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The significance of the Boer War (1899–1902), also called the South African or Anglo-Boer War, lies in its effects on British, Boer, and African society. Originally intended as a short, limited conflict between British and Boer in South Africa over ownership of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, the war escalated to involve almost all Boer civilians eager to establish their independence, through the British “scorched earth” policy and concentration camp system, which saw tens of thousands of Boer homes destroyed and Boer men, women, and children imprisoned. A separate camp structure was also introduced for African inhabitants, whose involvement in the war effort ranged from direct combat to domestic service. The British home front was also more active than ever before, due to ...

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