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The U.S. homeland security enterprise was formally recognized in 1947 with the passage of the National Security Act. The act established a foundation for the foreign policy making of the Cold War effort. However, it was the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, that led to the organization of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and contributed to a new definition of security and safety for American citizens and their way of life. This entry discusses homeland security by first defining it and raising the specter of controversies, such as leadership and intelligence failures, the rule of law, surveillance, terrorism, and border security strategy.

The Definition and Focus of Homeland Security

While over a decade has passed since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the U.S. government ...

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