebrity Politics (Cambridge: Polity, 2013). He has published numerous peer-reviewed articles such as ‘Celebrity diplomacy: UN goodwill ambassadors and messengers of peace', Celebrity Studies: Special Edition on Celebrity and the Global and contributed chapters to many edited volumes.

    Geoffrey Wiseman is Professor of the Practice of International Relations at the University of Southern California. He is a former Australian diplomat, serving in three diplomatic postings (Stockholm, Hanoi and Brussels) and as private secretary to the Foreign Minister, Gareth Evans. He has co-edited a textbook, with Pauline Kerr, entitled Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices (Oxford University Press, 2013). His most recent book is an edited volume Isolate or Engage: Adversarial States, U.S. Foreign Policy, and Public Diplomacy (Stanford University Press, 2015).

    Tim Wolters is a researcher at Windesheim University of Applied Sciences and a consultant. He holds a MSc in Business Adminstration with a focus on International Management from the University of Twente (The Netherlands).

    I. William Zartman is the Jacob Blaustein Distinguished Professor Emeritus of International Organization and Conflict Resolution at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC. Dr Zartman is the author of a number of works on North Africa and he has also developed the field of negotiation analysis.

    Tatiana Zonova is Professor of Comparative History and Theory of Diplomacy at MGIMO (Moscow State University of International Relations) and RUDN (Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia). She has the diplomatic rank of the 1st class Counsellor and a Doktor nauk (PhD) in political science. She is a member of the International Advisory Board of The Hague Journal of Diplomacy and a member of the Scientific Council of the ‘Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali’ (Italy).

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