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Advertising and marketing are intended to affect people’s behavior and nudge them in a predefined direction. This may be to buy an object, to vote one way over another, to subscribe to a service, to donate to a charity, or to have positive feelings about an organization’s preferred image of itself. To do this, advertisers and marketers have an interest in understanding the composition of their target audiences and potential and actual customers. This involves knowing as much as possible about where potential recipients of their communications live, what they do, where they go, who they associate with, what they say to one another, what their income is, what their interests are, what their political dispositions are, how they are feeling, what motivates them to ...

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