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Cyberwarfare consists of those operations that use digital communications to inject binary information into the networks and systems of others in order to make them behave incorrectly—meaning that they are deceived, degraded, disrupted, or (occasionally) destroyed. By such means, one side can usurp another’s command and control over its own information systems. In many cases, this power extends to the physical instruments (e.g., machines) controlled by such information systems (hence the potential for destruction). Cyberwar also includes attacks on the Internet infrastructure that serves a targeted system in order to clog its input pipes or intake servers (also known as DDOS: distributed denial-of-service attacks) or to misdirect communications (e.g., by manipulating the Border Gateway Protocol). Cyberwarfare can be used in support of military operations (e.g., ...

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