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Group Relative Deprivation

Group relative deprivation (GRD) is defined by Heather J. Smith and her colleagues as a judgment that one’s in-group is disadvantaged compared with a relevant referent, and that this judgment elicits feelings of anger, resentment, and entitlement. GRD, also known as fraternal deprivation, is distinct from individual relative deprivation (IRD), the judgment that as a unique person, one is relatively disadvantaged accompanied by feelings of anger, resentment, and entitlement. GRD occurs when people compare their reference group’s situation with another possibility, based on what “ought to be.” It is this emphasis on entitlement or “deservingness” that distinguishes GRD from other psychological theories and measures.

Concept History

After Samuel Stouffer initially used relative deprivation (RD) to describe unexpected relationships that emerged from surveys of World War II soldiers, ...

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