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The use of solitary confinement has been a constant strategy of institutional corrections used to implement security and control throughout modern prison systems. This practice was characteristic of the operations of Eastern State Penitentiary, one of the earliest modern prisons in the United States. Eastern Pennsylvania Prison opened in 1821 near Philadelphia. The prison was constructed to incarcerate inmates in an isolated and solitary environment. The primary philosophy of this type of system was to provide inmates with the opportunity and environment to reflect on their crimes, seek penance for those acts, and develop a stronger sense of morality while placed under supervision of correctional staff. All daily activities, including work, if permitted by the administration, were conducted in the inmates’ cells, in (nearly) complete ...

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