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Law enforcement has been increasingly influenced by the development of newer technologies designed to expand the range of options available to police in terms of subduing dangerous suspects. These less-than-lethal (LTL) technologies include conductive energy devices (CEDs), chemically based weapons (e.g., teargas, mace, oleoresin capsicum pepper spray), and impact devices (projectile launchers). The most widely adopted LTL technology has been CEDs. The most popular brand of CED is the Taser®, which is an acronym for Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifle. Recent statistics indicate that as many as 11,500 law enforcement agencies utilize CEDs.

The fact that police are increasingly equipped with these and other forms of LTL weaponry has important implications for surveillance, security, and privacy. The police are the only persons given the right by ...

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