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Alternative defense refers to a variety of theories, strategies, and tactics intended to provide or enhance the security of a state or society without relying on a professional military establishment or projection of offensive force. The arguments for alternative defense stem from practical considerations about its superiority relative to strategies of either offensive or defensive advantage, based on the capacities of professional organizations that specialize in the use of violence, particularly military establishments. There are several schools of thought about alternative defense, and they are distinguished primarily by the relationship they posit between the state and society and the principle of nonviolence. Alternative defense is one of several modern theoretical developments aimed at solving the problems of war and state violence. Furthermore, proponents point to ...

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