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Human trafficking is generally defined as the movement of persons within or across national boundaries for the purposes of forced commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. These two forms of exploitation largely affect different populations. Women and children make up the majority of victims of sex trafficking, whereas men represent the largest portion of slave labor. States utilize a variety of surveillance tools to detect and intercept traffickers, including passports, surveillance, intelligence gathering, and border screening. Human trafficking as modern-day slavery has intensified state surveillance of borders, international travel, and refugee and asylum claimants. Because of the clandestine and high-profit nature of human trafficking, detection poses the largest problem for national security forces. Measures undertaken by states either target the supply or the demand side ...

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