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Marxism, a belief based on economic, political, and social theories and strategies derived from Karl Marx (1818–1883), is one of the most feared ideologies in world history. From its emergence in the mid-19th century to the late 20th century, those in power have used every means possible—from peaceful to forceful—to tamp down its spread. During particularly fearful times, security trumped privacy. The emergence of communist regimes in Russia (1917), China (1949), and Cuba (1959) sent shockwaves of fear through the West. Following World War II, the Cold War shaped the contours of world diplomacy for nearly 50 years. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked the end of the Cold War. Since then, the War on Terror has taken center stage in global ...

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