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Physical abuse can begin as early as the prenatal period and might continue through older adulthood. Acts of physical abuse have been related to negative physical and psychological outcomes. Official records monitor physically abusive acts with gender neutral labels such as victim and perpetrator, even when the abuse becomes an act of homicide. The U.S. Department of Justice categorizes crimes by type, such as violent crime, property crime, and drugs and crime, not by the gender of the victim or the perpetrator. Any mention of gender has been embedded briefly within a complex report. This practice has implied that gender neutrality is the gold standard for understanding physical abuse and other forms of violence.

While both males and females can be the victims, perpetrators, or victim-perpetrators ...

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