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Bullying based on gender involves a pattern of threatening, intimidating, harassing, assaultive, and/or abusive behaviors, or a combination of these, for the purpose of maintaining the traditional gendered status quo: heteropatriarchy, where heterosexual men and boys enjoy privilege and women, girls, and sexual minorities are allotted a secondary status. Gender-based bullying can occur based on one’s real or perceived gender identity, gendered performance, or sexual orientation.

For gender-based bullying/harassment to occur, an imbalance of power should exist, whether formal or informal; these behaviors tend to occur over time, and the victim, who is often in a position of subordination, can feel defenseless against the perpetrator. Minimization of bullying/harassing behaviors is common, especially when these behaviors are seen as “corrective measures” or involve gender or heterosexual ...

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