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The Russian Civil War (1917–1921) transformed the social and political landscape of the Russian Empire, paving the way for the consolidation of Soviet power and the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922. The civil war was a conflict between the Bolsheviks (Reds) and their disparate opponents (Whites), including former Tsarist officers and officials, moderate socialists, and nationalists. It was the last in a series of crises that shook the Russian Empire during a 7-year period, beginning with the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Distinguished by years of nearly ceaseless fighting and destruction, revolution, and immense loss of life, the legacies of this “continuum of crisis” shaped the early years of the Soviet Union and profoundly impacted modern Russia.

The War

The Russian Civil War ...

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