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Kazakhstan (the Republic of Kazakhstan) is the largest country in Central Asia and the ninth largest in the world in area. It has a population of 18,157,122 (2015 estimate), and a territory of 2,727,300 square kilometers, bordered on the north by Russia, on the east by China, on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and on the west by the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Astana. Kazakhstan was a union republic of the Soviet Union until December 1991, when it declared independence. The country has considerable reserves of oil and gas concentrated in its western region. This entry discusses Kazakhstan’s modern history, focusing on Kazakhstan’s relationship with the Soviet Union, independence and the denuclearization process, and membership in international organizations.

The Russian Influence on Kazakhstan

The ...

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