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Mineral oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that is extracted from the underground in liquid or gaseous form. Since 1965, it has been the world’s most important energy source, providing 52% of the global energy needs. Oil can be burned to produce heating and electric power, and it is also used in the chemical industry.

However, its most common use is in transport. In 2013, the world consumed an average of 89.7 million barrels per day (MBD), of which 66% was for transport fuels (50% road travel, 8% air travel, and 8% sea travel), 18% for heat and power, and 16% for nonfuel chemical usage. The two largest consumers in the world are the United States, with 18.6 MBD, and the European Union, with 12.8 ...

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