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Societies have long tried to find a way to detect when a person is lying. Through advancements in medical knowledge, criminology, and technology, it became possible to create instruments that could detect lies. Based on the premise that people have physiological reactions when they lie, lie detector instrumentation measures and records those reactions to determine truthfulness. Since 1921, when the first modern lie detector (also known as the polygraph) was created, controversy has surrounded it. Proponents argue that lie detectors have a high accuracy rate and that they can be used to extract confessions; exonerate the innocent; promote trust, honesty, and loyalty of employees; and ensure national security. However, critics argue that the lie detector has a much lower accuracy rate, that it lacks validity ...

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