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Smuggling is the illegal transport of goods or individuals, typically for economic gain, and is a threat to domestic and international security. As a security concern, smuggling is a dangerous activity that results in illegal goods (e.g., drugs, weaponry, fraudulent documents, explosives, animals and animal products, counterfeit luxury items, art, antiquities, human organs, cigarettes, alcohol, baby formula) and people entering a country undocumented, unevaluated, and/or untaxed, for a variety of reasons and purposes. In the cases of dangerous and illegal items, their illegal entry into a country or a territory can result in further criminal or terrorist activity. Near-constant surveillance is needed to interdict smuggling on borders, at ports, and throughout a country. This entry first discusses smuggling modes and methods and then focuses on ...

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