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David Garland is one of the most cited sociologists in the world. Garland’s work on the sociology of punishment has become core reading in the education of any sociologist, but particularly of those interested in crime, punishment, and criminal justice. Garland uses a genealogical approach to analyze punishment, meaning that he looks to the historical factors that influence the values, sensibilities, and practices of punishment to explain the development of those practices and the roles they play in society. To Garland, punishment is not merely a tool of the powerful to maintain their power, or a tool of society to discipline deviants. Instead, punishment is a complicated phenomenon that both influences and is influenced by society’s morals, values, fears, and interests, as well as more ...

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