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One of the most important factors in military operations is effective (meaning accurate, timely, relevant, and actionable) intelligence, and surveillance is a primary means of acquiring it. Military intelligence (MI) surveillance has three levels: (1) strategic, (2) operational, and (3) tactical. At the strategic level, surveillance collects intelligence about long-term military factors, as well as economic, political, and social information about the enemy. At the operational level, military commanders want to know all they can about the environment in which they are operating; this includes not only collecting intelligence about specific enemy forces but also information about their supply lines, civilian populations in the area, weather, and topography. At the tactical level, surveillance is primarily concerned with collecting intelligence about events on the battlefield or ...

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