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Energy competition can be defined across the following two dimensions. At an international level, energy competition refers to the situation in which different countries’ strenuous efforts to gain energy security mutually conflict. At the domestic level, energy competition refers to the domestic energy market situation in which multiple energy providers compete for increasing market share or enhancing energy efficiency.

Complex Meanings of Energy

Even though there is general agreement that energy is an indispensable part of our daily lives and a fundamental factor in economic growth, the definition of energy differs in major ways across different academic disciplines and even organizations. For example, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) defines energy as “the capacity for doing work as measured by the capability of doing work (potential energy) ...

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