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In their 2003 discourse on deportation, Matthew J. Gibney and Randall Hansen refer to deportation as “the return of foreign nationals to their country of origin against their will” (p. 2). Deportation is therefore involuntary return, distinct from voluntary return, in which individuals are encouraged—often through a combination of carrot-and-stick measures—to return to their countries of origin. Matthew Walzer and Gary Freeman explain that deportation can be viewed both as a concept and as a policy that allows democratic states the right to exercise control over their borders, a key component of the sovereignty of nation-states. Indeed, deportation is conducted by a public authority on behalf of the state.

The practice of deportation is relevant to surveillance, security, and privacy due to a great number of ...

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