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Parental expectation refers to a strong belief or anticipation by parents that their children will meet certain standards, milestones, or achievements. Parents are often a consistent and stable presence throughout a child’s life, as opposed to other perceived caretakers (e.g., teachers, extended family members) who play a more transient role. Consequently, the role of a parent has been found to be of significance in a child’s social, affective, behavioral, and cognitive development. Comprehension of the impact of parental expectations on children’s development, therefore, is of great importance. This entry examines parental expectations research with regard to sex and the manner in which these factors are related to psychological well-being, education and achievement, and financial investment.

Heteronormative Family Model

Historically, a heteronormative family model has been the most ...

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