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Since its founding as a modern state after World War I, Iraq has been ruled by a series of governments that have failed to protect the civil and political rights of the country’s citizens. During his decades-long rule, Saddam Hussein made extensive use of his security forces to target dissidents, ethnic minorities, and foreign opponents of the regime. Following the United States’ 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the removal of Hussein’s government, Iraq has experienced a series of internal conflicts that have undermined its stability. This entry reviews the history of Iraq, discusses state surveillance and military conflicts under Hussein, and concludes with a look at the security situation in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion.

History of Iraq

The state of Iraq is located in the ...

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