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Many research constructs involving the processes of learning originated at the level of the individual or small group and are produced by psychologists or educators who conduct research on how humans learn. However, the notion of learning at larger societal levels has proven to be useful in generating research and facilitating discourse on war and peace. Social learning dimensions that have been integrated into the study of foreign policy and international affairs include the processes of acquiring information and ideas, using negative and positive reinforcement, learning from observation and modeling, generalizing about experience, and acquiring insights from educational initiatives, all construed at levels higher than that of the individual or household. The failures of individuals to learn can indeed be problematic, but the failures of ...

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