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Traditionally, diplomacy referred to the art of negotiations, but by the 20th century, it was defined not only as the management of international affairs through negotiations but also as the communication and methods used by the states’ representatives to achieve their countries’ objectives in various fields—trade, environment, economy, peace and war, human rights, cultural relations, or public health. By the beginning of the 21st century, not only nation-states but also civil society organizations, multilateral institutions (World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), and transnational companies (Gazprom, Toyota) engaged in diplomacy. Through diplomacy, international actors pursue their interests and communicate their policies, negotiate compromise resolutions, manage or resolve conflicts, conclude treaties and create international organizations, limit the use of force ...

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