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Ethnic revival refers to one of the new social and political movements of the post-1960s period. From that time the terms ethnic and ethnicity have appeared in the social science literature and in common usage with their contemporary meaning, that is, referring to the phenomenon of social group belonging based on historical origins, previously glossed as “race,” and ways of life, or “culture.” Ethnic revival has two forms—identification and categorization. The former refers to individuals’ self-identification with an ethnically defined group. The latter refers to the political recognition of the ethnic group as a social category, a process associated with multiculturalism.

Claims for political recognition and enhanced rights for minority, immigrant, and indigenous groups in Western nations led to various types of official multiculturalism, most notably ...

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