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Activism refers to single or repeated actions taken by individuals and groups in order to promote a cause, which usually involves a social, political, or economic agenda. Activism takes place in both authoritarian and democratic states, but typically only the latter offer citizens legal means of nonviolent protest, including public meetings, demonstrations, petitions, strikes, boycotts, and more. Since the early 2000s, information technologies are becoming increasingly important for activism. In modern history, activism has been a major force behind fundamental social and political reforms, including the fall of dictatorships and national revolutions, the abolition of slavery, women’s emancipation, gay rights, and many other social and political changes. Nevertheless, activism has also been utilized to support violent causes, such as promoting wars and restricting minority ...

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