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Oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons extracted from the ground in liquid form. It originates from settlements of fossilized organic material, in a process that takes around 1 million years to complete. As a fundamental asset for energy, transports, and industrialization, the control over oil resources is at the center of security policies in most nations; as such, it is considered as a reason for going to war if necessary.

Oil has been known and used since the ancient world; however, it was with the invention of the internal combustion engine in the early 20th century that it became a fundamental source of energy. From 1965 onward, it has been the most used energy source in the world. At the present time, despite efforts to ...

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