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Punishment is universally accepted as the instrument for the restoration of conformity and order in society. The primary goal of punishment is to deter or prevent crime. Punishment is related to surveillance in that both are geared toward the prevention of crime, both have been employed in deterring citizens from committing crime, and both have benefited from advancement in technology. Punishment, as well as surveillance, can be applied both retroactively and reactively. Three factors have facilitated the application of surveillance for crime prevention in recent times: (1) improvement in digital technology, (2) capability for centralized surveillance, and (3) the general public’s perception that surveillance is effective in preventing crime.

Punishment may be organized informally or formally. An example of informal punishment is when parents employ sanctions ...

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